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Printed by Nichols, Son, and Bentlbv,- 
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xJOHUN (Edmund), a voluminous political and mis-* 
ceilaneous writer of the seventeenth century, was born at 
Ringsfield, in Suffolk, the only son of Baxter Bohun, wh6 
with his ancestors, had been lords of the manor of West- 
hall, in that county, from the 25th Henry yill. In 1663, 
he was admitted fellow*cdnjinpn^r of Queen's college, 
Canabridge, and continued th'6re titttjie latter <?nd of 166.0, 
when the plague obliged hi(b a)» dtbers to leave the uni- 
versity. In 1675 he was niadeji jjisticf^/of peace for Suf- 
folk, and continued in thitOTCettiU 'the second of J^ 
II. when he was discharged, T)ii;^'?pyfes^ -restored to that office 
in the first of William and Mary. The time of his death 
is not mentioned, but he was alive in 1700. Rewrote, 
1. ** An Address to the Freemen and Freeholders of the 
nation, in three parts, being the history of three sessions 
of parliament in 1678, 1682, and 1683," 4to. 2. *« A De- 
fence of the Declaration of king Charles IL against a 
pamphlet styled, A just and modest Vindication of the 
proceedings of the two last Parliaments." This was printec} 
with and added to the Address. 3. " A Defence of Sir 
Robert Filmer, against the mistakes and representations of 
Algernon Sydney, esq. in a paper delivered by him to the 
sfaeriflFs upon the* scaffold on Tower-hill, on Friday, Ded 
7, 16 as, before his execution there," Lond. 1684. 4. « The 
Justice of Peace's Calling, a moral essay," Lond. 1684, 
«vo. 5. " A Preface and Conclusion to Sir Robert Filmer's 
Patriarcha,"' ibid. 1685, -Svo; 6; "A GeograjAical Dic- 
tionary," ibid. 1688, 8vo. 7. "Thq History of the Deser- 
tion ; or an account of all the public affairs of Englandj, 
Vol. VI. ^ B 

2 B O H U N. 

from the beginning of Sept. 1688 to Feb. 12 following,'* 
ibid. 1689, 8vo. 8. " An Answer to a piece called The 
Desertion discussed (by Jeremy Collier)," printed at the end ' 
of the '< History of the Desertion." 9. " The Doctrine of 
Passive Obedience and Non» Resistance no way concerned 
in the controversies now depending between the Williamites 
and the Jacobites," ibid. 1689, 4to. In page 24th is a 
' passage respecting bishop Ken, which Mr. Bohun found to 
be untrue, and therefore requests that it may be cancelled. 
10. " The Life of John Jewell, bishop of Salisbury,*' pre- 
fixed to a translation of his Apology, 1685. 11. "Three 
Charges delivered at the general quarter sessions holden at 
Ipswich, for the county of Suffolk, in IC91, 1692, and 
1693," 4to. 12. "The great Historical, Geographical^ 
and Poetical Dictionary," Lond. 1694, fol. He also trans- 
lated Sicurus' origin of Atheism — the Universal Biblio- 
theque, or account of books for Jan. Feb. and March 1687 
— Sleidan's History of the Reformation — PuffendorfF's Pre- 
sent State of Germany, and Degory Wheare's Method of 
reading History, Lond. 1698, 8vo. ' 

BOIARDO (Matteo-Mauia), count of Scandiano, an 
Italian poet, was born at the castle of Scandiano, near 
Ileggio in Lombardy, about the year 1434. He studied at 
the university of Ferrara, and remained in that city the 
greater part of his life, attached to the ducal court. He 
was particularly in great favour with the duke Borso and 
Hercules I. his successor. He accompanied Borso in a 
journey to Rome in 1471, and the year following was se- 
lected by Hercules to escort to Ferrara, Eleortora of Ara- 
gon, his future duchess. In 1481 he was appointed go- 
vernor of Reggio, and was also captain-general pf Modena, 
He died at Reggio, Dec. 20, 1494. He was one of the 
most learned and accomplished men of his time, a very 
distinguished Greek and Latin scholar, and at a time when 
Italian poetry was in credit, one of those poets who added 
to the reputation of his age and country. He translated 
Herodotus from the Greek into Italian, and Apuleius from 
the Latin. He wrote also Latin poetry, as his " Carmen 
Bucolicum," eight eclogues in hexameters, dedicated to 
duke Hercules I. Reggio, 1500,*4to; Venice, 1528; and 
in Italian, " Sonetti e Canzoni," Reggio, 1499, 4to; Ve- 
nice, 1501, 4to, in a style rather easy than elegant, and 

» Ath. Ox. vol. n., 

B O I A R D O. 3 

occasionally betraying the aothof s learning', but withouC 
affectation. Hercules of Este was the first of the Italian 
sovereigns who entertained the court with a magnificent 
theatre on which Greek or Latin comedies, translated into 
Italian, were performed. For this theatre Boiardo wrote 
his *^ Timon," taken from a dialogue of Lucian, which 
may be accounted the first comedy written in Italian. The 
first edition of it, according to Tiraboschi, was that printed 
at Scandiano, 1500, 4to. The one, without a date, in 
$vo, he thinks was the second. It was afterwards reprinted 
at Venice, 1504, 1515, and 1517, 8vo. But Boiardo is 
principally known by his epic romance of ^' Orlando In^ 
namorato," of which the celebrated poem of Ariosto is not 
only an imitation, but a continuation. Of this work, he did 
not live to complete the third book, nor is it probable that 
any part of it had the advantage of his last corrections, yet 
it is justly regarded as exhibiting, upon the whole, a 
warmth of imagination, and a vivacity of colouring, which 
rendered it highly interesting : nor is it, perhaps, without 
reason, that the simplicity of the original has occasioned 
it to be preferred to the same work, as altered or reformed 
by Francesco Berni (See Brrni). The ^' Orlando Innamo- 
rato" was first printed at Scandiano, about the year 1495, 
and afterwards at Venice, 1500, which De Bure erro- 
neously calls the first edition. From the third book where 
Boiardo's labours cease, it was continued by Niccolo Agos* 
tini, and of this joint production numerous editions have 
been published. ^ 

BOILEAU (Nicholas Despeeaux), an eminent French 
poet, usually called by his countrymen Despreaux, was 
born on November 1, 1636. Hi» parents were Gilles 
Boileaii, register of the great chamber, and Ann de Nielle^ 
his second wife ; but it is. uncertain whether he was born 
at Paris or Crone. In his early years, he was the reverse 
of those infantine prodigies who often in mature age scarcely 
attain to mediocrity ; on the contrary, he was heavy and 
taciturn ; nor was his taciturnity of that observing kind 
which denotes sly mischief at the bottom, but the down- 
right barren taciturnity of insipid good-nature. His father, 
on comparing him with his other children, used to say, 
*^ as for this, he is a good-tempered fellow, who will never 

> Glngnenk Hitt Litt. d'll«lie.->Ro8COc'i i:^.— Martri.— Tiimboicbi.«-SMJI 

B 2 

4 B O I L E A 0. 

speftkill'of anyone," In his infancy, hdWever, be ap- 
pe^.s to have been of a very tender constitution, and i» 
a^.id to have undergone the operation for the «tone at the 
^ge of eight Through compliance with the wishes of his 
fp.iaaily, be commenced with being a counsellor; but the 
dryness of the Code and Digest soon disgusted him with 
this pmfessioD,. which, his eulogist thinks, was a loss to 
ibe bar. When M. Dongois, his brother-in^l^w, register 
oi parliament, took him to his house in order to form hitn 
to the style of business, he had a decree to draw up in aa 
ioiportant cause, which he composed with enthusiasm^ 
whdie, he dictated it to Boileau with an emphasis which 
shewed how much he was satisfied with the sublimity of 
his work; but when he had finished, he perceived that 
Boileau was fallen asleep, after having written but few 
wou'ds. Trasksported with anger, he sent him back to his 
fj^ther, assuring l^im he " would be nothing but a block- 
head all the rest of his life." After this he began to study 
scbiolastic divinity, wliich was still less suited to his taste, 
9n4 at length he became what he himself wished to be — si 
Poet; and, as if to belie, at setting out, his father's pre- 
diction, he commenced at the age of thirty, with satire, 
which let loose against him the crowd of writers whom he 
attacked, but gave him firiends, or rather readers, among 
that very numerous class of the pubUc, who, through an 
inconstancy ciruetly rooted in the human heart, love to see 
those humbled whom even they esteem the most. But 
whatever favour and encouragement so general a dispo- 
sition might promise Boileslu, he could not avoid meeting 
with censurers among men of worth* Of this number was 
the duke de Montaifsier,: who valued himself upon an in- 
flexible and rigorous virtue, d.nd disliked satire* But, as 
it was of the greatest importance to Boileau to gain over 
to bis interest one of the first persons about court, whose 
credit was the more formidable^ as it was supported by 
that personal consideration which is not always joined. to' 
it, he introduced into one of his pieces a pai>iegyrical no- 
tice of the duke de Montausier, which was neither flat nor 
exaggerated, and it produced the desired effect. Encou- 
raged by this first success, Boileau lost no time in giving 
the final blow to the tottering austerity of his oensurer, 
by confessing to him, with an air of contrition, how hu- 
miliated he felt himself at missing the friendship of " tlie 
worthiest man at court." From that moment, the wor- 

B O I L E A U. * 

thiest mail dt court becstme the protector and apologist 
of the most caustic of all writers. Though we attach 
less value to the satires of Boileau than to his other 
works, and think not very highly of his conduct to his 
patron, yet it must be allowed that he never attacks bad 
taste and bad writers/ but with the weapons of pleasantry ; 
and never speaks of vice and wicked men but with indig- 
nation. Boileau, however, soon became sensible that in 
order to reach posterity it is not suf&cient to supply some 
ephemeral food to the malignity of contemporaries, but 
to be the writer of all times and all places. This led him 
to produce those works which will render his fame per- 
petual. He wrote his " Epistles," in which, with delicate . 
praises, he has intermixed precepts of literature and mo- 
rality, delivered with the most striking truth and the hap« 
piest precision ; and in 1674 his celebrated mock-heroic, the 
^^ Lutrin,'' which, with so small a ground of matter, contains 
so much variety, action, and grac^ ; and his " Art of Poetry," 
which is in French what that of Horace is in Latin, the 
code of good taste. In these be expresses in harmonious 
verse, full of strength and elegance, the principles of 
reasoQ and good taste.; and was the first who discovered 
and developed, by the union of example to precept, the 
highly difficult art of French versification. Before Boi- 
leau, indeed, Malherbe had begun to detect the secret, 
but he had guessed it only iu part, and had kept his know- 
ledge for his own use ; and Corneille, though he had writ- 
ten " Cinna" and " Polieucte," had no other secret than 
his instinct, aiid when this abandoned him, was no longer 
Corneille. Boileau had the rare merit, which can belong 
only to a superior genius, of forming by his lessons and 
productions the first school of poetry in France ; and it 
may be added, that of all the poets whp have preceded 
or followed him, none was better calculated than himself 
to be the head of such a school. In fact, the severe and 
decided correctness which characterizes his works, renders 
them singularly fit to serve as a study for scholars in poetry. 
In Racine he had a disciple who would have secured him 
immortality, even if he had not so well earned it by his 
ovyn writings. Good judges have even asserted, that the 
pupil surpassed the master; but Boileaa, whether inferior 
or equal to his scholar, always preserved that ascendancy 
over him, which a blunt and downright self-love will ever 
assuttt^ over a timid and delicate self-love, such as that of 

6 B O I L E A 0. 

Racine. The author of « Phsedra'' and of " Athaliah** 
had always, either from deference or address, the com- 
plaisance to yield the first place to one who boasted of 
having been his master. Boileau, it is true, had a merit 
with respect to his disciple, which in the eyes of the latter 
must have been of istestimable value, that of having early 
been sensible of Racine^s excellence; or rather of what he 
promised to become ; for it was not easy^ in the author of 
the " Freres Ennemis,' • to discover that of " Andromache'* 
und " Britannicus,'' and doubtless perceiving in Racine's 
first essays the germ of what he was one day to become, 
he felt how much care and culture it required to give it 
^ full expansion. 

Boileau knew how to procure a still more powerful pro- 
tection at court than the duke de Montausier's, that of 
Lewis XIV. himself. He lavished upon this monarch 
praises the more flattering, as they appeared dictated by 
the public voice, and merely the sincere and warm ex- 
pression of the nation's intoxication with respect to its 
king. To add value to his homage, the artful satirist had 
the address to make his advantage of the reputation of 
frankness he had acquired, which served as a passport to 
those applauses which the poet seemed to bestow in spite 
*of his nature ; and he was particularly attentive, while be- 
stowing praises on all those whose interest might either 
support or injure him, to reserve the first place, beyond 
comparison,, for the monarch. Among other instances, 
he valued himself, as upon a great stroke of policy, for 
having contrived to plaoe Monsieur, the king's brother, 
by the side of the king himself, in his verses, v<^ithout ha- 
zard of wounding the jealousy of majesty ; and for having 
celebrated the conqueror of Cassel more feebly than the 
subduer of Flanders. He had however the art, or more 
properly the merit, along with bis inundation of praises, 
to convey some useful lessons to the sovereign. Lewis 
XIV. as yet young and greedy of renown, which he mis- 
took for real glory, was making preparations for war with 
Holland. Colbert, who knew how fatal to the people is 
the most glorious war, wished to divert the kitig from his 
design. He engaged Boileau to second his persuasions, 
\>y addressing to Lewis his first epistle, in which he proves 
th^t a king's true greatness consists in rendering his sub- 
jects happy, by securing them the blessings of peace. But 
^tl^ougb this epistle did not answer the intentions of the 

B O I L E A U. 7 

nuiQister or the poet, yet so much attention to please the 
monanchy joined to such excellence, did not remain unre- 
conipensed. Boileau was loaded with the king^s favour, 
admitted at court, and named, in conjunction with Racine, 
Foyal historiographer. The two poets seemed closely oc- 
cupied in writing the history of their patron ; they even 
read several passages of it to the king ; hut they abstained 
from giving any of it to the public, in the persuasion that 
the history of sovereigns, even the most worthy of eulogy, 
cannot be written during their lives, without running the risk 
either of losing reputation by flattery, or incurring hazard 
by truth. It was with repugnance that Boileau had un- 
dertaken an office so little suited to his talents and his 
taste. " When I exercised," said he, " the trade of a 
satirist, which I understood pretty well, I was overwhelmed 
with ipsults and menaces, and I am now dearly paid for 
exercising that of historiographer, which I do not under- 
stand at all." Indeed, far from behig dazzled by the fa« 
TOur he enjoyed, he rather felt it as an incumbrance. He 
often said, that the first sensation hi& fortune at court in- 
. spired in him, was a feeling of melancholy. He thought 
the bounty of his sovereign purchased too dearly by the 
loss of liberty-*-a blessing so intrinsically valuable, which 
^l the empty and fugitive enjoyments of vanity are un- 
able to eompensate in the eyes of a philosopher. Boileau 
endeavoured by degrees to recover this darling liberty, in 
proportion as age seemed to permit the attempt ; and for 
the last ten or twelve years of his life he entirely dropped 
his' visits to court '^ What should I do there?" said he, 
*^ I can praise no longer." He might, however, have 
found as much matter for his applauses as when he lavished 
them without the least reserve. While he attended at 
court, lie maintained a freedom and frankness of speech, 
especially on topics of literature, which are not common 
among courtiers. When Lewis asked his opinion of some 
verses which he had written, be replied, " Nothing, 
sire, is impossible to your majesty; you wished to make 
bad verses, and you have succeeded." He also took 
part with the persecuted members of the Port- royal ; and 
when one of the courtiers declared that the king was 
making diligent search after the celebrated Arnauld, in 
order to pu( him in the Bastile, Boileau observed, ** His 
majesty ift«too fortunate ; be will not find him :" and when 
tlie king asked bim^ what was the reason why the whole 

S B O I LE A U, 

Tsirorld was running after a preacher named le Tournenx, a 
disciple of Arnauld, " Your majesty," he replied, ^* knows 
how fond people are of novelty : — :this is a minister who 
preaches the gospel." Boiieau appears from various cir- 
cumstances, to have been no great friend to the Jesuits, 
whom he offended by his " Epistle on the Love of God," 
and. by many free speeches. By royal favour, he was ad- 
mitted unaiiimously, in 1684, into the French academy, 
with which he had made very free in his epigrams ; and 
he was also associated to the new academy of inscriptions 
9nd belles-lettres, of which he appeared to be a fit mem- 
ber, by his " Translation of Longinus on the Sublime." 
To science, with which he had little acquaintance^^ he 
rendered, however, important service by his burlesque 
** Arret in favour of the university, against an. unknown 
personage called Reason," which was the means of pre- 
venting the establishment of a plan of intolerance in mat- 
ters of philosophy. His attachment to the ancients, as 
the true models of literary taste and excellence, occasioned 
a controversy between him and Perrault concerning the 
comparative merit of the ancients and moderns, which, was 
prosecuted for some time by epigrams and mutual re* 
preaches, till at length the public begaa to be tired with 
their disputes, and a reconciliation was effected by the 
good offices of their common friends. This controversy 
laid the foundation of a lasting enmity between Boiieau 
and Fontenelle, who inclined to the party of Perrault. 
Boiieau, however, did not maintain his opinion with the 
pedantic extravagance of the Daciers ; but he happily 
exercised his wit on the misrepresentations of the noted 
characters of antiquity, by the fashionable romances of the 
time, in his dialogue entitled " The Heroes of Romance," 
composed in the manner of Lucian. In opposition to the 
absurd opinions of father Herdouin, that most of the clas- 
sical productions of ancient Rome bad been written by the 
monks of the thirteenth century, Boiieau pleasantly re- 
marks, ^< I know nothing of all that ; but though I am not 
very partial to the monks, I should not have been sorry 
to have lived with friar Tibullus, friar Juvenal, Dom Vir- 
gil, Dom Cicero, and such kind of folk." After the death 
of Racine, Boiieau very much retired from court; induced 
partly by bis love of liberty and independence, and partly 
by his dislike, of that adulation which was expected, an4' 
for which the close of Lewis's reign afforded oiorer scanty 


materials than its cotnmencement. Sepai^ted in a great 
<}agree from spciety, be indulged that austere and misan^^ 
thrppical dispositiou^ from which he was never wholly 
exempt. His conversation, however, was more mild and 
gentle than his writings ; and, as he used to say of him- 
self, without " nails or claws," it was enlivened by occa- 
sional sallies pf pieasantry, and rendered instructive by 
judicious opiniQns of autboifs and their works. He was re- 
ligious without bigotry ; and he abhorred fanaticism and 
liypocrisy. His circumstances ^were easy ; and his pru- 
dent economy has been charged by some with degenerating 
into avarice. Instances, however, occur of bis liberality 
and beneficence. At the death of Colbert, the pension 
wbiqh he had given to the poet Corneille was suppressed, 
though he was poor, old, infirm, and dyings Boileaii in- 
terceded with the king for the restoration of it, and offered 
to transfer his own to Corneille, telling the monarch that 
he should be ashamed to receive his bounty while such a 
man was in want of it. He also bought, at an advanced 
price, the library of Patru, reduced in his circumstances, 
and left him in the possession of it till his death. He gave to 
the poor all the revenues he had received for eight years 
from a benefice he had enjoyed without performing the 
duties of it. To indigent men of letters his purse was 
s^ways open ; and at his death he bequeathed almost all 
his possessions to the^ poor. Up&n the whole, his tepciper, 
tbough naturally austere, was on many occasions kind and 
benevolent, so that it has been said of him, that he was 
** cruel only in verse ;" and his general character was 
distinguished by worth and integrity, with some alloys of 
literary jealousy and injustice. Boileau died of a dropsy 
in the breast, March U, 1711, and by Us will left almost 
all bis property to the, poor. His funeral was attended by 
a very numerous company, which gave a woman of the 
lower cla/5s occasion to say, ^' He had many friends then! 
yet they say t;h?it he spoke ill of every body." 

Boileau's character as a poet is now generally allowed 
to he that of taste, judgment, and good sense, which pre- 
dominate in the best of his works as they do in the most 
fiopulav of Pope's writings. The reseniblance between 
tjsese, two poets is. in many respects very striking, and in 
one respect continues to be so ; they are, in France and 
England, mote read and oftener quoted than any other 
poets. Both were accused of stealing from the ancients ; 

10 ' B O I L E A a 

but says an elegant critic of our nation, those who flat- 
tered themselves that they should diminish the reputation 
of Boileau, by printing, in the manner of a commentary 
at the bottom of each page of his works, the many lines he 
has borrowed from Horace and Juvenal, were grossly de- 
ceived. The verses of the ancients which he has turned 
into French with so much address, and which he has hap- 
pily made so homogeneous, and of a piece with the rest of 
the work, that every thing seems to have been conceived 
in a continued train of thought by the very same person^ 
confer as much honour on him, as the verses which are 
purely his own. The original turn which he gives to his 
translations, the boldness of his expressions, so little forced 
and unnatural, that they seem to be born, as it were, with 
his thoughts, display almost as much invention as the first 
production of a thought entirely new. ' The;same critic, 
Dr. Warton, is of opinion that Boileau's ** Art of Poetry** 
is the best composition of that kind extant. *^ The brevity 
of his precepts," says this writer, " enlivened by proper 
imagery, the justness of his metaphors, the harmony of 
his numbers, as far as alexandrine lines will admit, the 
exactness of his method, the perspicuity of his remarks, 
and the energy of his style, all duly considered, may ren-* 
der this opinion not unreasonable. It is to this work he 
owes his immortality, which was of the highest utility to 
his nation, in diffusing a just way of thinking and writings 
banishing every species of false wit, and introducing a 
general taste for the manly simplicity of the ancients, on 
whose writ^ings this poet had formed his taste.^' 

Of the numerous editions of Boileau^s works, the best 
are, that of Geneva, 1716, 2 vols. 4to, with illustrations 
by Brossette ; that of the Hague, with Picart's cuts, 1718, 
2 vols. fol. and 1722, 4 vols. 12mo; that by Allix, with 
Coohin's cuts, 1740, 2 vols. 4to; that of Durand, 1745, 
5 vols. 8vo ; and lastly, a beautiful edition in 3 vols. 8vo. 
or 3 vols. 12mo, Paris, 1809, with notes by Daunou, a 
member of the Institute. * 

BOILEAU (James), one of the brothers of the prece- 
ding,' a doctor of the Sorbonne, was born in 1635, studied 
in the university of Paris, took his degree of doctor in 
theology in 1662, was appointed dean of Sens, and vicar 

1 D'Alembert's Eulogies translated by AiKin^i 2 Tolt. 8YQ.->*GeQ. Dict-^War"' 
ten's Essay on Pope, ^c,> 

B O I L E A U. 11 

of the archbishop Gondoin, in 1667; and in 1694, was 
presented by the king with a canonry in the liqly chapel of 
Paris. He died dean of the faculty of theology in 17 16, 
He is well known by a number of works in a peculiar style, 
some of which were not remarkable for decency ; but these 
be wrote in Latin, ^^ lest the bishops/' he said, ^^ should 
condemn them.'' He was not more a fciend to the Jesuits 
than his brother ; and he described them as ^^ men who 
lengthened the creed, and shortened the commandipents.'* 
As dean of the chapter of Sens, he was appointed to 
harangue the celebrated prince of Cond6, when he passed 
through the city. This great commander took particular 
pleasure on these occasions in disconcerting bis panegy^ 
rists ; but the doctor, perceiving his intention, counter- 
feited great confusion, and addressed him in the following 
manner : " Your highness will not be surprised, I trust, 
at seeing roe tremble in your presence at the head of a 
company of peaceful priests ; I should tremble still more, 
if I was at the head of 30,000 soldiers." He manifested a 
contempt of fanaticism, as well as of decorum, by bis 
*^ Historia Flagellantium, &c." or, an account of the ex- 
travagant, and often indecent, practice of discipline by 
flagellation, in the popish church. It was translated 
into French ; and not many years ago {viz. 1777, 4to. and 
s^in in 1782, Svo.) by M. deXolme, into English. In 
his treatise " De antiquo jure presbyterorum in regimine 
ecclesiastico," he endeavours to shew, that in the primi- 
tive times the priests participated with the bishops in the 
government of the church. He was also the author of se- 
veral other publications, displaying much curious learning 
and a satirical turn, which are now consigned to oblivion. . 

GiLLES, the eldest brother of Qoileau Despreaux, was 
born in 1631, and had a place in the king's household. 
He was a man of wit and learning, and published a trans- 
lation of Arrian's Epictetus, with a life of the philosopher, 
Paris, 1655, 8vo. He also published a translation of Dio- 
genes Laertius, 1668, in 2 vols. 12mo; and two disserta- 
tions against Menage and Costar. His ** Posthumous 
Works" were published in 1670. He also wrote verses, 
in no high estimation. ^ 

©OILEAU (John James), canon of the church of St. 
Honorg at Paris, was of the diocese of Agen, in which he 

1 D'Alembert's Eulogies translated by Aikin, 2 ^Is. Svo.— den. Diot^-*War« 
Ion's Essay on Pope^ &c. and Diet, Hist, 

IS B O I L E A U. 

enjoyed a curacy. The delicacy of his constitution hating 
obliged him to quit it, he repaired to Paris. The cardinal 
de Noailles afforded him many marks of his esteemr He 
died the 10th of March, 1735, aged 86. There are by 
him^ 1. Letters on various subjects of morality and devo- 
tion, 2 vols. 12mo. 2. The life of the duchess of Lian- 
court, and that of madame Comb^, superior of the house 
of the Bon Pasteur. Ail these works evince a fund of 
^nse and good sentinients ; but his style is too much in- 
Hated. * 

. BOINDIN (Nicholas), born at Paris in 1676, the son 
of an attorney in the office of the finances, entered into the 
regiment of musqueteers in 1696. The weakness of his 
constitution, unable to resist the fatigues of the service, 
obliged him to lay down his arms and take to his studies. 
He was received in 1706 into the academy of inscriptions 
and belles-lettres, and would have been of the French 
academy, if the public profession he made of atheism had 
not determined his exclusion. He was affiicted towards 
the latter end of his days with a fistula, which carried him 
off the 30th of Nov. 1751, at the age of 75. He was de- 
nied the honours of sepulture; being inhumed the day 
following without ceremony at three o clock in the morn- 
ing. M. Parfait the elder, who inherited the works of 
Boindin, gave them to the public in 1753, in 2 vols. 12mo. 
In the first we have four comedies in prose: and a me- 
moir on his life and writings, composed by himself. This 
man, who plumed himself on being a philosopher, here 
gives himself, without scruple, all the praises that a dull 
panegyrist would have found some difficulty in affording 
him. There is also by him a memoir, very circumstantial 
and very slanderous, ii) which he accuses, after a lapse of 
forty years, la Motte, Saurin, and Malaifaire a merchant, 
of having plotted the stratagem that caused the celebrated 
9nd unhappy Rousseau to be condemned. Boindin, though 
an atheist, escaped the punishment due to his arrogance, 
because, in the disputes between the Jesuits and their ad- 
versaries, he used frequently to declaim in the coffee- 
bouses against the latter. M. de la Place relates, that he 
said to a man who thought like him, and who was threat-* 
ened for his opinions, " They plague yo*i, because you 
ure a Jansenistic atheist; but th^y let me alone, because 

* PLct. Hist.— Morecw 

B O I N D I N. It 

I am a Molinhtlc atheist/' Not that be incUned more to 
Molina than to Janseuius ; but he found that he should get 
more by speaking in behalf of those that were then Ul 
favoiir. * 

BOIS (Gerard 1>u), of the Oratory, a native of Orleans^ 
was bom in 1629, and died July 15, 1696. He succeeded 
father le Cointe his friend in the place of librarian to the 
bouse of St. HoDord, and inherited his papers, which were 
not useless in bis hands. He revised the eighth volume of 
the '^ Ecclesiastical Annals of France," and published it ia 
1683. This work procured him a pension of a thousand 
livres granted him by the clergy. He afterwards under-^ 
took, at the entreaty of Harlay, archbishop of Paris, the 
Hiistory,of that church; 1690, 2 vols, folio. The second 
did not appear till eight years after his death, by the cars 
of father de la Rippe, and father Desmolets of the oratory^ 
He frequently mingles civil with ecclesiastical history, and 
these digressions hare lengthened his work ; but they have 
also diversified it. The dissertations with which he has 
accompanied it evince great sagacity in discerning what i% 
true from what is false. His history is written in Latin^ 
and the style is pure and elegant. ' 


BOISROBERT (FRAN501S Metel de), of the French 
academy, to the establishment whereof he contributed 
greatly, abbot of Chatilly-sur- Seine, was born at Caen ill 
1592, and died in 1662. He was remarkably brilliant in 
conversation, but with his natural and borrowed powers^ 
often repeating scraps from many of the tales of Boc- 
cace, of Beroald, and especially the " Moyen de parvenit'* 
of the latter. His imagination, fostered early by the 
writings of all the facetious authors, furnished him with the 
means of amusing and of exciting laughter. Citois, first 
physician to the cardinal de Richelieu, used to say to that 
minister, when he was indisposed, <^ Monseigneur, all our 
drugs are off no avail, unless you mix with them a dram of 
Boisrobert." The cardinal for a long time was never 
happy without his company and jokes, . and employed him 
as his buifoon^ When Boisrobert fell into disgrace with 
the cardinal, he had recourse to Citois, who put at the 
bottom of his paper to the cardinal, as if it had been a pre« 
scription. Recipe BoisaaBERT. This jest had its effect, 

^ Dict« Hist. s Kox&'u-^UcX. ai8U-a>upin.---Nk}emi. 


by causing him to be recalled. — Boisrobert pubtisbed^ 
1. Divers poems ; the first part 1647, 4to, and the second 
1659, 8vo. 2. Letters in the collection of Faret; 8vo* 
3. Tragedies, comedies, and tales, which bear the name 
of his brother Antoine le Metel, sieur d'Ouville. 4. " His- 
toire Indienne d^Anasandre et d'Orasie;" 1629, 8vo. 
5. " Nouvelles h^roiques," 1627, 8vo. His theatrical 
pieces, applauded by cardinal Richelieu and by some of 
his flatterers, are now totally forgot. All his friends, in- 
deed, were not flatterers, if the following anecdote may be 
relied on. Boisrobert, among his other follies, was a 
gamester, and on one occasion lost ten thousand crowns to 
the duke de Roquelaure, who loved money, and insisted 
upon being paid. Boisrobert sold all he had, which 
amounted to four thousand crowns, which one of his friends 
carried to the duke, telling him, he must forgive the rest, 
and that Boisrobert, in return, would compose a panegy- 
rical ode upon him, which would certainly be a bad one* 
** Now," added this friend, " when it is known that your 
grace has rewarded a paltry piece with six thousand crowns, 
every one will applaud your generosity, and will be anxious 
to know what you would have given for a good poem.'* 
It is most to his honour, however, that he contributed to 
the establishment of the French academy, and always em- 
ployed his interest with cardinal Richelieu in behalf of men 
of merit. * 

BOISSARD (John James), a famous French antiquary, 
was born at Besangon, 1528, and published several collec- 
tions, which tend to illustrate the Roman antiquities, on 
which he had bestowed great attention, having drawn plans 
of all the ancient monuments in Italy, and visited all the 
antiquities of the isles of Corfu, Cephalonia, and Zaute. 
He went also to the Morea, and would have proceeded to 
Syria, had he not been prevented by a dangerous fever, 
which seized him at Methone. Upon his return to his own 
country, he was appointed tutor to the sous of Anthony de 
Vienne, baron de Clervaut, with whom he travelled into 
Germany and Italy. He had left at Montbeliard bis anti- 
quities, which he had been collecting with so much pains ; 
and had the misfortune to lose them all when the people 
of Lorraine ravaged Franche Comt6. He had now none 
left except those which he had transported to Metz, where 

^ Mo»ri«— Diet. Hist.— Biog. Gallica, vol. 1.— BaiUet Jugemens de SavaQS» 


he himself bad retired ; but as it was well known that be 
intended to publish a large collection of antiquities, there 
were sent to him from all parts many sketches and draughts 
of old monuments^ by which means he was enabled to fa- 
vour the public with his work, entitled^ ^^ De Romans^ 
urbis topographia et antiquitate." It consists -of four vo- 
lumes in folio, which are enriched with several prints, by 
Theodore de Bry and his sons, 1 597-— 1602. He pub- 
lished also the lives of many famous persons, with their 
portraits, entitled, <^ Theatrum vitae humauae," divided into 
four parts, in 4to: the first printed at Francfort, 1597; 
the second and third in 1598; and the fourth in 1599. 
His treatise, ^^ De divinatione et magicis prsestigiis,'' was 
not printed till after his death, which happened at Metz, 
Oct. 30, 1602. There have been two editions of it: one 
at Hainan in 1611, 4to; another at Oppenheim in 1625, 
folio. He wrote also a book of '' Emblems,^' with de Bry's 
engravings, Francfort; 1595, 4to; '^Parnassus Biceps,'* 
ibid, 1627, fol. a very rare book ; and ^^ Habitus variarum 
orbis gentium,'' 1581, fol. with plates. He published also 
some *' Poemata, Epigrammata, &c.". 157^, 16m6; but 
these are not so much esteemed as his. other performances. 
His adventure in a garden of cardinal Carpi at Rome, 
shews him a genuine antiquary. This garden was fuir of 
ancient marbles, and situated on the Mons Quirinalis, 
Boissard went thither one day with his friends, and imme- 
diately parted from them, let them return home, and con- 
cealed himself in some of the alleys. He employed the 
rest of the day in copying inscriptions and drawing the 
monuments ; and as the garden gates were shut, he staid^ 
there all night. The next morning, the cardinal, finding 
him at this work, could not imagine how a stranger should 
get into his garden at an unseasonable hour ; but when he 
knew the reason of Boissard's staying there all night, he 
ordered him .a good breakfast, and gave him leave to 
copy and draw whfktsoever he should think curious in his 
palace. ^ 

BOISSI (Louis de), a celebrated French comic writer 
of native wit and g^ni^ine humour, was: born at Vic in 
Auvergne in 1694. He came early to Paris, and began to 
write for the stage* The r^st of his li£e is a moral As 
has often been the fate of e^xtraordinary favourites of the 

* Moreri — Diet Hist.— Qeo. Diet:— Baillet J«if«m«ns d« SaT»ns,««-SaxU 
Oaamastiooii. t. , . .. 

16 • B a t s s t 

mtiMi^y though he kboured incessantly for the public, hh 
works procured him only a competency of fame — he 
wanted bread, and while the theatres and coffee-houses of 
Paris were ringing with plaudits on his uncommon talents 
to promote their mirth^ he was languishing, with a wife 
and child, under the pressures of the extreftiest poverty. 
Yety melancholy as bis situation was, he lost nothing of 
that pride, which forbid him to creep and fawn at the feet 
of a patron. Boissi had friends, who would readily have 
relieved him ; but they were never made acquainted with 
his i*eal condition, or had not that friendly impetuosity 
which forces assistance on the modest sufferer. He at 
length became the prey of distress, and sunk into despon- 
dency. The shortest way to rid bittiself at once of his 
load of misery seemed to hifti to be death, on which hk 
speculated with the despair of a man who has none of the 
consolations of religion. His wife, who was no less weary 
of life, listened with participation as often as he declaimed^ 
in all the warmth of poetic rapttire, on the topic of deliver*- 
ance from this earthly prison, and the smiling prospects of 
futurity ; till at length she took up the resolution to ac- 
company him in death. But she could not bear to think 
of leaving her beloved son, of five years old, in a world of 
misery and sorrow ; it was therefore agreed to take the 
child along with them, on their passage into another and a 
better, and they made choice of starving. To this end, 
they shut themselves up in their solitary and deserted 
apartment, vinaiting their dissolution with immovable forti- 
tude. When any one came and knocked, they fled trem- 
bling into a corner, for f^ar of being discovered. Their, 
little boy, who had not yet Iciairned to silence the calls of 
hunger by artificial reasons, whimpering and crying, asked 
for bread; but they always found means to quiet him.- 

It occurred to one of Boissi's friends, that it was very 
extraordinary he should never find him at home. At first 
he thought the family had changed their lodgings; but, ort 
assuring himself of the contrary, he began to be alarmed. 
He called several times in one day, and at last burst open 
the door, when he saw his friend, with his wife and son, 
extended on the bed, pale and emaciated, scarcely able to 
utter a sound ! The boy lay in the middle, and the hus- 
band and wife had their arms thrown over him. Tlie child 
stretched out his little hands towards his deliverer^ and his 
first word was — Bread 1 It was now the third day that nol 

B O I S S I. 17 

a morsel of food had entered his lips. The parents lay 
still in a perfect stupor ; they had never heard the bursting' 
open of the door, and felt nothing of the embraces of theifr 
agitated friend. Their wasted eyes were directed towards 
the boy ; and the tenderest expressions of pity were in the 
look with which they had last beheld him, and stili saw 
him dying. Their friend hastened to take measures for 
their recovery ; but could not succeed without difficulty. 
They thought themselves already far from the troubles of 
life, and were terrified at being suddenly brought back to 
them. Void of sense and reflection, they submitted to the 
attempts that were made to recall them to life. At length 
a thought occurred to their friend, which happily suc- 
ceeded. He took the child from their - arms, and thus 
roused the last spark of paternal and maternal tenderness. 
He gave the child to eat ; who, with one hand held his 
bread, and with the other alternately shook his father and 
mother. It seemed at once ta rekindle the love of life in 
their hearts, on perceiving that the child had left the bed 
and their embraces. Nature did her office. Tiieir friend 
procured them strengthening broths, which he put to their 
lips with the utmost caution, and did not leave them till 
every symptom of restored life was fully visible. 

This transaction made much noise in Paris, and at length 
reached the ears of the marchioness de Pompadour. Boissi's 
deplorable situation moved her. She immediately sent 
him a hundred louis-d'ors, and soon after procured him 
the profitable place of editor of the Mercure de France, 
with a pension for his wife and child, if they outlived him. 
— His CEuvres de Theatre" are in 9 vols. 8vo. His Italian 
comedy, in which path he is the author of numerous pieces, 
has not the merit of the above. His early satires, of which 
he had written many, being remembered, prevented his 
admission into the French academy till he was sixty years of 
*ge, though he was well entitled to that honour, by his 
labours and talents, twenty years sooner. He died April, 
1658, complaining in his last moments, that his misery 
was not shortened by an earlier death, or his felicity ex- 
tended by longevity, * 

BOIVIN (Fkancisde), baron of Villars, bailifof Gex, 
in which offiice he was living in 1618, maitre d^hotel to 

^ Diet. Hist. — D*Aiembert'8 Hist, of the Members of the French Academy.-— 
Cbaufepie. — ^Hidtory of the Mftrchiouess de Pomptadour, Part III. Lond. l^mo. 

You VI. C 

IS B O I V I N. 

queea dowager Loaisa of France, was also secretary to the 
nmrechal de Brissac, and accompanied him into Pi^monrt 
under Henfy II. We have by him, "L'Histoire des Guerre* 
de Pi^mont, depuis 1550 jusqu'en 1561 ;'•' Paris, 1607, 
4to, and 8vo. This historian is neither elegant nor accu-* 
rate in general ; but he may be consulted with safety on 
the exploits that passed under his own observation. Boi- 
vin died very old, but at what time is not kiwwn. ' His. 
History, continued by CI. Malinger, appeared in 1630, 
2 vols. 8vo. * 

BOIVIN (John), professor of Greek in the royal col- 
lege of Paris, was born at Montreuil TArgil^, in Upper 
Normandy. Being sent for to Paris by his elder brother, 
young Boiviu soon made great progress in literature, ia 
the languages, and especially in the knowledge of the 
Greek. He died October 29, 1726, aged 64, member of 
the French academy^ and of that of belles lettres, and 
keeper of the king's library. He profited by this literary 
treasure, by drawing from it a variety of information, and 
to a great extent In his private character he was of 
gentle manners, and truly amiable. He wrote, 1. " The 
Apology for Homer, and the Shield of Achilles, in 12mo. 

2. Translation of the Batrachomyomachia of Homer into 
French verse, under his name Latinised into Biberimero. 

3, The CEdipus of Sophocles, and the Birds of Aristo- 
phanes, translated into French, in 12mo. 4. Pieces of 
Greek poetry. 5. The edition of the. " Mathematici ve- 
teres," 1693, in folio. 6. A Latin life of Claude le Pele- 
tier, in 4to, written in a style rather too inflated. 7. A 
translation of the Byzantine history of Nicephorus Gre- 
goras, correct, elegant, and enriched, with a curious pre* 
face, and notes replete with erudition. ^ 

BOIVIN (Louis), brother to the preceding, a distin- 
guished scholar and pensionary of the academy of belles 
lettres, was born at Montreuil TArgil^, and educated, first 
under the Jesuits at Rouen, and afterwards at Paris, where 
he settled. His acquirements in literature were various 
and extensive ; but his temper, according to his own ac- 
count, was intractable and unsocial, enterprising, vain, and 
versatile. He was employed by several eminent magis- 
trates as the associate and director of their private studies ; 
but the litigiousness of his disposition involved him ia 

1 Moreri.<-Dict, Hist ' Ibid. 

H lY 1 ij. ^ 19 

^reait trouble and expeDce. He published some iearhed 
dissertations on historical subjects, in the ^* Memoirs of 
the Academy of Belles Lettres," and made great progress 
towards a new edition of Josephus, He died in 1724, aged 
75 years. * \ , . 

BOLD (John), a pious and useful clergyman of Leices« 
tershire, was born at Leicester in 1679, and at the age of . 
fifteen had made such progress in letters as to be matricu-* 
lated at St John's college, Cambridge. Having taken the 
degree of B. A. in 1698, he retired to Hinckley in Leices-^ 
tershire, where he engaged in teaching a small endowed 
school, and retained that employment until 1732, at the 
humble salary of 10/. per annum. At the usual age^ he 
was admitted into holy orders to serve the curacy of Stoney 
Stanton near Hinckley. It appears from the parish regis'* 
ter, that he commenced his parochial duties in May 1702 ; 
and the care of the parish was confided to him, his rector 
then residing on another benefice. His stipend was only 
30/. a year, as the living was a small one, being then in the 
open-field state. Nor does it appear that he had made 
any saving in money from the profits of his school — all the 
property he seems to have brought with him to his curacy 
was, his chamber furniture^ and a library, more valuable 
for being select than extensive. When Mr. Bold was ex- 
amined for orders, his diocesan (Dr. James Gardiner, 
bishop of Lincoln) was so much pleased with hia profi- 
ciency in sacred learning, that he had determined to make 
Mr. Bold his domestic chaplain : but the good bishop's 
death soon after closed his prospect of preferment as soon 
as it was opened in that quarter ; and Mr. Bold framed his 
plan of life and studies upon a system of rigid qecohomy 
and strict attentioa to his professional duties^ which never 
varied during the fifty years he passed afterwards on his 
curacy. Remote from polished and literary society, which 
he was calculated both ^p enjoy and to adorn, he dili- 
gently performed the duties of an able and orthodox 
divine; a good writer; an excellent preacher, and au 
attentive parbh priest. He appears, from the early age of 
24 years, to have formed his plan of' making himself a 
living sacrifice for the benefit of his flock; and to have de- 
clined preferment (which was afterward offered to him) 
with a view of making his example and doctrine the more 

I Moreri,— Diet. HUt. 
C 2 ' 

so ' BOLD.. 


striking and efFective, by his permanent residence and la- 
bours in one and the same place. He appears to have be«- 
gun his ecclesiastical labours in a spirit of self-denial, 
humility, chari^, and piety. He had talents that might 
have rendered him conspicuous any where, and an impres- 
sive and correct delivery. His life was severe (so far as 
respected himself) ; his studies incessant ; his spiritual 
labours for the church and his flock, ever invariably the 
same. His salary, we have already mentioned, was only 
30/. a year, which was never increased, and of which he 
paid at firsts/, then 12/. and lastly 16/. a year, for his 
board. It needs scarcely be said that the most rigid oeco- 
nomy was requisite, and practised, to enable him to sub- 
sist ; much more to save out of this pittance for beneficent 
purposes^ Yet he continued to give away annually, 51. ; 
and saved 5l. more with a view to more permanent chari- 
ties : upon the rest he lived. His daily fare consisted of 
water-gruel for his breakfast ; a plate from the farmer's 
table, with whom he boarded, supplied his dinner ; after 
dinner, one half pint of ale, of his own brewing, was his 
only luxury ; he took no tea, and his supper was upon 
milk-pottage. ' With this slender fare bis frame was sup- 
ported under the labour of his various parochial duties. In 
the winter, he read and wrote by the farmer's fire-side ; in 
the summer, in his own room. At Midsummer, be bor- 
rowed a horse for a day or two, to pay short visits beyond 
a walking distance. He visited all his parishioners, ex- 
horting, reproving, consoling, instructing them. 

The last six years of his life he was unable to ofEciate 
publicly; and was obliged to obtain assistance from the 
Rev. Charles Cooper, a clergyman who resided in the 
parish on a small patrimonial property, with whom he di- 
vided his salary, making up the deficiency from his savings. 
Mr. Bold's previous saving of 5/. annually, for the pre- 
ceding four or five and forty years (and that always put out 
to interest) enabled him to procure this assistance, and to 
continue his little charities, as well as to support himself, 
though the price of boarding was just doubled upon him 
from his first entrance on the cure, from 8/. to 1 6/. a year. 
But, from the annual saving even of so small a sum as 5/. 
with accumulating interest during that term, he not only 
procured assistance for the last years of his life, but 
actually left by his will securities for the payment of be- 
quests to the amount of between two and three hundred 

BOLD, 2t 

pouDcb: of which 100/. was bequeathed to some of his 
nearest relatione; 100/. to. the farmer's family in which he 
died; to requite their attendance in his latter end, and with 
which a son of the family was enabled to set up in a little 
farm ; and 40/. more he directed to be placed out at inte*- 
rest, of which interest one half is paid at Christmas to the 
poorer inhabitants who attend at church ; and the other, 
for a sermon once a year, in Lent, <^ on the duty of the 
people to attend to the instructions of the minister whom 
the bishop of the diocese should set oyer them/' 

This very singular and exemplary clergyman, whose 
character it is impossible to contemplate without admira- 
tion, died Oct. 29, 1751. He wrote for the use of his 
parishioners the following practical tracts: 1, ^<The sin 
and danger of neglecting the Public Service of the Church," 
1745, 8vo, one of the books distributed by the Society for 
promoting Christian knowledge. 2. *' Religion the most 
delightful employment, &c." 3. " The duty of worthily 
communicating. ^ 

BOLEN, or BOLEYN (Anne), second wife of king 
Henry VIII. was born in 1507. She was daughter of sir 
Thomas Bolen, afterwards earl of Wiltshire and Ormonde, 
by Elizabeth, daughter of Thomas Howard, duke of Nor- 
folk. When she was but seven years of age, she was carried 
over to France with the king's sister Mary, who was mar- 
ried to Lewis XII. And though, upon the French king's 
death, the queen dowager returned- to England, yet Anne 
Bolen was so highly esteemed at the court of France, tha( 
Claude, the wife of Francis L retained her in her service 
for some years; and after her death in 1524, the duchesR 
of Alenzon^ the king's sister, kept her in her court during 
her stay in that kingdom. It is probable, that she returned 
from thence with her father, from bis embassy in .1527 ; and 
was soon preferred to the place of maid of honour to the 
queen. She continued without the least imputation upon 
her character, till her unfortunate fall gave occasion to 
some malicious writers to defame her in all the parts of it. 
Upon her coming to the English court, the. lord Percy, 
eldest son of the earl of Northumberland, being then a 
domestic of cardinal Wolsey, made his addresses to her, 
and proceeded so far, as to engage himself to marry her ; 
and her consent shews, that she bad then no aspirings to 

> Nichols'* Hiit. of Leic©«ter|hire, vol. IV. Part IL 

e« B O L E K. 

the crown. But tlie cardinal, upon some private- reascni^ 
using threats and other methods, with great diffictilty put 
an end to that nobleman's design. It was probably Sibout 
1528, that the king began to shew some favour to her, 
which caused many to believe, that the whol^ process with 
regard to his divorce from queen Catherine was moved by 
.the unseen springs of that secret passion. But it is not rea^ 
^onableto imagine, that the engagement of the king's affec- 
tion to any other person gave the rise to that affair ; for so 
sagacious a courtier as Wolsey would have infallibly dis- 
covered it, and not haye projected a marriage with the 
French king's sister, as he did not long before, if he had 
seen his master prepossessed. The supposition is much 
more reasonable, that bis majesty, conceiving himself in a 
manner discharged of his former marriage, gave a full 
liberty to his affections, which began to settle upon Mrs. 
Bolen ; who, in September 1532, was created marchioness 
of Pembroke, in order that she might be raised by degrees 
to the height for which she was designed ; and on the 25th 
of January following was married to the king, the office 
being performed by Rowland Lee, afterwards bishop of 
Coventry and Licbtield, with great privacy, though in the 
presence of her uncle the duke of Norfolk, her father, 
Inother, and brother. On the 1st of June, 1533, she was 
crowned queen of England with such pomp and solemnity, 
as was answerable to the magnificence of his majesty's 
temper ; and every one admired her conduct, who had so 
long managed the*spirit of a king so viqlpnt, as neither to 
surfeit him with too much fondness, nor to provoke with too 
much reserve. Her being so soon with child gave hopes of 
a numerous issue ; and those^ who loved the reformation^ 
entertained the greatest hopes from her protection, as they 
knew she favoured them. On the 1 3th or 14th of Septem- 
ber following, she brought forth a daughter, christened 
Elizabeth, afterwards the renowned queen of £nglandj| 
Cranmer, archbishop of Canterbury, being her god-father. 
But the year 1536 proved fatal to her majesty ; and her 
ruin was in ail probability occasioned by those who began 
to be distinguished by the name of the Romish party. For 
the king now proceeding both at home and abroad in the 
point of reformation, they found that the interest which 
the queen had in him was the grand support of that cause. 
She had risen, not only in his esteem^ but likewise in tHat 
pf the nation in 'general , for in the last nine months of 

B O L £ N. SS 

lier life, she gave above fourteen thousand pounds to the 
poor, and was engaged in several noble and public designs. 
Biu these virtues could not secure her against the artifices 
of a bigoted party, wHich received an additional force 
from several other circumstances, that contributed to her 
destruction. Soon after queen Catharine^s death in Jafi^ 
153.5-6, she was brought to bed of a dead son, which was 
believed to have made a bad impression on the king's mind; 
and as be had concluded from the death of his sons by 
his former queen, that the marriage was displeasing to 
God, so he might upon this misfortune begin to have the 
same opinion of his marriage with queen Anne. It was 
also considered by some courtiers, that now queen Catha- 
rine was dead, his majesty might marry another wife, and 
be fully reconciled with the pope and the emperor, and 
the issue by any other marriage would never be questioned ; 
whereas, while queen Anne lived, the ground of the con« 
troversy still remained, and her marriage being accounted 
Dull from the beginning, would never be allowed by the 
court of Rom/e, or any of that party. With these reasons 
of state the king's own passions too much concurred ; for 
he now entertained a secret love for the lady Jane Sey- 
mour, who had all the .charms of youth and beauty, and 
^n humour tempered between the gravity of queen Catha- 
rine, and the gaiety of queen Anne. Her majesty there- 
fore perceiving the alienation of the king^s heart, used all 
possible .arts to recover that affection, the decay of which 
she was sensible of ; but the success was quite contrary to 
what she designed. For be saw her no more with those 
eyes which she had formerly captivated ; but gave way to 
jealousy, and ascribed her caresses to some other criminal 
passion, of which be began to suspect her. Her chearful 
tenaper indeed was not always limited within the bounds of 
exact decency and discretion ; and her brother the lord 
Rochford^s wife, a woman of no virtue, being jealous of 
her husband and her, possessed the king with her own ap- 
prehensions. Henry Norris, groom of the stole, William 
Brereton, and sir Francis Weston, who were of the king^s 
privy chamber, and Mark Smeton, a musician, were by 
the queen's, enemies thought too officious about her ; and 
something was pretended to have been sworn by the lady 
Wiqgfield at her death, which determined the king : but 
^e particulars are not known. It is reported likewise, 
that w^ep the king held a tournament at Greenwich oq the 

« B O L E N. 

l8t of May, 1536, he was displeased at the queen fof 
lettiacr her handkerchief fall to one, who was supposed a 
favourite, and who wiped his face with it. Whatever the 
case was, the king returned suddenly from Greenwich to 
Whitehall, and immediately ordered her to be confined to 
her chamber, and her brother, with the four persons above- 
mentioned, to be committed to the Tower, and herself to 
be bent after them the day following. On the river some 
privy counsellors came to examine her, but she made deep 
protestations of her innocence ; and as she landed at the 
Tower, she fell down on her knees, and prayed Heaven 
•' so to assist her, as she was free from the crimes laid to 
her charge." The confusion she was in soon raised a storm 
of vapours within her ; sometimes she laughed, and at 
other times wept excessively. She was also devout and 
light by turus ; one while she stood upon her vindication, 
and at other times confessed some indiscretions, which 
upon recollection she denied. All about her took advan- 
tage from any word, that fell from her, and sent it imme- 
diately to court. The duke of Norfolk and others, who 
came to examine her, the better to make discoveries, told 
her, that Norris and Smeton had accused her; which, 
though false, had this effect on her, that it induced her to 
own some slight acts of indiscretion, which, though no ways 
essential, totally alienated the king from her. Yet whe- 
ther even these small acknowledgments were real truths, 
or the effects of imagination and hysterical emotions, is 
very uncertain. On the 12th of May, Norris, Brereton, 
Weston, and Smeton, were tried in Westminster-hall. 
Smeton is said by Dr. Burnet to have confessed the fact ; 
but the lord Herbert^s silence in this matter imports him to 
have been of a different opinion ; to which may be added, 
that Cromwell's letter to the king takes notice, that only 
some circumstances were confessed by Smeton. However, 
they were all four found guilty, and executed on the 17th 
of May. On the 15th of which month, the queen, and her 
brother the lord Hochford, were tried by their peers in 
the Tower, and condemned to die. Yet all this did not 
satisfy the enraged king, who resolved likewise to illegiti- 
mate his daughter Elizabeth ; and, in order to that, to an- 
nul his' marriage with the queen, upon pretence of a pre- 
contract between her and tlie lord Percy, now earl of Nor-? 
thumberland, who solemnly denied it ; though the queen 
was prevailed upon to acknowledge, that there were some 

B O L E N. 25 

jUst and lawful impedimeDtg against her marriage with the 
king ; and upon this a sentence of divorce was pronounced 
by the archbishop, and afterwards confirmed in the conyo**- 
cation and parliament. On the 19th of May, she was 
brought to a scaffold within the Tower, where she was 
prevailed upon, out of regard to her daughter, to make no 
reflections on the hardships she had sustained, nor to say 
any thing touching the grounds on which sentence passed 
against her ; only she desired, that ^' all would judge the 
best.^' Her head being severed from her body, they were 
both put into an ordinary chest, and buried in the chapel 
in the Tower. 

Her death was much lamented by many, as die had been 
an eminent patroness of men of learning and genius, and 
in all other respects of a most generous and charitable dis- 
position ; and it is highly probable, that, if she had lived, 
the vast sums of money, which were raised by the sup* 
pression of religious bouses, would have been employed in 
the promotion of the most public and valuable purposes. ^ 

BOLLANDUS (John), a learned Jesuit, was born at 
Tillemont, in the Netherlands, Aug. 13, 1596, and at 
sixteen, a very usual age, entered the society of the Je- 
suits, and soon became distinguished as a teacher, both in 
the Netherlands, and in other countries. What entitles 
him to notice here, is the share he had in that voluminous 
work, the " Lives of the faints," or ** Acta. Sanctorum.'* 
The history of this work is not uninteresting, although the 
work itself, otherwise than for occasional consultation, 
defies time and patience. The design of this vast collect 
tion was first projected by father Hesibert Roseweide, a 
Jesuit of the age of sixty, and consequently too far ad* 
vanced to execute much of bis plan, which was to extend 
no farther than eightieen volumes folio, a trifle in those 
days, bad he begun earlier. In 1607, however, he began 
by printing the manuscript lives of some saints, which he 
happened to find in the Netherlands ; but death put an 
end to his labours in 1629. It was then entrusted to Bol-^ 
landus, who was about this time thirty-ibur years of age, 
and who removed to Antwerp for the purpose. After exa- 
mining Roseweide^s collections, he established a general 
correspondence over all Europe, instructing his friends to 

1 Birch's Lives to HoaHra1cen*» Heads. — ^Lodge's Liveg to Holbein's ditto.— 
Burnet's Hisit. of the Reformation.<>~Rapin, Hume, and Henry's Hist, of Eng' 
land, itc, — Park's edition of Waipole's Royal and Noble Authors. 


search cv€ry library, register, or repository of any kind, 
ivhere information might be found; but becoming soon 
sensible of the weight of his undertaking, he called in the 
assistance of another Jesuit, Henschenius of Guelderland, 
younger than himself, more healthy, and equally qualified 
in other respects. With this aid he was enabled in 1641 
to publish the first two volumes, folio, which contain the 
lives of the saints of the month of January, the order of 
the Kalendar having been preferred. In 1658 he pub- 
lished those of February ; and two years after, his labours 
still encreasing, he had another as30ciate, father Daniel 
Paperbroch, at that time about thirty-two years old, whom 
he sent^ith Henschenius to Italy and France to collect 
manuscripts, but he died before the publication of another 
volume, Sept. 12, 1665. After his death the work was 
continued by various hands, called Bollandists, until it 
amounted to forty-two folio volumes, the last published 
1753, which, after all, bring down the lives only to the 
fourteenth of September. In such an undertaking, much 
legendary matter must be expected, and many absurdities 
and fictions. Dupin allows Uiat BoUandus was more parr 
tial to popular traditions than Henschenius and Paperblroch, 
yet it would appear that they found it difficult (p please 
the taste of the different orders of monks, &c. who were 
to be edified by the work. Bollandus published separately: 

1. " Vita S. Liborii Episcopi,'* Antwerp, 1648, 8vo, 

2. "Brevis Notitia Italiae," ibid. 1648. 3. "Breves No- 
titise triplici status, Ecclesiastici, Monastici et Saecularis,^^ 
ibid. 1648.* 

BOLLIOUD-MERMET (Louis), a French writer, was 
born at Lyons, Feb. 13, 1709, of a distinguished family, 
and died there in 1793. He wrote, 1. ^^ De la corruption 
du gout dans la Musique Frangaise,-* 1745, 12mo. 2. "De 
la BiBUOMANiE," 1761, 8vo, ^ subject since so ably 
handled by Mr. Dibdin. 3. " Discours sur I'Emulation,** 
1763, 8vo. 4. " Essai sur la lecture," 1763, 8vo. He 
left in manuscript a history of the s^c^demy of Lyons, of 
which he wak secretary, and after fifty years attendance at 
their sittings, pronounced a discourse entitled ^* Reno-* 
vation des voeux litteraires,^' which was afterward^ pub-* 
Ushed. * 

1 Dupin.— Morcri^^Foppen Bibl. Belgic— Saxii Onomast 
* Diet. Hist 

B O L S E C. 27 


BOLSEC (JEROM£)y a writer, whose whole merit wa^ 
inventing abominable lies and absurdities against the first 
reformers in the sixteenth century ; and, by this means 
'Supplying popish missionaries with matter of invective 
against them, he was often quoted, and became respected. 
He was a CarmeHte of Paris, who, having preached some- 
.what freely in St. Bartholomew's church, forsook his order, 
and fled into Italy, where he set up for a physician, 
and married; but soon after committed some crime, for 
which be was driven away. He set up afterwards in 
Geneva as a physician ; "but not succeeding in that 
profession, he studied divinity. At Urst he dogma* 
tized privately on the mystery ^of predestination, ac- 
cording to the principles of Pelagius; and afterwards 
had the boldness to make a public discourse against 
the received opinion. Upon this, Calvin went to see 
him, and censured him mildly. Then he sent for him 
to his house, and endeavoured to reclaim him from his 
error ; but this did not hinder Bolsec from delivering in 
public an insulting discourse against the decree of eternal 
predestination. Calvin was among his auditors; but, 
hiding himself in the crowd, was not seen by Bolsec, 
which made him the bolder. As soon as Bolsec had ended 
his sermon, Calvin stood up, and confuted all he had been 
saying. '* He answered, overset, and confounded him,'* 
.says Beza, ^' with so many testimonies from the word of 
God, with so many passages, chiefly from St. Augustine-—^ 
in short, with so many solid arguments, that every body 
was miserably ashamed for him, except the brazen-faced 
monk himself." On this, a magistrate who was present 
in that assembly, sent him to prison. The cause was dis- 
cussed very fully, and at last, with the advice of the Swiss 
churches, the senate of Geneva declared Bolsec convicted 
of sedition and Pelagianism; and as such, in 1551, ba- 
nished him from the territory of the republic, on pain of 
being whipped if he should return thither. He retired 
into a neighbouring place, which depended on the canton 
of Bern, and raised a great deal of disturbance there, by 
accusing Calvin of making God the author of sin. Calvin, 
to prevent the impressions which such complaints might 
make upon the gentlemen of Bern, caused himself to be 
deputed to them, and pleaded his cause before them. He 
W9S so fortunate^ that though he could not get a deter- 

CS B O L S E C. 

xnination upon his doctrine, whcfther it was true or false, 
yet Bolsec was ordered to quit the country. 

He returned to France, and applied himself to the Pro-- 
testants ; first at Paris, afterwards at Orleans. He shewed 
a great desire to be promoted to the ministry, and to be 
reconciled to the church of Geneva ; but the persecution 
that arose against the Protestants, made him resolve to 
take up his first religion, and the practice of physic. He 
went and settled at Autun, and prostituted.his wife to the 
canons of that place ; and to ingratiate himself the more 
with the Papists, exerted a most flaming zeal against the 
reformed. He changed his habitatron often : he lived at 
Lyons in 1582, as appears by the title of a book, which 
he caused to be printed then at Paris against Beza, and 
died there in the same year. The book just mentioned is 
entitled " The history of the life, doctrine, and behaviour 
of Theodorus Beza, called the spectable and great minister 
of Geneva.** This was preceded by the " History of the 
life, actipus, doctrine, constancy, and death of John 
Calvin, heretofore minister of Geneva," which was printed 
at Lyons, in 1577. Both these histories are altogether 
unworthy of credit, as well because they are written by an 
author full of resentment, as because they contain facts 
notoriously false. ^ 

BOLSWERT, or BOLSUERD (Boetius Adam a^), 
was an engraver, of Antwerp, who flourished about 1620; 
but by what master he was instructed in the art of en* 
graving, does not appear. He imitated the free open 
style of the Bloemarts with great success ; and perhaps 
perfected himself in their school. When he worked from 
Rubens, he altered that style ; and his plates are neater, 
fuller of colour, and more highly finished. The two fol- 
lowing from this master may be here mentioned: 1. The 
Resurrection of Lazarus, a large upright plate. 2. The 
Last Supper, its companion. Basan, speaking of this print, 
says, that it proves by its beauty, and the knowledge with 
which it is engraved, that Boetius could sometimes equal 
his brother Scheltius. ' 

BOLSWERT, or BOLSUERD (Scheltius a^), an ad- 
mirable engraver, was the brother of the preceding. The 
time of his birth and of his death, and the name of the 
master he studied under, are equally unknown. Bolswert, 

1 Gen. Diet — Moslieim.'^Moreri. — Beza'i lif< of Calvio.-«-Sa»t Ooomiist. 
9 Strntt's Dictionary* 



like his brother, worked entirely with the graver. His 
general character as an an artist is well drawn by Basan, 
who says : ^^ We have a large number of prints, which are 
held in great esteem, by this artist, from various masters ; 
but especially fro^i Rubens, whose pictures he has copied 
with all possible knowledge, taste, and great effect. The 
freedom with which this excellent artist handled the graver, 
the picturesque roughness of etching, which he could 
imitate without any other assisting instrument, and the 
ability he possessed of distinguishing the different masses 
of colours, have always been admired by the connoisseurs, 
and give him a place in the number of those celebrated 
engravers whose prints ought to be considered as models 
by all historical engravers, who are desirous of rendering 
their works as useful as they are agreeable, and of ac* 
quiring a reputation as lasting as it is justly merited.'* He 
drew excellently, and without any manner of his own ; 
for his prints are the exact transcripts of the pictures he 
engraved from. His best works, though not always 
equally neat or finished, are always beautiful, and mani- 
fest the hand of the master. Sometimes we find his en- 
gravings are in a bold, free, open style ; as the Brazea 
Serpent ; the Marriage of the Virgin, &c. from Rubens. 
At other times they are very neat, and sweetly finished ; 
as, the Crowning with Thorns, and the Crucifixion, &c» 
from Vandyck. Mr. Strutt observes, that his boldest en- 
gravings are from Rubens, and his neatest from Vandyck 
and Jordan. How greatly Bolswert varied his manner of 
engraving appears from some prints, which, like the 
greater part of those of his brother Boetius, bear great re- 
semblance to the free engravings of the Bloemarts, and to 
those of Frederic Bloemart especially ; and form a part of 
the plates for a large folio volume entitled *^ Academie de 
I'Espfie,'* by Girard Thibault of Antwerp, where it was 
published A.D. 1628; and to these he signs his name 
" Scheltius," and sometimes " Schelderic Bolswert,'* ad- 
ding the word Bruxelle. His works are pretty numerouS| 
and his name is usually affixed to his plates in this manner: 
"S. A. Bolswert."* 

BOLTON, or BOULTON (Edmund), an ingenious 
writer and antiquary, in the beginning of the seventeenth 
century, was a retainer to the great George Villiers, duke 
of Buckingham, under whom he probably enjoyed some 

1 .Strutt'f Dictionarj. 

.. — . 1... , 

30 S L f O N. 

ofiice. He. was a Roman catholic ; and distinguiished bitn-j 
self by the following curious writings; l."The Life of 
king Henry II." intended to be inserted in Speed's Chro- 
nicle; but the author being too partial to Thomas Becket/ 
another life was written by Dr. Barcham. 2. " The Ele- 
ments of Armories," Lond. 1610, 4to. 3, A poem upon 
the translation of the body of Mary queen of Scots, from 
Peterburgh to Westminster-abbey, in 1612, entitled " Pro- 
sopopoeia Basilica," a MS. in the Cottonian library. 4^ 
An English translation of Lucius Florus's Roman History. 
5. " Nero Caesar, or Monarchic depraved. An historical! 
worke, dedicated with leave to the duke of Buckingham, 
lord-admiral," Lond. 1624, fol. This book, which con- 
tains the life of the emperor Nero, is printed in a neat 
and elegant manner, and illustrated wilh several eurious 
medals. In recapitulating the affairs of Britain^ from the 
time of Julius Caesar to the revolt under Nero, he relates 
the history of Boadicea, and endeavours to prove that 
Stonehenge is a monument erected to her memory. How 
much he differs from the conjectures of the other anti- 
quaries who have endeavoured to trace the history of 
Stonehenge, it would be unnecessary to specify. He 
wrote also,^ 6. " Vindiciae Britannicae, or London righted 
by rescues and recoveries of antiquities of Britain in gene- 
ral, and of London in particular, against unwarrantable 
prejudices, and historical antiquations amongst the learned ; 
for the more honour, and perpetual just uses of the noble 
island and the city." It consists of seven chapters. In 
the first, he treats " of London before the Britann rebells 
sackt and fired it in hatred and defiance of Nero." In the 
second he shows, that " London was more great and fa- 
mous in Nero's days, than, that it should be within the 
description, which Julius Cassar makes of a barbarous Bri- 
tann town in his days." In the third, he proves, " that 
the credit of Julius Caesar's writings may subsist, and yet 
London retain the opinion of utmost antiquity." In the 
fourth, '^ the same fundamental assertion is upholden with 
other, and with all sorts of arguments or reasons." Th*e 
fifth bears this title, " The natural face of the seat of 
London (exactly described in this section) most sufficiently 
proved, that it was most antiently inhabited, always pre- 
supposing reasonable men in Britain." The sixth contains 
*^ a copious and serious disquisition about the old book of 
Brute, aiid of the authority thereof; especially so far forth 


Its concerns the present cause of the honour and antiquity 
of London, fundamentally necessary in general to our na- 
tional history .'' The last chapter is entitled, '^ Special, aa 
well historical, as other illustrations, for the use of the* 
coins in my Nero Ceesar, concerning Lotidon in and before 
that time." This MS. {for it never was printed) was in the 
possession of Hugh Howard, esq. and afterwards sold among 
Thomas Rawlinson's to Endymion Porter. Mr. Bolton was 
also author of " Hypercritica, or a rule of judgement for 
writing or reading our histories. Delivered in four super- 
censorian addresses by occasion of a censorian epistle^ 
prefixed by sir Henry Savile, knt. to his edition of some 
of our oldest historians in Latin, dedicated to the late 
queen Elizabeth. That according thereunto, a complete 
body of our affairs) a Carpus Rcrum Anglicarum may at 
last, and from among our ourselves, come happily forth in 
either of the tongues. A felicity wanting to our nation, 
now when even the name thereof is as it were at an end.^' 
It was published by Dr. Hall, at the end of " Triveti An- 
nales," Oxford, 1722, 8vo. Bolton likewise intended to 
compose a '^ General History of England, or an entire and 
complete body of English affairs ;" and there is in the 
Cottonian collection, the outline of a book entitled ^^ Agon 
Heroicius, or concerning Arms and Armories," a copy of 
which is in the Biog. Britannica. The time and place of 
his death are unknown. ^ 

BOLTON (Robert), an eminent puritan divine, and 
one of the best scholars of his time, was born at Blackburn 
in Lancashire, in 1572, and educated in queen Elizabeth's 
free-school in that place, where he made such proficiency 
as to be accounted a young man of extraordinary talents 
and industry. In his eighteenth year he went to Oxford, 
and entered of Lincoln college, under the tuition of Mr. 
John Randal, where he went through a course of logic and 
philosophy with distinguished approbation, and particu- 
larly ,took pains to acquire a critical knowledge of Greek, 
transcribing the whole of Homer with his own hand. By 
this diligence he attained a greater facility than was then 
usual, writing, and even disputing, in Greek with great 
correctness and fluency. From Lincoln he removed to 
Brazen-nose, in hopes of a fellowship, as that society eon*- 

1 Biog. Brit.^Warton'8 Hist. 9f Poetry, vol. IIJ. p. 275— S73.-^Bitson»i 
fiiblios^. Poetics. 


listed most of Lincolnshire and Cheshire m6ii. In 1596 
he took his bachelor^s degree in this college, and was 
Jcindly supported by Dr. Brett of Lincoln, himself a good 
« Grecian, and who admired the proficiency Boiton had 
made in. that language, until 1602, when he obtained a 
fellowship, and proceeded M. A., the same year. His re- 
putation advancing rapidly, he was successively chosen 
reader of the lectures on logic, and on moral and natural 
philosophy in his college. In 1605, when king JamesL 
came to Oxford, the vice-chancellor (Abbot, afterwards 
archbishop of Canterbury) appointed him to read in natural 
philosophy in the public schools, and to be one of the 
disputants before his majesty. Afterwards he increased 
his stock of learning by metaphysics, mathematics, and 
scholastic divinity. About this time, one Anderton, a 
countryman and schoolfellow, and a zealous Roman ca- 
tholic, endeavoured to seduce him. to that religion, and a 
place of private conference was fixed, but Anderton not 
keeping his appointment, the affair dropped. Mr. Bolton, 
with all his learning, had been almost equally noted for 
immorality, but about his thirty>fourth year, reformed his 
life and manners, and became distinguished for regularity 
and piety. In 1609, about two years after he entered into 
holy orders, which he did very late in life, he was pre- 
sented to the living of Broughton in Northamptonshire, by 
Mr. afterwards sir Augustine NicoUs, seijeant at law, who 
sexit for him to his chambers in Serjeant's Inn and gave 
him the presentation. Dr. King, bishop of London, being 
by accident there at the same time, thanked the serjeant 
for what he had done for Broughton, but told him that he 
had. deprived the university of a singular ornament. He 
then went to his living and remained on it until his death, 
Dec* 17, 1631. He was, says Wood, a painful and con- 
stant preacher, a person of great zeal in his duty, cha- 
ritable and bountiful, and particularly skilled in resolving 
the doubts of timid Christians. Of his works, the most 
popular in his time, was •" A Discourse on Happiness." 
Lond. 1611, 4to, which was eagerly bought up, and went 
through six editions at least in his lifef-time. He published 
.also various single and volumes of sermons, a list of which 
may be seen in Wood. After his death Edward Bagshaw, 
esq. published ** Mr. Bolton's last and learned work of the 
Four last Things, Death, Judgment, Hell, and Heaven, 
with an Assize Sermon, and Funeral Sermon for his patron 


iudge Nichols/' Lond. 1633. Prefixed to this is the life 
of Mr. Bbltoi), to which all his subsequent biographers 
have been indebted. ^ 

BOLTON (Robert), dean of Carlisle, was born in Lon- 
don in April 1697, and was the only surviving child of 
Mr. Jobn Bolton, a merchant in that city, whom he lodt 
when he was but three years old. He was first educated in 
a school ^t Kensington, and was admitted a commoner at 
Wadham college, Oxford, April 12, 1712; He was after- 
Wards elected a scholar of that house, where he took his 
degree of B. A; in 1715^ and of M. A. June 13, 1718, ex- 
pecting to be elected fellow in his turn ; but in this he was 
disappointed, and appealed, without success, to the bishop 
of Bath and Wells, the visitor. In July 1719 he removed 
to Hart Hall ; and on the 20th December following, was 
ordained a deacon, in the cathedral church of St. Paul, by 
Dr. John Robinson, bishop of London, He then went to 
reside at Fiilham, and seems to have passed two years there : 
for he was ordained priest by the same bishop in the cha- 
pel of Fulham palace> April 11, 1721. While at Fulhain 
he became acquainted with Mrs. Grace Butler of Rowdell 
in Sussex, on whose daughter Elizabeth he wrote an epi- 
taph, which is placed in Twickenham church-yard, where 
she^ was buried* This epitaph gave occasion to some verses 
by Pope, which appear in KufFhead's life of that poet, 
and were communicated to the author by the hon« Mr. 
Yorke, who probably did not know that they first appeared 
in the Prompter, a periodical paper. No. VUL and after-* 
wards in the works of Aaron Hill, who by mistake ascribes 
the character of Mrs. Butler to Pope. 

Being chosen senior fellow of Dulwich college, he went 
to reside there, March 10, 1722, where he repiained three 
years, and resigned his fellowship May 1, 1725. About 
this time he removed to Kensington, living upon a small 
fortune he possessed ; and here he appears to have become 
acquainted with the celebrated Whiston ; and partly, as it 
is said, by his recommendation ^ became known to sir Jo-* 
seph Jekyil, master of the roils, by whom he was ap- 
pointed his domestic chaplain^ and^ in 1729, preacher at 
the Rolls, on the resignation of Dr. Butler, ^afterwards 
bishop of Durham. This connection introduced him to 

' Life ubi supra — Ath. Ox. I. — Fuller's Worthies and Abel Kedivivus.-— 
Clark's. Eccl. History .---Grander, aad a blunder comuiiUed by bim* corrected ia 
«ent Mag. vol. XLVJIL p. 75. ' . . 

Vol. VI. D 


the patronage of lord Hardwicke, by whose means, in 1754, 
he was promoted to the deanery of Carlisle, and, in 1738, 
to the vicarage of St Mary's Reading. He had bis degree 
of doctor of civil la;y^ from the archbishop of Canterbury, 
Jan. 13, 1734, and went to reside at Carlisle in 1736. Both 
these preferments, the only ones he ever received, he held 
until the time of his death. He was an excellent parish- 
priest, and a good preacher, charitable to 'the poor, and 
having from his own valetudinary state acquired some know- 
ledge of physic, he kindly assisted them by advice and 
medicine. He was greatly beloved by his parishioners, 
and deservedly; for he performed every part of his duty 
in a truly exemplary manner. On Easter Tuesday in 1739 
he preached one of the spital sermons at St. Bride's, Fleet* 
street, which was afterwards printed in 4to, but we do 
not find that he aspired to the character of an author, 
though so well qualified for it, until late in life. His first 
performance was entitled " A Letter to a lady on Card- 
playing on the Lord's day, 8vo, 1748 ; setting forth in a 
lively and forcible manner the many evils attending the 
practice of gasfing on Sundays, and of an immoderate at- 
tachment to that fatal pursuit at any time. In 1750 ap- 
peared " The Employment of Time, three essays," 8vo^ 
dedicated to lord Hardwicke; the most popular of our 
author's performances, and, on its original publication, 
generally ascribed to Gilbert West. In this work two dis- 
tinguished and exemplary female characters are supposed 
to be those of lady Anson and lady Heathcote, lord Hard- 
wicke's daughters. The next year, 1751, produced " The 
Deity's delay in punishing the guilty considered on the 
principles of reason," 8vo ; and in 1755, "An answer to 
the question, Where are your arguments against what you 
call lewdness, if you can make no use of the Bible ?" 8vo. 
Continuing to combat the prevailing vices of the times, he 
published in 1757, "A Letter to an officer of the army 
on Travelling on Sundays," 8vo ; and, in the same y«ear, 
** The Ghost of Ernest, great grandfather of her royal 
highness the princess dowager of Wales, with some ac- 
count of his life," 8vo. Each of the above performances 
contains good sense^ learning, philanthropy, and religion, 
and each of them is calculated for the advantage of society. 
The last work whiqh Dr. Bolton gave the public was not 
the least valuable. It was entitled " Letters and Tracts on 
the Choice of Company, and other subjects," 1761, 8va 


This he dedicated to his early patron, lord Hardwicke^ to 
whom he had inscribed The Employment of Time, and 
who at this period was no longer chancellor. In his address 
to this nobleman he says, " An address to your lordship om 
this occasion in the usual style would as ill suit your incli- 
nations as it doth my age and profession. We are both of 
us on the confines of eternity, and should therefore alike 
make truth our care, that truth which, duly influencing our 
practice, will be the security of our eternal happiness. 
Distinguished by my obligations to your lordship, I 
would be so by my acknowledgments of them : I would not 
he thought to have only then owned them when they might 
have been augmented. Whatever testimony I gave of 
respect to you when in the highest civil office under your 
prince, I would express the same when you have resigned 
it ; and shew as strong an attachment to lord Hardwicke as 
I ever did to- the lord chancellor* Receive, therefore, 
a tribute of thanks, the last whiqh I am ever likely in this 
manner to pay. But I am hastening to my grave, with a 
prospect which must be highly pleasing to me, uqless di- 
vested of all just regard to those who survive me.'* 

Dr. Bolton was originally of a valetudinarian habit, 
though he preserved himself by temperance to a consi- 
derable age. In the preface to the work now under con- 
sideration, he speaks of the feeble frame he with so much 
difficulty supported ; and afterwards says, " My decay id 
now such, that it is with what I write, as with what I act ; 
I see in it the faults which 1 know not how to amend.*' He 
however survived the publication of it two years, dying in 
London, where he came for Dr. Addington's advice, on 
the 26th Nov. 1763, and was buried in the porch between 
the first and second door of the parish-church of St Mary. 
Reading. Since his death a plain marble has been erected 
to his memory. 

Dr. Bolton was a very tall man, very thin, very brown. 
He understood well, Hebrew, Greek, Latin, Spanish,' Ita* 
lian, and French. Mr. Whiston, jun. says that it was a 
long time before he could prevail on himself to subscribe 
to the thirty*nine articles for preferment ; but at last, as 
articles of peace, and so far as authorised by scripture^ 
he did ; for it was generally supposed he did not approve 
of all the Athanasian doctrine. There is nothing of this» 
however, to be deduced from his works, and he appears 
to have accepted his preferments when offered. He mar«« 


ried Mrs. Holmes, a widow-lady, with whom he lived 
about twenty-five years in great domestic happiness, but 
left no children by her. Besides the several performances 
already mentioned, he wrote and printed a '^ Visitation 
sermon*' in 1741 ; and under his inspection, Mr. David 
Henry, then printer at Reading, abridged " Twenty Dis- 
courses" from Abp. Tillotson's works, to which Dr. Bolton 
is said to have prefixed a preface, and added a sermon of 
his own, but the sermon on Sincerity is supposed to have 
been abridged by Mr. Wray, his son-in-law. Mr. Wray, 
now rector of Darley, in Derbyshire, published " A Ser- 
mon occasioned by the death of Robert Bolton, LL. D. 
&c." 1764, with an affectionate tribute to his memory. * 

BOLZANIO (UftBANO Valeriano), one of the revivers 
of letters in the fifteenth century, was born in 1440, and 
is said by his nephew Pietro Valeriano to have been the 
earliest instructor of Leo X. in the knowledge of the Greek 
tongue. Although an ecclesiastic of the order of St. Fran- 
cis, he quitted the walls of his monastery with the laudable 
curiosity of visiting foreign parts ; and, having had an 
opportunity of accompanying Andrea Gritti, afterwards 
doge of Venice, on an embassy to Constantinople, he thence 
made an excursion through Greece, Palestine, Egypt, 
Syria, Arabia, and other countries ; always travelling on 
foot, and diligently noting whatever appeared deserving of 
observation. His nephew adds, that he travelled also into 
Sicily, where he twice ascended the mountain of ^Etna, 
and looked down its crater. The disinterestedness of Ur- 
bano is also strongly insisted on by his nephew, who in- 
forms us that he rather chose to suffer the inconveniencies 
of poverty, than to receive a reward for those instructions 
which he was at all times ready to give, and that he always 
persevered in refusing those honours and dignities which 
Leo X. would gladly have conferred upon him. His ac- 
tivity, temperance, and placid disposition, secured to him 
a healthful old age ; nor did he omit to make frequently 
excursions through Italy, until he was disqualified from 
these occupations by a fall in his garden whilst he was 
pruning his trees. His principal residence was at Venice, 
where he not only assisted Aldus in correcting the editions 
which he published of the ancient authors, but gave im- 

.1 Coatei's Hist, of Reading. — Former edition of this Diet. |H-incipaIly from ft 
MS account by the late Mr! John Whiston. 

B O L Z A ^f I O. 37 


structions in the Greek language to a great number of 
scholars ; and there was scarcely a person in Italy distin- 
guished by his proficiency in that language who had not at 
some time been his pupil. His grammar, ^^ Urbani Gram- 
matica Graeca/' Venice, 1497, 4to, was the first attempt 
to explain in Latin the rules of the Greek tongue, and 
was received with such avidity, that Erasmus, on inquiring 
for it in 1499, found that not a copy of the impression 
remained unsold. He died in the convent of St Niccolo, 
at Venice, in 1524, and bequeathed to that convent his 
valuable library. His funeral oration, by Alberto da Cas- 
telfranco, was printed at Venice in the same year, 4to. * 

BOMBERG (Daniel), a celebrated printer of the six- 
teenth century, was a native of Antwerp, but settled at 
Venice, where he commenced business by printing a He- 
brew Bible, which was published in 2 vols. fol. 1518, and 
reprinted by him in 4to and 8vo. He learned Hebrew 
from feWx Pratenois, an Italian, who engaged him to print 
a Rabbinical Bible, which appeared in 1517, fol. dedicated 
by Bomberg to Leo X. The Jews, however, not appro- 
ving of this edition, the rabbi Jacob Haum suggested an-- 
other, which Bomberg published in 4 vols. fol. in 1525. He 
also, in 1520, began an edition of the Talmud, which be 
finished, ^fter some years, in 11 vols. fol. This he re- 
printed twice, and each edition is said to Jiave cost him an 
hundred thousand crowns. These two last editions are 
more complete and beautifully printed than the first, and 
are in more estimation than the subsequent editions of 
Bragadin and Burtorf. Bomberg appears to have been a 
man highly zealous for the honour of his art, spared no 
cost in embellishments, and is said to have retained about 
an hundred Jews as correctors, the most learned he could 
find. In printing only, in the course of his life, he is 
thought to have expended four millions in gold (Scaliger 
says, three millions of crowns), and Vpssius seems to hint 
that he injured his fortune by his liberality. He died at 
Venice in 1549.* 

BONA (John), an eminent cardinal of the church of 
Rome, and author of several devotional pieces, was bom 
the 19th of October, 1609, at Mondovi, a little city in 
Piedipont, of a noble family^ Having finished his first 

1 Kofcoe'f Leo K. 

s Moreri.— Foppen, Bibl. fi^lf.— Le LoDg, Bibl. Sftc.-*-»Baill6tJugemeni de« 
SsTani,— Saxii Onomait. 


studies with great success, he entered himself in a monas- 
tery of the order of St. Bernard near Pignerol in July 1625, 
when he was but fifteen years of age, and was professed 
there the 2d of August the year following, according to 
Bertolot, who wrote his Life; though Moroti, in " Cistercii 
feflorescentis Historia," places this in 1627. He was sent 
that year to Monte Grosso near Asti to study philosophy, 
and having passed through a course of it, he returned to 
Pignerol, where he applied himself to divinity without the 
assistance of any master for two years, and afterwards went to 
Rome to perfect himself in that science under a professor. 
* Being ordained priest at the proper age, the sentiments of 
piety which had influenced him in liis youth, and which 
appear through all his writings, wer^ heightened and im- 
proved. He had been scarce three years in his course of 
divinity, when he was sent to Mondovi to teach it there. 
He had some reluctance against accepting of that post on 
account of his aversion to disputes ; but obedience, which 
was the rule of all his actions, obliged him to submit to it. 
He was afterwards made prior of Asti ; and eight months 
after he was nominated abbot of the monastery of St. Mark 
at Mondovi ; but he was so importunate in his solicitations 
to the general of the congregation to be discharged from 
that office, that his request was granted. He was sent, 
therefore, to Turin, where he spent five years in collect- 
ing the materials for his book of Psalmody. He was after- 
wards appointed again prior of Asti, abbot of Mondovi, and 
general of his order in 1651. While he held the last post, 
he had occasion to speak with cardinal Fabio Chigi, who 
entertained a very great esteem for him, of which he af- 
terwards gave him signal proofs. When the tinie of his 
being general x)f the order was expired, he left Rome, and 
returning to Mondovi in order to profess divinity, cardinal 
Chigi, who was chosen pope under the name of Alexander 
Vn. appointed our author general of the order again of 
his own accord, the plague, which then raged in many 
parts of Italy/ preventing any assembly of the general 
chapter. He made him afterwards consultor of the con- 
gregation of the index, and then qualificator of the sacred 
office ; which place he resigned for that of consultor in 
the same court. The pope, who had a particular friend- 
ship for him, and made him his confident in all his secrets, 
would have raised him to the dignity of a cardinal^ if the 
humility of Bona bad not prevented him from accepting 

BONA. 39 


it, and be had not made use of his interest with the pope 
in order to avoid it. But pope Clement IX. his successor, 
thought himself under an obligation to reward his virtues 
by making him a cardinal the 29th of November, accord- 
ing to Moroti, or of December, according to Bertolot, in 
1669. Upon the death of this pope, cardinal Bona was 
proposed to be elected his successor ; which gave occasion 
to this pasquinade. Papa Bona sarebbe solecisvio, upon 
which father Daugieres, the Jesuit, wrote an ingenious 
epigram, which our Latin readers are aware will not bear 
a translation : 

Grammaticae leges plerumque eedesia spemit : 

Forte erit ut liceat dicere Papa Bona. 
Vana soloecismi ne t^ conturbet imago : 

Esset Papa bonus^ si Bona Papa foret. 

He died at Rome the 20th of October, according to Ber- 
tolot, or the 28th of that month, according to Moroti, in 
1674, being seventy-four years of age. He directed him- 
self, that he should be interred in the monastery of his 
own order, called St. Bernard at the Baths, with the fol- 
lowing inscription upon his tomb : ^^ D. O. M. Joannes 
Bona Pedemontanus, Congreg.Sancti Bernardi Monachus 
et hujus ecclesiae translato hue titulo S. Salvatoris in Lauro, 
Primus Presbyter Cardinalis, vivens sibi posuit.'' Baillet, 
Labbe, and Sallo, bestow high praises on his principal work, 
^/ De Divina Psalmodia, deque variis ritibus omnium ec- 
clesiarum in psallendis Divinis Officiis,'' Rome, 1663, 4to, 
which includes a complete history of church music, and 
has been often celebrated and quoted by musical writers. 
Yet Dr. Burney, an authority of great importance in ques- 
tions of this kind, informs us that he was constantly dis- 
appointed when he had recourse to it for information, as 
the author ^^ never mounts to the origin of any use that has 
been made of music in the church, or acquaints us in what 
it consisted," and appears to have profited vjesy little by 
the information which at that time must have been within 
his reach. His other distinguished work was " Rerum Li- 
turgicarum. Lib. duo," Rome, 1671, foL and often re- 
printed. The best edition is that by Sala, printed at Tu- 
rin, in 3 vols. 4to, 1747 — 1753. In 1755 Sala addedv an- 
other volume of Bona's select epistles with those of his 
correspondents. The rest of his works are of the ascetic 
kind. He carried on a controversy for some time with 

40 BONA. 

Mabillon concerning the consecration of leavened or UQf 
leavetied bread. ' 

BONAMY (Peter-Nicholas), a French antiquary and 
miscellanjeous writer, was born at Louvres, in the district 
of Paris, in 1694, and educated for the ecclesiastical pro- 
fession ; but, devoting himself entirely to literature, he 
became under«librarian of St. Victor, and distinguished 
both by the politeness of his manners, and the variety as 
well as assiduity of his studies. In 1727, he was admitted 
a member of the academy of inscriptions and belles lettres, 
and made many valuable contributions to its memoirs. His 
papers are characterised by simple but correct language, 
variety of erudition, clearness of argument, and solidity 
of criticism. At the instigation of M. Turgot, a place was 
created of historiographer of Paris, and Bonamy being 
appoiuted to occupy it, was led to write various memoirs 
relative to the history and antiquities of the city ; and on 
occasion of the bequest of a curious library to the city, he 
was made librarian. From the year 1747, he conducted the 
"Journal of Verdun" with the strictest propriety and de- 
corum, and indeed in every thing displayed candour and 
probity, as well as learning. He died at Paris in 1770. * 

BONANNI. (PHiUP), a learned Jesuit, who (died at 
Rpme in 1725, at the age of eighty-seven, after having 
honourably filled different ppsts in his order, left several 
works of various kinds,, principally relating to natural his- 
tory, which was his favourite pursuit. He was engaged in' 
1698 to put in order the celebrated cabinet of father Kir- 
cher; and he continued to employ himself in that business 
and the augmentation of \t till his death. The chief of his 
works are, 1. " Recreatio mentis et oculi in observatione 
Animalium Testaceorum," Rome, 1684, 4to, with near 500 
figures. He first composed this book in Italian, and it was 
printed in that language in 1681 in 4to; and translated by 
the author into Latin for the benefit of foreigners. 2. 
*^ History of the Church of the Vatican ; with the plans 
both antient and modern,'' Rome^ 1696, folio, in Latin. 
3. " Collection of the Medals of the popes, from Martin 
V. to Innocent XII." Rome, 1699, 2 vols. fol. in Latin. 

> Oejf), Diet.— -Moreri. — ^Fabroni Vitae Italorum. — Baill«t Jugemens des Sa? 
I'aos r— Durney's Hist, of Music, vol. 11. 

« J)i<'f. Hifet. — Rees's Cyclopaedia. — Saxii Onomast. where U a list of his 11^ 
tciary cuntribtitions. 

B O N A N N I. 41 

4. '^ Catalogue of the Orders^ Religious, Military, and 
Equestrian, with plates representing their several habili- 
meots,^' in Latin and in Italian, Rome, 1706, 1707, 17 in, and 
1711, 4 vols. 4to. The plates in particular render thi^ last 
work highly interesting and much in request. 5. " Obser- 
vationes cirga viventia in non viventibus," Rome, 1691, 
4to. 6. ^^ Musffium collegii Romani Kircherianum,'' Rome, 
1709, fol. 7. "A Treatise on Varnishes," in Italian, Pa- 
ris, 1713, 12mo. 8. Gabinetto armonico,*' 1723, 4to.^ 

BONARELLI (Guy Ubaldo), was born December 25, 
1563, at Urbino, of one of the most ancient and noble 
families in the city of Ancona, and was sent into Frslnce 
at the age of fifteen, to be educated suitably to his birth 
and the customs of that time. Bonarelli was but nineteen 
when he was offered a philosophical professorship of the 
Sorbonne, in the college of Calvi ; but, his father having 
sent for him home, he was satisfied with having merited 
that honour,' and declined accepting it. He attached him- 
self, for some time, to cardinal Frederick Borromeo (ne- 
phew of St. Charles Borromeo) who had a regard for men 
of letters, and who founded the famous Ambrosian library 
at Milan. He went afterwards to Modena, to which place 
his father had removed. After his death, the duke Al- 
phonso, knowing the merit oJF Bonarelli, employed him in 
several important embassies, and the success of these ne- 
goci^tions proved how well they had been carried on. 
Bonarelli went to Rome with the hope of recovering the 
marquisate of Orciano, of which his father had been de- 
prived ; but an attack of the gout obliged him to stop at 
Fano, where he died January 8, 1608, aged forty -five,* 
with the character of an able politician, a distinguished 
bel esprit, and a good philosopher for the age he lived in. 
The pastoral poem for which he is best known is entitled 
^^ Filli di Sciro,'* and was printed first at Ferrara, 1607, 
4to, with plates : there have been many editions since, the 
best of which are that of the Elzevirs, 1678, 4to, those of 
London, 1725, or 1728, and of Glasgow, 1763, 8vo ; but 
with ail its merit it is full of unnatural characters and dis- 
torted conceits. His shepherds are courtiers, and his shep- 
herdesses are frequently prudes, whose conversation fa- 
vours of the toilette. The author was censured for having- 
made Celia^ who has so great a share in the piece, nothing 

1 Diet. Hist.— Maoget Bibl. Med. 

42 B O N A R B L L I. 

ifxoxe than an episodical personage, but still more for giv« 
ing her an equally ardent love for two^ shepherds at once. 
He attempted to excuse this defect in a tract written on 
purpose ; ^^ Discorsi in difesa del doppio amore della sua 
Celia," but this was rather ingenious than conclusive. We 
have likewise some academical discourses of his. ^ 

BONASONE (Julius), called sometimes Bolognese, 
from the place of his birth, flourished in the sixteenth cen- 
tury, and is better known as an engraver than as a painter. 
He is supposed, but without sufficient authority, to have 
beeji a scholar of Sabbatini. Some remaining oil-pictures 
of bis^ on canvas, which are, in general, weak, and of dif- 
ferent styles, make it probable, says Lanzi, that he re- 
solved to be a painter when he had passed youth. There 
is, however, in the church of St. Stephano, in Bologna, 
a Purgatory of his, which has great beauties, and is sus- 
pected to have been done with the assistance of Sabbatini. 
As an engraver, he worked from tjie pictures of Raphael, 
Julio Romano, and other great masters ; and occasionally 
from his own designs. Mr. Strutt's opinion is, that ex- 
cepting one or two subjects, in which he called in the 
assistance of the point (the use of which, however, he ne- 
ver well understood), his plates are executed chiefly with 
the graver, in a manner though much varied from that of 
his tutor. Marc Antonio Raiifiondi, yet evidently founded 
upon it, although neither so firm, clear, or masterly. His 
drawing is often heavy, and the extremities of his figures 
frequently neglected; the folds of his draperies are seldom 
well expressed, and the back grounds to his prints, espe- 
cially his landscapes, are extremely flat and stiff. However, 
with all these faults (which are not always equally conspi- 
cuous), his best prints possess an uncommon share of 
merit; and though not equal to those of. his master, are 
deservedly held in no small degree of estimation by the 
greatest collectors. Bonasone has lately found an inge- 
nious and able advocate in George Cumberland, esq. who, 
in 1793, published *^ Some Anecdotes'* of his life, with a 
catalogue of his engravings, &c. * 

BONA VENTURE (John Fidauza), a celebrated doc- 
tor^, cardinal, and saint of the church of Rome, was born 
^t Bagnarea in Tuscany, 1221. He was admitted into the 

* Moreri. — ^Erythraei Pinac. — ^Baillet Jugemens des Savaiut. 
9 Pilkin^^ton.— Struts,— Cunoberland, as above. 



order of St. Francis, about 1243 ; and studied diviuity at 
the university of Paris under the celebrated Alexander de 
Hales, with so much success, that at the end of seven 
years he was thought worthy to read public lectures upon 
the Sentences. He was created doctor in 1255 along with 
St. Thomas Aquinas, and the year after appointed general 
of his order, in which office he governed with so much 
zeal and prudence, that he perfectly restored the discipline 
of it, which had been greatly neglected. Pope Clement IV. 
nominated him to the archbishopric of York in England ; 
but Bonaventure disinterestedly refused it. After the d#ath 
of Clement the see of Rome lay vacant almost three years, 
and the cardinals not being able to agree among themselves 
who should be pope, came at length to a most solemn en- 
gagement, to leave the choice to Bonaventure ; and to 
elect whoever he should name, though it should be even 
bimself, which, from his modest character, was not very 
probable. Accordingl}'^, he named Theobald, archdeacon 
of Liege, who was at that time in the Holy land, and who 
took the title of Gregory X. By this pope he was made a 
cardinal and bishop of Albano ; and appointed to assist at 
a general council, which was held at Lyons soon after. He 
died there in 1274, and was magnificently and honourably 
conducted to his grave ; the pope and whole council at-> 
tending, and the cardinal Peter of Tarantais, afterwards 
pope Innocent V. making his funeral oration. Sixtus IV, 
canonized him in 1482. He has had the good fortune to 
be almost equally praised by popish and protestant writers., 
Bellarmine has pronounced Bonaventure a person dear to 
God and men ; and Luther calls him '^ vir prastantissU 
muSj'* a most excellent man. His works were printed at 
Rome in 1588, ia 8 vols, folio. Excepting his commen* 
tary upon the master of the Sentences, they are chiefly on 
pious and mystical subjects, and have gained him the name 
of the Seraphic doctor. Brucker gives us the following 
account of his method of philosophizing, from his treatise 
" De reductione Artium ad Theologiam;" on the *' appli- 
cation of Learning to Theology ;" Human knowledge he 
divides into three branches, logical, physical and moral. 
Each of these he considers as the effect of supernatural 
illumination, and as communicated to men through the 
mediam of the holy scriptures. The whole doctrine of 
scripture he reduces to three heads ; that which respects 
the eternal g.eneration and incarnation of Christ, the study 


of which is the peculiar province of the doctors of the 
church ; that whicli concerns the conduct of life, which is 
the subject of preaching; and that which relates to the 
union of the soul with God, which is peculiar to the mo* 
nastic and contemplative life. Physical knowledge he ap^ 
plies to jbhe doctrine of scripture emblematically. For ex- 
ample, the production of the idea of any sensible object 
frpin its archet3rpe, is a type of the generation of the Logos ; 
the right exercise of the senses typifies the virtuous con- 
duct of lif|8 ; and the pleasure derived from the senses re^ 
presents the union of the soul with God. In like manner, 
logical philosophy furnishes an emblem of the eternal 
generation and the incarnation of Christ : a word con- 
ceived in the mind resembling the eternal generation ; its 
expression in vocal sounds, the incarnation. Thus the 
multiform wisdom of God, according to this mystical wri- 
ter, lies concealed through all nature; and all human 
knowledge may, by the help of allegory and analogy, be 
spiritualised and transferred to theology. How wid^ s^ 
door this method of philosophising opens to the absurdities 
of mysticism the reader will easily perceive from this spe? 
cimen. * 

BONAVENTURE of Padua, a cardinal, was born it^ 
that city June 22, 1332, and descended from a noble and 
illustrious family. He studied divinity at Paris, whe^re he 
distinguished himself by his uncommon parts and applica- 
tion, and afterwards taught divinity. He was of the order 
- of St. Augustin, of which he was made general in 1377, on 
the death of Beauregard. Pope Urban VI. gave him a 
cardinal's cap the year after, or as some say, in 1384. 
This engaging him to stand up for the rights of the church 
against Francis de Carrario of Padua, that petty tyrant 
contrived to have him murdered. He was dispatched with 
the shot of an arrow, as he was passing St. Angelo's bridge 
at Rome. This event some place in 1385, others in 1389, 
1396, and 1398. The manner of his death gave occasion 
to the following Latin distich, which cannot be translated 
so as to be intelligible to an English reader : 

'^ Qam Bona tarn cupide coelo vbntura rogabas. 
In te livoris missa sagitta dedit.** 

. He was the author of several works : as. Commentaries 
upon the Epistles of St. John and St. James, Lives of the 

* Butler's Lives of the Saints. — Dupio. — Cave, vol. II.-^Fabric. Bibl. Lat. 
Med.— 'Bruckeip. — Freheri Theatrum.— SaxiiOnomastJcoo. 


Saints, Sermons, &c. Some improperly attribute to bion 
the " Speculum de laudibus B. Mariae," Nuremberg^ 1476 ; 
but Fabricius gives it to the preceding cardinal, in whose 
works it appears, vol. VI. He had a very close and inti- 
mate friendship with the celebrated Petrarch, whose fune- 
ral oration he pronounced in 1369. ^ 


BONCIARIUS (Mark Anthony), a distinguished La- 
tin scholar and poet, was born at Perugia in 1555, became 
a disciple of the celebrated Muretus, and afterwards prin- 
cipal teacher of the schools of Perugia. He appears next 
to have been professor of eloquence at Bouonia, keeper 
of the Ambrosian library, and professor of rhetoric at Pisa, 
where he had the misfortune to lose his sight. During his 
career of teaching, his father, who was a poor shoemaker^ 
having lost his wife, had an inclination to join the society 
of the Jesuits, and lest he should be rejected for his igno- 
rance of Latin, became one of .his son's scholars, and made 
very considerable proficiency. Bonciarius died Jan. 9, 
1616, leaving many works, which are very scarce, except 
bis Latin Grammar, which, being adopted in the schools, 
was frequently reprinted. Hi^ " Epistojae** were first 
printed in 1603, 8vo, and reprinted 1604, at Marpurg, of 
which last edition Freytag gives an analytical account. 
They are written in an elegant style. His Latin poems 
are among the *^ Carmina Poetarum Italorum,'* Florence, 
J 7 1 9, vol. n. ' 

BOND (Jojhn), a celebrated commentator and gram- 
marian, was born in Somersetshire in 1550. He was edu- 
cated at Winchester school, and in 1569 was entered a 
student at New college in Oxford, where he became 
highly esteemed for his academical learning. In 1578 he 
took the degree of B. A. and in 1579 that of M. A. and 
soon after the warden and fellows of his college appointed 
him master of the free-school of Taunton in Somersetshire. 
Here he continued many years, and several of his scholars 
became eminent both in church and state. Being at 
length, however, tired with the fatigue of this irksome 
^employment, he turned his thoughts to the study of physic, 
and practised it with great reputation, although without 
taking any degree in that Acuity. He died at Taunton the 

* Dapin.—'Moreri.— Fabric. Bibl. Med. et Infim. Latin, 
s Freytag. Adparat Litt — ^Moreri.— Erythrai Pinacotheca,— -Gen. Diet.— 

46 BOND. 

3d of August) 1612, and was buried in the chancel of the 
church, with the following- epitaph over his grave : 

Qui medicus doctus^ prudentis nomine clarus, 

Eloquii splendor^ Pieridumque decus^ 
Yirtutis cultor, pietatis vixit amicu»> 

Hie jacet in tumulo -, spiritus alta tenet. 

Mr. Bond has left " Annotationes in po^mata Quinti 
Horatii,'' Lond. 1606, 8vo. Han. 1621, 8vo, and Ley den, 
1653, 8vo. The best edition is that of Amst. 1636, 12ino. 
His Persius was not printed till two years after his death, 
iu 8vo, under the following title, ** Auli Persii Flacci Sa- 
tyrdB sex, cum posthumis commentariis Johannis Bond,^* 
1614, 8vo. It was published by Roger Prowse, who h#d 
married his daughtei" Elizabeth, and who, in the dedication 
to Dr. Montague, bishop of Bath and Wells, informs us, 
that his father-in-law had not put the last hand to these 
Commentaries ; which may be the reason of those con- 
siderable defects in some points of history and philosophy 
which are to be found in them. Mr. Wood is of opinion 
that, besides these, he wrote several other pieces, which 
were never published. * 

BOND (John), LL. D. was the son of DeiTnis Bond, 
esq. of Dorchester, a violent adherent of the republican 
party in the seventeenth century, and at whose death, a 
little before that of the protector, the wits said Oliver 
Cromwell had given the devil Bond for his appearance. 
Our author was educated under John White, commonly 
called the patriarch of Dorchester, and was afterwards en- 
tered, not of St. John's college, Cambridge, as Wood re- 
ports, but of Catherine-hall, of which he was afterwards 
chosen fellow, and took the degree of B. A. in 16SI, com- 
menced M. A. in 1635, was nominated LL. D. in 164i?, 
and completed the year following, while he was yet a mem- 
ber of that society. But, although he took his doctor's de- 
gree in law, he was by profession a divine, and had before 
this preached for some years, first as a lecturer in Exeter, 
and frequently afterwards before the long parliament at 
Westminster. In 1643, both he and his tutor, Mr. White, 
were chosen of the assembly of divines ; and when Mr. 
White took the rectory of Lambeth, Dr. Bond succeeded 
him as minister of the Savoy, and on Dec. 11, 1645, he 
was made master of the Savoy hospital under the great 

» Blog. Brit— Wood's AUi. vol. I.— Birch's Life of Prince Henry, p. 73, 

BOND. 47 

seal. On the decease of Dr. Eden, master of Trinity- hall,' 
Cambridge, the fellows made choice of the celebrated 
Selden, and the choice was confirmed by parliament, but 
be dechning the office, Dr. Bond was chosen, chiefly by 
the authority or interference of parhament, March, 1646. 
In 1649 he was chosjen law professor of Gresham college, 
and in 1654 was made assistant to the commissioners of 
Middlesex and Wesminster, for the ejection of scandalous 
and ignorant ministers; and in 1653 served as vice-chan- 
cellor of Cambridge. He held his mastership and law 
professorship until the restoration, when he was ejected 
from both for his adherence to the politics by which he 
had obtained them. He then retired into Dorsetshire, and 
died at Sandwich in the isle of Purbeck, July 1676. 
Wood, who has committed several mistakes in his life, 
corrected by Dr. Ward, gives a list of his works, which 
are few: 1. "A Door of Hope," Lond. 1641, 4to. 2. 
** Holy and Loyal Activity,*' Lond. 1641, 4to, and some 
sermons preached before the long parliament, to whose 
measures be adhered with great zeal. He appears, h'ow- 
ever, to have been a man of i*eal learning. Calamy, we 
know not why, has mentioned his name, without one word 
of life.* 

BOND (William), a native of Suffolk, translated Bu- 
chanan's history, and was concerned with AaVon Hill in 
the " Plain Dealer," a periodical paper of inferior merit. 
Hill appears to have had a friendship for him, and devoted 
the profits of his tragedy of Zara to his^use. Bond him- 
self played the character of Lusignan, but only for one 
nigh^ being seized with a fit on the stage, which ter- 
minated his life the following morning, some time in 1735. ^ 

whom Ridolfi believes to have been a scholar of Palma, 
but Boschini numbers among the disciples of Titian, 
and says he followed him as the shadow the body. He is, 
indeed, often his close imitatpr, but oftener has a charac- 
ter of his own, a free and creative genius, unborrowed 
elegance and spirit. The public offices at Venice abound , 
in pictures all his own, and the ducal palace, amongst 
others, possesses an Expulsion of the Publicans from the 
Temple, which for copiousness of composition, colour,' 
^nd admirable perspective, might be alone sufficient t^ 

1 Ward's Lives of the Gresham Professors.— Wood's Ath. vol. I. 
9 Bioip. Dram, 

48 B O N E F A C I O. 

make his name immortal, had' bis own tiiifes and record 
not plained him with Titian and Palma. Lanzi ascribes to 
Bonifazio, what he styles the celebrated pictures from the 
'Triumphs of Petrarch, once at Naples in a private collec- 
tion, and now, he says, in Engliand ; it matters little, says Mr. 
Fuseli, where they are : of powers, such as he ascribes ta 
Bonifazio, those meagre^ dry, and worse than Peruginesque 
performances, can never be the produce. He died in 
1553, aged sixty-two. ^ 


BONET, or BONNET (Theophilus), an eminent phy- 
sician and medical writer, was born at Geneva, March 5, 
1620, and following the steps of his father and grandfather^ 
early attached himself to the practice of physic. After vi- 
siting several foreign academies, he was admitted doctor 
in medicine at Bologna, in 1643, and was soon after made 
physician to the duke de Longueville. Though he soon 
attained to high credit in his profession, and bad a large 
share of practice, he dedicated a considerable portion of 
his time to reading, and to dissecting such subjects as the 
hospital afforded him, with a view qf discovering the seat» 
of diseases, minuting every deviation he observed from the 
natural structure; of the viscera, or other parts of the bodyy 
and thus opening a new road for improving the science be 
cultivated. He also appears to have made extracts of every 
thing he deemed worthy of notice, from the various works 
he read. His hearing from some accident becoming de- 
fective, he withdrew from practice, and employed the last 
ten or twelve years of his life in arranging the materials he 
had collected. The first fruit of his labour, which he gave 
to the public in 1668, was " Pharos Medicorum," 2 vols, 
12mo. This was printed again, much improved and en- 
larged, in 1679, in 4to, under the title of " Labyrinthi 
Medici, extricati,^' &c. compiled principally from Bellonius 
and Septalius. In 1675, ^* Prodromus Anatomise practical, 
sive de abditis morborum causis," fol. ; the precursor of 
his principal work, " Sepulchretum, seu Anatome practica, 
ex cadaveribus morbo denatis proponens historias et obser- 
vationes," &c. Genev. 1679, 2 vols* fol. which far exceeded 
the expectation raised by the Prodromus. It was enlarged 
hy nearly a third part, and republished by Manget, ^700, 2 
Tpls. fol. and was afterwards taken by Morgagni, as the basis 
•f his work, " De sedibus et causis Morborum," by which 

j PUkiD|fton« 

B O N E T. 49 

the " Sepnlcbretum" is in a great measure superseded. 
The author begins with observations on the appearances of 
the brain and other parts of the bead ; then of the con- 
teats of the thorax, abdomen^ and pelvis ; and lastly, of 
the extremities ; forming an immense body of dissections, 
which he has illustrated by many pertinent and ingenious 
observations. ** Cours de medicine, et de la chirurgie," 
1679, 2 vols. 4to. An epitome of the art of surgery, with 
some sections relating to the practice of medicine selected 
from the most accredited authors of the age. *^ Medicina 
septentrionalis, coUectitia,'' 1684, 2 vols. foi. shewing how 
largely the practitioners of the northern parts of Europe, 
Sweden, Denmark, Germany, Holland, and England, have 
contributed to the improvement of anaton^y, surgery, and 
medicine, by extracts and accounts of the works of the 
principal writers of those countries. '^ Mercurius compi* 
latitius, seu index medico-practicus,'' 1682, fol. A most 
useful work, shewing under the name of every disease or 
affection where cases or observations may be found, and 
what authors have written upon them. Such an index 
continued to the present time, though very voluminous, 
would be highly useful. Bonet also published *^ Epi- 
tome operum Sennerti," 1685, fol. "J. D. Turqueti de 
Mayerne, de Aithritide," 1671, 12mo, and ** Rohaulti trac- 
tatus physicus, e Gallico in Latinam versus," 1675, 8vo. 
He died of a dropsy, March 3, 1 689. * 

BONFADIO (JaMes), an elegant Italian scholar of the 
sixteenth century, was born at Gorzano in the Brescian 
territory, but in what year is not known. He was three 
years secretary to cardinal Bari at Rome; but lost the 
fruits of his services by the death of his master. He then 
served cardinal Glinucci in the same capacity ; but ion^ 
sickness made him incapable of that employment. When 
he was recovered, he found himself so disgusted with the 
court, that he resolved to seek his fortune by other means* 
He continued a good while in the kingdom of Naples, then 
went to Padua, and to Genoa; where he read public lee- 
tures on Aristotle's politics. He was ordered to read some 
likewise upon his rhetoric, which he did with great suc- 
cess to a numerous auditory. His reputation increasing 
daily, the republic of Genoa made him their historio- 
grapher, and assigned him a handsome pension for ;that 

> Haller BiM, Med.—Mang^t. — ^R«es's Cyclopwdia. — Moreri. 

Vol. VI. E 

so B O N F A D I O. 

office. He now applied himself laboriously to compose' 
the annals of that state, and published the five first books ; 
^ but by speaking too freely and satirically of some families, 
he created himself enemies who resolved to ruin him, by a 
prosecution for an unnatural crime, and being convicted, 
he was condemned to be first beheaded, and then burnt, 
or as some say, sentence of burning was changed into that 
of beheading. Some have attributed this prosecution to 
the freedom of his pen ; but the generality of writers have 
agreed that Bonfadio was guilty, yet are of opinion, that 
be had never been accused, if he had not given offence by 
something else. He was executed in 1560. Upon the 
day of his execution he wrote a note to John Baptist Gri* 
maldi, to testify his gratitude to the persons who had en-» 
deavoured to serve him, and recommended to them his 
nephew Bonfadio, who is perhaps the Peter Bonfadio, 
author of some verses extant in the ^' Gareggiamento poe* 
tico del confuso accademico ordito,^' a collection of verses, 
divided into eight parts, and printed at Venice in 1611. 
The first five books of Bonfadio's history of Genoa were 
printed at Padua, 1586, 4to, under the title " I. Bonfadii 
annales Genuensium ab anno 1528, ubi desinit Folieta, ad 
annum 1550," and was in 1597 published in Italian. He 
also published an Italian and very elegant translation of 
Cicero's oration for Milo, an edition of which was pub«* 
lished at Bologna in 1744, with his letters and miscella- 
neous works, '^ Lettere famigliari, &c." 8vo, dedicated to 
pope Benedict XIV. with a life of the unfortunate author, 
and a curious Latin poem by Paul Manutius, in honour of 
those persons who used their interest to save Bonfadio 
from punishment. ^ 
''BONFINIUS (Anthony), an historian of the fifteenth 
century, was born at Ascoli in Italy. Mathias CorviniiSj^ 
king of Hungary, having heard of his abilities and learn- 
ing, sent for him to his court, and Bonfinius paid his re* 
spects to him at Rees, a few days before that prince made 
bis public entry into Vienna. At his first audience, as he 
bimself tells us, he presented him with his translations of 
Hermogenes and Herodian, and his genealogy of the Cor* 
vini, which he dedicated to his majesty ; and two other 
works addressed to the queen, one of which treated of vir* 
ginity and conjugal chastity, and the other was a history of 

> Oen. DicU— M oreri.-— Saxii Onomast 

B O N F I N 1 US. SI 

Afi^oli. He had dedicated also a small collection of epi- 
grams to the young prince John Corvinus, to which there 
is added a preface. The king read bis pieces with great 
pleasure, distributed them among his courtiers in high 
terms of approbation, and would not allow him to return 
to Italy, but granting him a good pension, was desirous 
that he should follow him in bis army. He employed hini 
to write the history of the Huns, and Bonfinius accordingly 
set about it before the death of this prince; but it was by 
order of king Uladislaus that he wrote the general history 
of Hungary, and carried it down to 1495. The original 
of this work was deposited in the library of Buda. In i 543 
Martin Brentier published thirty books from an imperfect 
copy, which Sambucus republished in 1568, «in a more 
correct state, and with the addition of fifteen more books, 
a seventh edition of which was printed at Leipsic, in 1771, 
fol. Sambucus also published in 1572 Bonfinius's ^' Sym* 
posion Beatricis, seu dialog, de fide conjugali eb virginitate, 
lib. III." Bopfihius wro,te a history of the taking of Bel- 
grade by Mahomet IL in 1456, which is printed in the 
" Syndromus rerum Turcico-Pannonicarum," Francfort, 
1627, 4to; and, as already noticed, translated the works of 
Philostratus, Hermogenes, and Herodian. His Latin style 
was much admired, as a successful imitation of the ancients. 
The time of his death has not been ascertained. * 

BONFRERIUS (James), a learned Jesuit and com- 
meutator, was born at Dioau in Liege, 1573. He was 
admitted into the society of Jesuits in 1592, and taught at 
Doway, philosophy, divinity, and the Hebrew tongue, 
which, as well as Greek, he understood criticklly. He 
died at Tournay, May 9, 1643. Dupin says that of all the. 
Jesuits who have been commentators on ' the scriptures, 
there is no one superior in learning, and clearness of me-> 
tliod, to Bonfrerius. His " Commentary on the Penta- 
teuch*' was published at Antwerp in 1625> and his ^^ Ono* 
masticon" of the places and cities mentioned in the Bible, 
composed by Eusebius^ and translated by Jerome, with 
learned notes^ was published along with his '^ Commen* 
taries on Joshua, Judges, and Ruth," at Paris in 163], but 
the most complete edition of his works appeared in 1 736. * 

BONGARS (James), an able classical scholar and nego- 
tiator, was born at Orleans of a protestant family in 1554 ^ 

\ Gen. Dict—^Moreri.^'sS'axii Onomast 

* MorerL— J>iipiii«— I^oppen BibL Belg.*— Saxti Onomast 

S 2 

52 B O N G A R S. 

and studied at Strasburgin 1571, but in 1576^ he studied 
the civil law under the celebrated Ciijacius. During this 
time he applied much to critical learning ; and though^ 
says Bayle, he went not so far as the Lipsiuses and Casau- 
bons, yet he acquired great reputation, and perhaps would 
have equalled them if he had not been engaged in poli- 
tical affairs. He was employed near thirty years in the 
most important negociations of Henry IV. for whom he 
was several times resident with the princes of Germany, 
and afterwards ambassador, but however published his 
edition of Justin at Paris, 1581, in 8vo. He had a critical 
and extensive knowledge of books, both manuscript and 
printed ; and made a very great collection of them, some 
of which came afterwards to the library of Berne in Swis-^ 
serland, and some, with his manuscripts, to the' Vatican* 
Besides an edition of Justin, he was the author of other 
works ; which, if they did not shew his learning so much, 
have spread his fame a great-deal more. Thuaous highly 
commends an answer, which he published ip Germany, to 
a piece wherein the bad success of the expedition of 1587 
was imputed to the French, who accompanied the Ger- 
mans ; and the world is indebted to him for the publication 
of several authors, who wrote the history of the expeditions 
into Palestine. That work is entitled ^^ Gesta Dei per 
Francos;^' and was printed at Hanau in 1611, in two vo- 
lumes, folio. He published also in 1j600, at Francfort, 
<* Aerum Hungaricarum Scriptores," fol. There are let- 
ters of Bongars, written during his employments, which 
are much esteemed ; and upon which Mr. Bayle remarks, 
that though -he did not, like Bembo and Manucius, reject 
all terms that are not in the best Roman authors, yet bis 
style is elegant. Hi« letters were translated, when the 
dauphin began to learn the Latin language ; and it appears 
by the epistle dedicatory to that young prince, and by the 
translator's preface, that nothing was then thought more 
proper for a scholar of quality, than to read this work of 
Bongars. Bongars died at Paris in 1612, when he was 58 
years of dge: and the learned Casaubon, whose letters 
shew that be esteemed him much, laments in one of them, 
that ^' the funeral honours, which were due to his great 
merit, and which he would infallibly have received from 
the learned in Germany, were not yet paid him at Paris.'* 
Mr. Bayle thinks that Bongars was never married : yet tells 
us, that he was engaged in 1597, to a French lady, who 
had the misfortune to die upon the very day appointed for 

B O N G A R S. 53 

wedding, after a <;ourtship of near six years. This 
fioogars speaks of in his letters, and appears to have been 
exceedingly afflicted at it. His Latin letters were pab« 
lished at Leyden in 1647, and the French translation above 
mentioned in 1668^ along with the originals^ 2 vols, i2mOf 
but that of the Hague in 1695 is the most correct. Hii 
edition of Justin is rare and valuable. It was printed from 
eight manuscripts^ accompanied with learned notes, various 
readings, and chronological tables ; but the Bipont editors 
seem to think be sometimes took unwarranted liberties 
with the text. ^ 

BONIFACE (St.), a celebrated saint of the eighth cen- 
tury, and usually styled the Apostle of Germany, was an 
Euglishmajn, named Wilfrid, and born at Crediton or Kir- 
ton in Devonshire, about the year 6 SO. He was educated 
from the age of thirteen in the monastery of Escancester 
or Exeter, and about three years after removed to Nutcell, 
in the diocese of Winchester, a monastery which was afker^ 
wards destroyed by the Danes, and was never rebuilt. 
Here he was instructed in the sacred and secular learning 
of the times ; and at the age of thirty, was ordained priest, 
and became a zealous preacher. The same zeal prompted 
him to undertake the functions of a missionary among the 
pagans ; and with that view he went with two monks into 
Friezeland, about the year 716 ; but a war which broke out 
between Charles Martel, mayor of the French palace, and ^ 
fiadbod, king of Friezeland, rendering it impracticable to 
preach the gospel at that time, he returned to England 
with his companions. Still, ^however, zealously intent on 
the conversion of the pagans, he refused being elected 
abbot of Nutcell, on a vacancy which happened on his re- 
turn ; and having received recomniendatory letters from 
the bishop of Winchester, went to Rome, and presented 
himself to the pope Gregory II. who encouraged his de- 
sign, and gave him a commission for the conversion of the 
intideis, in the year 719. With this he went into Bavaria 
and Thuringia, and had considerable success : and Rad- 
bod, king of Friezeland, being now dead, he had an oppor- 
tunity of visiting that country^ where he co-operated with 
Wilhbrod, another famous missionary, who would have 
appointed him his successor, which Wilfrid refused, be- 
cause the pope had particularly enjoined him to preach in 
the eastern parts of Germany. Through Hesse, or 9 con* 

^ Gen. Pict.— Moreri.— Dibdin's Classics.— >Saxii OnomasU 

5i BO N I F A C E. 

' fttderable part Gf it, even to the confines of Saxony, he 
extended his pious labours, and had considerable success, 
although he suffered many hardships, and was often ex- 
posed to danger from the rage of the intideis. 

After some time he returned to Rome, where Gregory 
II. consecrated him bishop of the new German churches, 
by the name of Boniface, a Roman name, which Gregory 
probably thought might procure from the German con- 
verts more respect to the pope, than an English one. 
Solicitous also to preserve his dignity, Gregory exacted 
from Boniface an oath of subjection to the papal authority, 
drawn up in very strong terms. Boniface then returned to 
the scenes of his mission, and had great success in Hesse, 
encouraged now by Charles Martel, the dominion of the 
French extending at this time a considerable way into Ger- 
many. We do not, however, find that he derived any 
other assistance from the civil authority, than personal 
protection, which doubtless was of^reat importance. If 
he complied with the instructions sent from England, he 
employed no means but what became a true missionary. 
These instructions, or rather advice sent to him by Daniel, 
bishop of Winchester, about the year 723, afford too 
striking an instance of good sense and liberality in that 
dark age, to be omitted. Daniel's method of dealing with 
idolaters was conceived in these words, ^' Do not contra- 
dict in a direct manner their accounts of the genealogy of 
their gods ; allow that they were born from one another 
in the same way that mankind are : this concession will 
give you the advantage of proving, that there was a time 
when they had no existence. — Ask them who governed the 
world before the birth of their gods, and if these gods have 
ceased to propagate i If they have not, shew them the 
consequence ; .namely, that the gods roust be infinite in 
number, and that no man can rationally b^ at ease in wor- 
shipping any of tjiem, lest he should, by that means, offend 
one, who is more powerful. — Argue thus with them, not 
in the way of insult, but with temjper and moderation : and 
take opportunities to contrast these absurdities with the 
Christian doctrine : let the pagans be rather ashamed than 
incensed by your oblique mode of stating these subjects. — 
Shew them the insufficiency of their pleai of antiquity ; in- 
form them that idolatry did andently prevail ovier the 
world, but that Jesus Christ was manifested, in order to 
reconcile men to God by his grace.'* From this same pre- 
late be re<3eived other instructions respecting reforming the 


church, and exercising discipline with the refractory, and 
scandalous priests, who occasioned much obstruction to 
his mission. In the mean time, the report of his success 
induced many of his countrymen to join him, who dispersed 
themselTes and preached in the villages of Hesse and Thu« 

In the year 732, he received the title of archbishop from 
Gregory III. who supported his mission with the same 
spirit as his predecessor Gregory II. ; and under this en* 
couragemeht he proceeded to erect new churches, and 
extend Christianit}', At this time, he found the Bavarian 
churches disturbed by one Eremvolf, who would have se- 
duced the people into idolatry, but whom he condemned, 
according to the canons, and restored the discipline of the 
church. In the year 738, he again visited llome ; and 
after some stay, he induced several Englishmen who re- 
sided there, to join with him in his German mission. Re* 
turning into Bavaria, he established three new bishoprics, 
at Saltzburgh, Frisinghen, and Ratisbon. At length he 
was fixed at Mentz, in the year 745, and although after- 
wards many other churches in Germany have been raised 
to the dignity of archbishoprics, Mentz has always re- 
tained the primacy, in honour of St. Boniface. He also* 
founded a monastery at Fridislar, another at Hamenburgh, 
and one at Ordorfe, in all which the monks gained their 
livelihood by the labour of their hands. In the year 746, 
he laid the foundation of the great abbey' of Fulda, which 
continued long the most renowned seminary of reUgioii 
and learning in all that part of the world. The abbot is 
now a prince of the empire. In the mean time his con- 
nection with England was constantly preserved ; and it is 
in the epistolary correspondence with his own country, 
that the most striking evidence of his pious views appears. 
Still intent on his original design, although now advanced 
in years, he determined to return intq Friezeland, and 
before his departure, acted as if he had a strong presenti- 
ment of what was to happen. « He appointed LuUus, ati 
Englishman, his successor as archbishop of Mentz, a privi- 
lege which the pope had granted him, and ordained him 
with the consent of king Pepin. He went by the Rhine to 
Friezeland, where, assisted by Eoban, whom he had or- 
dained bishop of Utrecht, he brought great numbers of 
pagans into the pale of the church. , He had appointed a 
day to confirm those whoni be had baptized ; and io wait- 



ing for them, eneamped with his followers on the banks erf 
the Bordue, a river which then divided Eas^ and West 
Friezeland. His intention was to confirm, by imposition 
of bands, the converts in the plains of Dockum. On the 
appointed day, he beheld, in the morning, not the new 
converts vyhom he expected, but a troop of enraged pa- 
gans, armed with shields and lances. The servants went 
out to resist ; but Boniface, with calm intrepidity, said to 
his followers, ** Children, forbear to fight ; the scripture 
forbids us to render evil for evil. The day which I have 
long waited for is c6me ; hope in God, and he will save 
your souls." The pagans immediately attacked theoi 
furiously, and killed the whole company, fifty-two in 
number, besides Boniface himself. This happened on 
June 5, 755, in the fortieth year after his arrival in Ger- 
many. His body was interred in the abbey of Fulda, and 
was long regarded as the greatest treasure of that monas- 
tery. Boniface's character has been strangely misrepre- 
sented by Mosheim, and by his transcribers, but ably vin- 
dicated by Milner, who has examined the evidence on 
both sides with great precision. His works, principally 
sermons and correspondence, were published under the title 
** S. Bonifacii Opera, a Nicolao Serraiio," Mogunt. 1605, 
4to. ^ 

BONIFACIO (Balthasar), the son of a lawyer of the 
same name, was born at Crema, in the Venetian state 
about 1584. In his thirtieth year he went to study at Padua, 
and made such proficiency as to be created doctor of laws 
at the age of eighteen. About two years after he was ap- 
pointed law professor in the college of Rovigo, where he 
first lectured on the institutes of Justinian. He afterwards 
accompanied the pope's nuncio Jerome Portia, as secre- 
tary, and was himself employed in some aifairs of import- 
ance. On his return to Venice, he had several prefer- 
ments, and among others that of archpriest of fiovigo. In 
Oct. 1619, he was elected Greek and Latin professor at 
Padua, but declined accepting the office. In 1620, he 
assisted at Venice, in the establishment of an academy 
for the education of the young nobility, and gave lectures 
on the civil law. Pope Urban VIII. bestowed on him the 
archdeaconry of Trevisa, which he held, with the office of 
grand vicar of that diocese, under four successive bishops. 

* Milper's Church Hist. vol. III. p. 189. — Dupin. — Mosheim. — Cave- 
Fabric. Bibl. Med. Lat,— Saxii Ouonaast, — ^Tanner in Wilfrid, 


He assUted also very essentially in founding a new academy 
at Padua for the Venetian nobility, in 1636, and was the 
first director or president of it, and founded a similar es- 
tablishment at Trevisa. In 1653 he was appointed bishop 
of Capo d'Istria, which he held until his death in 1659, 
He was a man of various learning, as appears by bis ^^ His^ 
toria Trevigiena," 4to, his " Historia Ludicra," 1656, 4to, 
a collection of singular narratives from authors of every 
description. He published also some ^* Latin poems*' in 
1619, i2mo. " De Komanae Historise Scriptoribus ex- 
cerpta ex Bodino, Vossio et aliis,*' Venice, 1627, 4to. * 

BONIFACIO (John), an eminent Italian lawyer, poet, 
and historian, was bom in 1547, at Rovigo in the state of 
Venice, and educated at Padua, where, during his law- 
studies, he composed some pieces for the theatre which 
were much approved. After marrying at Trevisa, or Tre- 
vigni, Elizabeth Martinagi, the daughter and heiress of 
Marc Antonio^ he settled in that place, of which he wrote 
the history, and acquired so much reputation that the re- 
public of Venice bestowed on him the office of judge'$ 
counsellor or assessor,, the duties of \^hich he executed 
with great probity ; and during his holding it wrote bid 
law tracts. In 1588, he published his commentary on the 
feudal law of Venice, After the death of his wife, he 
married a lady of Padua, where he was admitted to the 
rank of citizenship, and where he resided for the remain-^ 
der of his life. He died June 23, 1635, at a very ad- 
vanced age, and was buried in the church of St. James, 
with a modest inscription written by himself in 1 630. His 
principal writings are, 1. " Storia Trevigiana," Trevisi, 
1591, 4to, but a better edition, Venice, 1744, 4to. 2, 
5* Lettere Famigliari,"*' Rovigo, 1624, 4to. 3. " Orazione 
&c. per dirizzare una Statua a Celio Ricchiero Rodigino,'* 
ibid. 1624, 4to. 4. " Lezione sopra un Sonetto del Pe* 
trarca/* ibid. 1624, 4to. 5. " Lezione sopra un altro So - 
netto del Petrarca," ibid. 1625, 4to. 6. " L^arte de 
Cenni," Vicenza, 1616, 4to, one of the earliest attempts 
to instruct the deaf and diAnb. 7. ^^ Discorso del niodo 
di ben formare a questo tempo una Tragedia," Padua,, 
l£24, 4to. 8. ^^ Discorso sopra la sua Impresa nelP 
AccademJa Filarmonica/' ibid. 1624, 4to. 9. '^ La Re-> 
publica delle Api, con la quale si dimostra il modo di bea 

J Moreri. — ^Nicerottj vol, XVI. ?ind XX.— ^axii OnomasticoQ. 


formare uii nuovo Governo Democratico," Rovigo, 1627, 
4to. 10. *^ Comentario sopra la legge dell' Senato Veneta, 
&c." ibid. 1624, 4to. Freher also mentions " Comment 
de Furtis, et de componendis Epitaphiis," but without 
giving the exact tij:les or dates. ^ 

. BONJOUR (William), a learned Augustin, was born 
at Toulouse in 1670; and at Rome, whither he was sent 
£c>r by cardinal Norris in 1695, be became dj!^tinguished 
by bis learning and piety. He was employed by pope 
Clement XL in several matters of importance, and parti- 
cularly in the examination of the Gregorian calendar. 
Bonjour had also the superinteudeiice of the seminary 
established by cardinal Barbarigo at Montefiascone, and 
denominated the academy of sacred letters'. He was ac- 
quainted with almost, all the oriental tongues, and espe- 
cially with the Coptic, or ancient Egyptian. Actuated by 
a zeal for acquiring knowledge, and for propagating the 
gospel, be visited China, where he died in February 1714, 
whilst he was employed in forming a map of that empire, 
which he undertook to conciliate the favour of the empe- 
ror, and thereby pfomote the objects of his mission. He 
published, 1. ^^ Dissertatio de nomine patriarcbi Josephi a 
Pharaone imposito, in defensionem vulgatse editionis, et 
patrum qui Josephum in Serapide adumbratuni tradide- 
runt," &c. Rome, 1696, fol. 2. " Selectee dissertationes 
in Sac. Scripturam," Rome, 170J, fol. which prove his 
acquaintance with the oriental languages, and with ancient 
history and chronology. '3. ^^ In monumenta Coptica, seu 
^gyptiacae bibliothecsB Vaticanae brevis exercitatio," ibid. 
1699, fol. 4. ^^ Calendarium Romanum chronologorum 
causa constructum, &c." ibid. 1701.* 

PONNEFONS (John), or Bonnefonius, a Latin poet, 
was born in 1554, at Clermont in Auvergne, and filled the 
post of lieutenant-general of Bar-sur-Seine. His *^ Pan- 
charis," in the style of Catullus, is of all modern per- 
formance?, the nearest to the graces, the easy pencil, the 
delicacy and softness of that ancient poet. La Bergerie 
has translated the Pancharis into French verse, very infe- 
rior to the Latin. The poems of Bonnefons are at the end 
of those of Beza, in the edition of that author given at 
Paris by Barbou, 1757, 12mio. There is also one of Lon* 

1 Freheri Theatrum. — ^Moreri. — Saxii Onoihast. 
• Moreri. — Le Clerc Bibl. Choisie, vol. XV, 

B O N N E F O N S. 69 

dody 1720 and 1121^ 12mo. Bonnefons died in 1614) 
leaving a son, who likewise cultivated Latin poetry, but 
his performances^ enumerated by Moreri, are in less re<» 
quest. * 

BONN ELL (James), a man celebrated for piety and 
virtue, was born at Genoa, Nov. 14, 1653, being the son 
of Samuel Bonneil, merchant, who resided some time at 
Genoa, and of Rebecca, daughter of Thomas Sayer, near 
Norwich, esq. His grandfather was Daniel Bonneil of 
London, merchant, and his great-grandfather, Thomas 
Bonneil, a gentleman of good family near Ipres in Flan- 
ders, who, to avoid the duke of Alva's persecution, re- 
moved with bis family into England, and settled at Nor* 
wich, of which, before his death, he was chosen mayor. 
Samuel Bonneil, father of James Bonneil, being bred up 
under that eminent merchant, sir William Courteen, knt. 
applied himself to the Italian trade, at Leghorn and Ge- 
noa, with such success, that about 1649, he was worth at 
least 10,000/. and his credit much greater than his fortune. 
But both were soon impaired by several accidents, by 
great losses at sea, and particularly by his zeal for king- 
Charles IL during his exile, and the rest of the royal 
family, whom he privately supplied with large sums of 
money. About 1655, he removed with his family into 
England ; and, at the restoration, on account of the ser- 
vices he had done the royal family, and as a compensation 
for the large sums he had advanced them (which^ it seems, 
were never repaid otherwise) there was granted him a pa- 
tent to be accomptant-general pi the revenue of Ireland, a 
place worth about 800/. a year, his son's life being included 
in the patent with his own. But this he was not long pos- 
sessed of, for he died in 1664, leaving his son and one 

After this son, the object of the present article, had 
been instructed in the first rudiments of learning at Dublin, 
he was sent to Trim school, where he was eminent for 
sweetness of temper, and for a most innocent, gentle, and 
religious behaviour. At fourteen years of age he left that 
place, and was sent to a private philosophy school at Nettle- 
bed in Oxfordshire, kept by Mr. William Cole, who bad 
formerly been principal of St. Mary Hall in Oxford, and 
remained there two years and a half. But finding I^is 

1 Morerr,—BailIet Jugemens des Savant. 

60 . B O N N £ L I^ 

inaster was too remiss in matters of morality and religion ^^ 
9. cbing quite unsuitable with bis strict temper; and ob- 
serving, there were in that place all the dangers and vices 
bf the university, without the advantages, he removed to 
Catherine-hall in Cambridge, where he prosecuted bis 
Studies with indefatigable diligence, and performed all his 
exercises with general approbation. After taking the de- 
grees of A.B. in 1672, and A. M. 1676, he removed into 
the family of Ralph Freeman of Aspenden-^hall in Hert- 
fordshire, esq. as tutor to his eldest son, and there conti- 
nued till 1673, when, going with his pupil into Holland, 
he stayed about a year in sir Leoline Jenkyns's family at 
>}imeguen. From Nimeguen he went, in the ambassador's 
company, through Flanders and Holland : and returning 
to England, continued with his pupil till 168S, when Mr. 
Freeman was sent into France and Italy. In 1684, Mr. 
Bonnell went into France, and met Mr. Freeman at Lyons^ 
and in his company visited several parts of that country. 
From thence, however, he went directly to Ireland, and 
took his employment of accountant-general into his own 
hands, which had, since bis father^s death, been managed 
by others for bis use. In the discharge of it he behaved 
with so much diligence and fidelity, that he soon acquired 
the esteem of the government, and the love of all who 
vrere concerned with him. During the troublesome reign 
^f king James II. he neither deserted his employment, as 
others did, nor countenanced the arbitrary and illegal mea- 
sures of the court, and yet was continued in bis office, 
which proved a great advantage to the protestant interest ^ 
in Ireland, for whatever he received out of his office, he 
^ liberally distributed among the poor oppressed protestants. 
He also took every opportunity to relieve the injured, and 
boldly to plead their cause with those who were iti power. 
But though his place was very advantageous, and furnished 
him with ample means of doing good, yet either the weighi 
of the employment, or his ill state of health, or perhaps 
his desire of entering into holy orders, which he had long 
designed, but never effected, made him resolve to quit it ; 

* This Cole was ejected from Ox- Against this ht is defended in Mr. S. 

ford at the Restoration, and continued Palmer's Nonconformists* MemoriaU 

afterwards a nonconformist. Mr. Wes- vol. I. p. 249; but Mr. P. appears not 

ley, the father of the celebrated John to have seen Mr. Bonnell'ft statement. 

Wesley, accused him of being an en- Life, p. 9. 
courager of immorality ia bis family. 


and be accordingly parted with it to another person in 
1693. In the whole course of his life be behaved in so 
upright and worthy a manner, that he was courted by his 
superiors and reverenced by his equals. In piety, jus- 
tice, charity, sobriety, and temperance, few have excelled 
him. His devotion was confined within the strictest bounds 
of sobriety and reason, and free from tbe least appearance 
of affectation. He commonly gave aTway the eigbth part 
of his yearly income to the poor, and his charity was not * 
only extensive but impartial. His learning was very con-, 
siderable ; he thoroughly digested the Greek and Roman 
authors, understood French perfectly, and had made great 
progress in the Hebrew language. In philosophy and 
oratory he exceeded most of his contemporaries in the 
university, and applied himself with success to mathe- 
matics and music. In the course of his studies he read 
several of the fathers, and translated some parts of Sy- 
nesiujs into English. There is nothing, however, of his 
published, but some Meditations and Prayer»iiiserted in 
his Life, and a " Harmony of the Gospels," written ^y 
another hand, but ^^ improved by James Bonnell, esq. for 
his own use," Loud. 1705, 8vo. This excellent man died 
of a malignant fever, April 28, 1699, and was buried in 
St. John's church in Dublin. In 1693 he married Jane, 
daughter of sir Albert Conyngham, by whom be had three 
children, of whom only one daughter survivcKl him a very 
short time. A neat monument was erected to his memory 
by his relict. " Such a character," says Mr. Granger, 
*^ may, perhaps, be overlooked by some, because there is 
npthing remarkably striking in it But tbe man who is 
uniformly good, and that to such a degree as Mr. Bonnell 
was, ought to stand high in our opinion, and to be esteem- 
ed what he certainly was, a great man." ^ 

BONNER (Edmund), bishop of London, proverbial for 
his cruelty, was the son of an honest poor man, and born 
at Hanley in Worcestershire, although some have very 
eagerly reported that be was tbe natural son of one George 
Sava^, a priest, as if the circumstance of bis birth could 
have had any effect on his future disposition. He was 
maintained at school by an ancestor of Nicholas Lechmere, 
esq. a baron of the exchequer in the reign of king WiU 

* Biog. Brit. — Life of Bonnell, by Wm. Hamilton, A. M. Archdeacon of 
Armagh, and Funeral Sermon for, by Bishop Wetenhall, Lond. 8vo, 1703 — 18, 
and veprinted by Metnrs. Rivingtons, 1807, being the fifib edition. 


liam; afidin 1512, ^he was entered at Broadgate*lian in 
Oxford, now Pembroke college. On June 12y 1519j be 
was admitted bachelor of the canon, and the day following 
bachelor of the civil law. He entered into orders about 
the same time, and had some employment in the diocese 
of Worcester ; and on the 12th of July 1525, was created 
doctor of the canon law. He was a man of some, though 
not great learning, but distinguished himself chiefly by 
his skill and dexterity in the management of aflaira, 
which made him be taken notice of by cardinal Wolsey, 
who appointed him his commissary for the faculties ; and 
he was with this prelate at Cawood, when he was arrested 
for high treason. He enjoyed at once the livings of Blay- 
don and Cherry Burton in Yorkshire, Ripple in Worcester*- 
shire. East Dereham in Norfolk, and the prebend of Chis'- 
wick in the cathedral church of St. Paul : but the last be 
resigned in 1539, and East Dereham in 1540. He was 
installed archdeacon of Leicester, October 17, 1535. 

After the cardinal's death, be got into the good graces 
of king Henry VIII. who appointed him one of his chap* 
lains. On this he began his career in a manner not very 
consistent with his after-conduct. He was not only a fa- 
vourer of the Lutherans, but a promoter of the king's di* 
vorce from queen Catherine of Spain, and of great use to 
his majesty in abrogating the pope's supremacy. He was 
also in high favour with lord Cromwell, secretary of state, 
by whose recommendation he was employed as ambassador 
at several courts. In 1532, he was sent to Rome, along- 
with sir Edward Karne, to excuse king Henry's personal 
appearance upon the pope's citation. In 1533, he was 
again sent to Rome to pope Clement VII. then at Mar->> 
seilles, upon the excommunication decreed against king 
Henry VIII. on account of his divorce ; to deliver that 
king's appeal from the pope to the next general council. 
But in this he betrayed so much of that passionate temper 
which appeared afterwards more conspicuously, and exe- 
cuted the order of his master in this affair with so much 
vehemence and fury, that the pope talked of throwing him 
into a caldron of melted lead^ on which he thought proper 
to make his escape. He was employed likewise in other 
embassies to the kings of Denmark and France, and the 
emperor of Germany. In 1538, being then ambassador 
in France, he was nominated to the bishopric of Hereford, 
^QV. 27 J . but before consecration he was translated to 


London, of which he was elected bishop Oct. SO, 1539> 
and consecrated April 4, 1540. 

At the time of the king's death in 1547, Bonner was 
ambassadoir with the emperor Charles V.; and though dur- 
ing Henry's reign he appeared zealous against the pope, 
and had concifrred in all the measures taken to abrogate his 
supremacy, yet these steps he appears to have taken merely 
as the readiest way to preferment ; for his principles, as 
far as such a man can be said to have any, were those of 
popery, as became evident from his subsequent conduct. 
On the 1st of September 1547, not many months after 
the accession of Edward VI. he scrupled to take an oath, 
to renounce and deny the bishop of Rome, and to swear 
obedience to the king, and entered a protestation against 
the king's injunetion and homilies. For this behaviour h6 
was committed to the Fleet; but having submitted, and re- 
canted his protestation, was released, and for sometime com* 
plied outwardly with the steps taken to advance the refor- 
mation, while he used privately all means in his power to 
obstruct it. After the lord Thomas Seymour's death, he ap- 
peared so remiss in putting the court orders in execution, 
particularly that relating to the use of the common prayer 
book, that he was severely reproved by the privy council. 
He then affected to redouble his diligence : but still, through 
his remissness in preaching, and his connivance at the 
mass in several places, many people in his diocese being 
observed to withdraw from the divine service and com- 
munion, he was accused of neglect in the execution of the 
king's orders. He was summoned before the privy coun- 
cil on the 11th of August, when, after a reproof for his 
negligence, he was enjoined to preach the Sunday three 
weeks after at Paul's cross, on certain articles delivered to 
him ; and also to preach there once a quarter for the fu- 
ture, and be present at every sermon preached there, and 
to celebrate the communion in that church on all the prin- 
cipal feasts : and to abide and keep residence in his house 
in London, till he had licence from the council to depart 
elsewhere. On the day appointed for his preaching, he 
delivered a sermon to a crowded audience on the points as- 
signed to him. But he entirely omitted the last article, 
the king^s royal power in his youth ; for which contempt 
he was complained of to the king by John Hooper, .after* 
wards bishop of Worcester r and archbishop Cranmer, 
bi$hop Ridleyi sir Wiiliam Petre, and sir Thomas. Smith, 

t4 B a N N E R. 

secretaries of state^ and William May, LL. D. and deaii 
of St. Paul's, were appointed commissioners to - proceed 
against him. Appearing before them several days in Sep- 
tember, he was, after a long trial, committed to the Mar* 
shalsea ; and towards the end of October deprived of bis 
bishopric. * 

On the accessioji of queen Mary, Bonner bad an oppor- 
t&nity of shewing himself in his proper character, which 
indeed had been liitherto but faintly concealed. He wa^ 
restored to his bishopric by a commission read in St. 
PauPs cathedral the ^th of September 1553 ; and in 1554, 
he was made vicegerent, and president of the convocation, 
in the room of archbishop Cranmer, who was committed 
to the Tower. The same year he visited his diocese, in 
order to root up all the seeds of the Reformation, ,and be- 
haved in the most furious and extravagant manner; at 
Hadham, he was excessively angry because the bells did 
not ring at his coming, nor was the rood-loft decked, or 
the sacrament hung up. He swore and raged in the dbiurch 
at Dr. Bricket, the rector, and, calling him jicnave and 
heretic, went to strike at him ; but the blow fell upon sir 
Thomas Joscelyn's ear, and almost stunned him. On his 
return he set up the mass again at St. Paul's, before the 
act for restoring it was passed. The same year, he was in 
commission to turn out some of the refonned bishops. In 
1555, and the three following years, he was the occasion 
of above two hundred of innocent persons being put to 
death in the most cruel manner, that of burning, for their 
firm adherence to the Protestant religion. On the 14th of 
February 1555-6^ he came to Oxford (with Thirlby bishop 
of Ely), to degrade archbishop Cranmer, whom he used 
with great insolence. The 2dth of December following he 
was put into a commission to search and raze all registers 
and records containing professions against the pope, scru- 
tinies taken in religious houses, &c« And the 8th of Feb* 
ruary 1556-7, he was also put in another commission, or 
kind of inquisition, for searching after and punishing all 

Upon queen Elizabeth's accession, Bonner went to meet 
her at Highgate, with the rest of the bishops; but she 
looked on him as a man stained with blood, and therefore 
would shew him no mark of her favour. For some months, 
however, he remained unmolested ; but being called be- 
fore the privy council pn the 30th of May 1559, he re- 


fused to take the oath of allegiance and supremacy : for 
which reason only, as it appears, he was deprirTed a second 
time of his bishopric the 29th of June following, and com- 
mitted to the Marshalsea. After having lived in confine* 
ment some years, oe died Septembers, 1569, and three 
days after he was buried at midnight, in St. George's church-* 
yard, Southwark, to prevent 'any disturbances that might 
have been made by the citizens, who hated him extremely. 
He had stood excommunicated several years, and might 
have been denied Christian burial ; but of this no advan** 
tage was taken. As to his character, he was a violent, furious^ 
and passionate man, and extremely cruel in his nature; 
in bis person he was very fat and corpulent, the conse- 
quence of excessive gluttony, to which he was much ad- 
dict^. He was a great master of the canon law, being 
excelled in that faculty by very few of his time, and well 
skilled in politics, but understood little of divinity. Se- 
veral pieces were published under his name, of which the 
following is a list : J . Preface to the Oration of Stephen. 
Gardiner, bishop of Winchester, concerning true Obedi* 
ence. Printed at London, in Latin, 1534, 1535, and at 
Hamburgh in 1536, 8vo. Translated into English by Mi- 
chael Wood, a zealous Protestant, with a bitter preface to 
the reader, and a postscript, Roan, 1553, 8vo. It is also 
inserted in J. Fox's book of Martyrs. In the preface Bon- 
der speaks much in favour of king Henry the Vlllth's 
marriage with Ann Boleyn, and against the tyranny exer- 
cised by the bishop of Rome in this kingdom. 2. Several 
letters to the lord Cromwell. 3. A declaration to lord 
Cromwell, describing to him the evil behaviour of Stephen 
(bishop of Winchester), with special causes therein con- 
talaed, wherefore and why he misjiked of him. 4. Letter 
of his about the proceedings at Rome concerning the king's 
divorce from Catherine of Arragon. 5. An admonition and 
Advertisement given by the bishop of London to all readers 
of the Bible in the English tongue. 6. Injunctions given 
hy Bonner, bishop of London, to his clergy (about preach- 
ing, with the names of books prohibited). 7. Letter to 
Mr. Lechmere. 8. Responsum & exhortatio, Lond. 1553, 
S^o. Answer and exhortation to the clergy in praise of 
priesthood : spoken by the author in St. Paul's cathedral, 
the i6th October, 1553, after a sermon preached before 
the clergy,, by John Harpesfield. 9. A letter to Mr. Lech- 
Vot. VL F 

65 B O N N E It 

mere, 6th September, 1553. 10. Articles to be enqairecl 
of in the general visitation of Edmund bishop of London, 
exercised by him in 1554, in the city and diocese of Lon- 
don, &c. To ridicule them, John Bale, bishop of Ossory^ 
wrote a book, entitled, A declaration of Edmund Bonner's 
articles, concerning the clergy of London diocese, whereby 
that execrable anti-christ is in his right colours retealed^ 
1554, and 1561, 8vo. 1 1. A profitable and necessary doc- 
trine, containing an exposition on the Creed, seven* Sacra-^ 
mei^ts, ten Commandments, the Pater Noster, Ave Maria, 
with certain homilies adjoining thereto, for the instruction 
and information of the diocese of London, Lond. 1554*5, 
4to. This book was drawn up by his chaplains John 
Harpesfield and Henry Pendleton ; the former part of it, 
which is catechism, is mostly taken out of the Instittition 
of a Christian man, set out by king Heiiry VIIL only va- 
ried in some points. 12. Several letters, declarations, ar- 
guings, disputes, &c. of his are extant in John Fox*s 
book of Martyrs, vol. last. 13. His objections against the 
process of Robert Horn, bishop of Winchester, who had 
tendered the oath of supremacy to him a second time, are 
preserved by Mr. Strype in his Annals of the Reformation. 
The character of bishop Bonner is so familiar to our rea- 
ders as to require little illustration, or any addition to the 
preceding account from the former edition of this Diction* 
' ary ; yet some notice may be taken of the defence set up* 
by the Roman Catholic historians. Dodd, alluding to his 
cruelties, says, that ^' Seeing he proceeded according to 
the statutes then in force, and by the direction of the le- 
gislative power, he stands in need of no apology on that 
score.^' But the history of the times proves that Bonner'si 
character cannot be protected by a reference to the sta- 
tutes, unless his vindicator can likewise prove that he had 
no baud in enacting those statutes ; and even if this were 
eonceded, his conduct will not appear less atrocious, be- 
cause, not content with the sentence of the law carried into 
execution by the accustomed officers, Bonner took fre- 
quent opportunities to manifest the cruelty of his disposi- 
tion by anticipating, or aggravating, the legal punishments^ 
He sometimes whipped the prisoners with his own bands, 
till he was tired with the violence of the exercise ; and oa 
one occasion he tore out the beard of a weaver wlio refused 
to relinquish his religion ; and that he might give him a 
specimen of burning, he held his hand to a candle, till 


the stuews and veins shrunk and burst *. The fact is, that 
Bonner was constitutionally cruel, and delighted in the 
sufferings he inflicted. Granger very justly says, that 
^^ Nature seems to have designed him for an executioner,^' 
and as, wherever he could, he performed the character, how 
can he be defended by an appeal to the statutes ? The 
most remarkable circumstance in his history is the lenity 
shown to him after all this bloody career. There seems 
no reason to think that he would have even been de- 
prived of his bishopric, had he consented to take the oaths 
of allegiance and supremacy, a circumstance which is 
surely very extraordinary. His compliance, had he taken 
that step, could have been only hypocritical, and what an 
object it would have been to have seen the duties and 
power of a protestant prelate intrusted to such a monster, 
and in that diocese, where st many families preserved the 
bitter remembrance of his cruelty 1 ^ 

BONNET (Charles), an ^uinent natural philosopher, 
was bom at Geneva, on the 13 th of March, 1720. His 
ancestors, who were compelled to emigrate from France, 
in 1572, after the dreadful slaughter of St. Bartholomew's 
day, established themselves at Geneva, where his grand;^ 
father was advanced to the magistracy. His father, who 
preferred the station of a private citizen, paid unremitted 
attention to the education of his son, which the latter re« 
compensed, at a very early period, by the amiableness of 
his disposition, and the rapid progress he made in general 
literature. When about sixteen years of age, he applied 
himself with great eagerness, to the perusal of '< Le 
Spectacle de la Nature,*' and this work made such a deep 
impression on his mind, that it may be saiflTto have di* 
rected the taste and the studies of his future life. What 
that publication had commenced, was confirmed by the 
work of La Pluche ; but having accidentally seen the trea- 
tise of Reaumur upon insects, be was in a transport of joy. 
He was very impatient to procure the book, but, as the 

* There it, says Granger, a wooden on the fool, how could he get my pic* 
print of hioiy whipping Thomas Hin- ture drawn so right !" There is ano- 
shawe, iu the first edition of Pox's ther print of him in that book, burning 
'* Acts and Monuments." Sir John a man's bands with a candle. With re* 
Harrington tells us that ** when Bon- gard to his corpulence, a punster of 
■er WBS shown this print in the Book of the times said of htm, that ** ha was 
Martyrs on purpose to vex him, be full of guts, but empty of bowels." 
laughed at it, saying, " A vengeance 

' Biog. Brit — ^Burnet's Hist, of the Reformation. — Strype's Life of Cranmer, 
Amiais and Memorial^.— ^jPox^s Acts and Monom^Dts.— Dodd's Qi. Hist. vol. 1. 

F 3 


only copy in Geneva belonged to a public library, and as 
the librarian was reluctant to entrust it in the bands of a 
youth, it was with the utmost difficulty that he could ob- 
tain his end. By the possession of this treasure, our as« 
siduous youth was enabled to make several new and curi- 
ous experiments, which he communicated to Reaumur him- 
self; and the high applause be gained, from so great a 
naturalist, added fresh vigour to his assiduity. 

In compliance with bis father's desires, be applied him- 
self, though with much reluctance, to the study of the 
Jaw. The works of Burlamaqui pleased him the most, on 
account of the perspicuous and philosophic manner in 
which the subject was treated ; the institutes of Heinec- 
cius gave him some courage also, as he perceived order 
and connection ; but the Roman law terrified him. Not- 
withstanding his application tp these authors, he still con- 
tinued attached to natural history, and was very active in 
making experiments. Some experiments respecting tree- 
lice happening to be communicated by Reaumur to the 
academy of sciences, occasioned an epistolary correspon- 
dence between M. Bonnet and that great naturalist, a cir- 
cumstance, doubtless, very flattering to a youth of twenty 
years,, and the letter of Reaumur was accompanied with a 
present of that very book which he had borrowed, with so 
much difficulty, two years before. 

Animated by such distinguished marks of approbation, 
he diligently employed every moment her could steal from 
the' study of jurisprudence to the completion of his natural 
history of the tree-louse ; to experiments on the respira- 
tion of caterpillars and butterflies, which he discovered to 
be effected b^ stigmata, or lateral pores ; to an examina- 
tion of the construction of the tinea, or tapeworm ; in fre- 
quent correspondence with Reaumur; and in assisting 
Trembley in his discoveries and publication concerning 
millepedes, &c. Having, in 1743, obtained the degree 
of doctor of laws, he relinquished a pursuit which he had 
commenced with so much reluctance. In the same year 
he was admitted a member of the royal society of Lon- 
don, to which he had communicated a treatise on insects. 

Bonnet being now liberated from his other pursuits, ap- 
plied himself, without intermission, to collecting, together 
bis experiments and observations concerning the tree-louse 
and the worm, which he published in 1744, under the* 
title of ^^ Insectology." This work acquired deserved ap- 


probation from the public, and was honoured by the com- 
mendation of the celebrated B. de Jussieu. He was re- 
proached, however, as some other naturalists have de* 
served, with having paid too little attention to the delicacj 
of his reader, though his patience and accuracy were ac- 
knowledged to be deserving of praise. Such unremitted 
application and labour could not fail of becoming injurious 
to bis health. Inflammations, nervous fever, sore eyjes, &c. 
compelled him to relinquish the use of the microscope and 
the study of insects. This prevention was so extremely 
mortifying to a man of his taste and activity of mind, that 
be was thrown into a deep melancholy, which could only 
be subdued by the resolution inspired by philosophy, and 
the consoTations Qf religion ; these gradually roused him 
from a dejected state of mind. About the end of 1746, 
he was chosen member of the literary institution at Bo- 
logna, which introduced him to a correspondence with the 
celebrated Zanotti, who may be deemed the Fontenelle of 

la 1747, he undertook a very difficult work on the 
leaves of plants ; which, of all his publications in natural 
history, bore the strongest marks of originality, both with 
respect to the manner in which his experiments were made, 
and the discoveries resulting from them. But from this 
extreme attachment to natural history, he was gradually led 
to a study of a very diiFerent nature ; and speculative phi- 
losophy now engaged his whole attention. The first result 
of his meditations in this department was his '^ Essay 
on Psychology," in which the principal facts observable 
in human nature, and the consequences resulting from 
them, are stated in a concise and perspicuous manner* He 
contemplated man, from the first moment of his existence, 
and pursued the developement of his sensies and faculties, 
from simple growth up to intelligence. This work, which 
was published without his name, met with great opposi- 
tion, and was criticised with severity ; but the censures 
were directed more against his expressions than his prin- 
ciples, nor were they of sufficient importance to impede 
the general acceptance of the performance. His ^^ Analy- 
sis of the mental faculties" was simply a developement of 
the ideas contained in the preceding work. It engaged 
his incessant attention for the space of five yeiurs; nor was 
it completed before 1759. It is somewhat singular, that 
both he and the abb^ de Condillac should have illustrated 



tbeir principles by the supposition of a statue, organized 
like the human body, which they conceived to be gradu- 
ally inspired wilh a soul, and the progressive enlargement 
of whose powers they carefully traced. In 1760 this work 
was published at Copenhagen by order and at the expence 
of Frederic v.; and it was followed in 1762 by "Con- 
siderations on organized bodies/' in which the author had 
three principal objects before him ; the first was to give a 
concise view of every thing which appears interesting in 
natural history, respecting the origin, growth, and re- 
production of organized bodies ; the second was to confute 
the two different systems founded upon the Epigenesis; 
and the third was to explain the system of Germs, indicate 
the ground upon which it was founded, its correspondence 
with facts, and the consequences resulting from it. This 
work was received with much satisfaction by natural philo- 
sophers. The academy of Berlin, which had proposed the 
same subject, as a prize-question for 1761, declared that 
they considered this treatise as the offspring of close obser- 
vation and profound reasoning ; and that the author would 
have had an undubitable right to the prize, if he had confined 
bis labours to the precise statement of the question, and 
Malesherbes reversed the interdict which the public censor 
had laid upon this book, as containing dangerous princi- 

The ** Contemplations of Nature" appeared in 1764* 
In this work, the author first enlarged upon the comnion 
conceptions' entertained concerning the existence and per- 
fections of God 5 and of the order and uniformity obser^^^- 
able in the universe. He next descends to man, examines 
the parts of his composition, and the various <;apacities 
with which he is endowed. He next proceeds to the 
plants : assembles and describes the laws of their Geco-» 
nomy ; and finally, he examines the insects, indicates the 
principal circumstances in which- they differ from large 
animals, and points out the philosophical inferences that 
may legitimately be deduced from these differences ; and 
he concludes with observations respecting the industry of 
insects. This work being of a popular nature, the author 
apared no pains in bestowing upon it those ornaments of 
which it was susceptible. The principles which he thus 
discovered and explained, induced him to plan a system 
of moral philosophy ; which, according to his ideas, oon-^ 
pisted solely in the observance of that. relation in which 


. mantis placjsd, respecting all the beings that surround him. 
The first branch would have comprehended various means, 
which philosophy and the medical science have discovered, 
for the prevention of disease, the preservation and aug- 
mentation of the corporeal powers, and the better exertion 
of their force : in the second, he proposed to show, that 
natural philosophy has a powerful tendency to embellish 
and improve our mind, and augment tbe number of our 
rational amusements, while it is replete with beneficial ef- 
fects respecting the society at large. To manifest the. 
invalidity of opinions, merely hypothetical, he undertook, 
in the third place, to examine, whether there were not 
truths within the compass of human knowledge, to which 
the most sceptical philosopher must be compelled to yidd 
his consent, and which might serve as the basis of all our 
reasonings concerning man and his various relations. He 
then would have directed his attention to a first cause, 
and have manifested how greatly the idea of a deity, and su- 
preme law'giver, favoured tbe conclusions which reason 
had drawn from the nature and properties of things ; but 
his ill health, impaired by incessant labour, would not 
permit him to complete the design. His last publication 
was the " Palingenesis,'* which treats of the prior exist* 
ence and future state of living beings. 
~ Of his publications in natural history, those deemed the 
most excellent, are, his Treatise on the best means of pre- 
serving Insects and Fish in cabinets of Natural History.; 
a dissertation on the Loves of the Plants; sundry pieces 
on the experiments of Spalianzani, concerning the repro- 
duction of tbe head of the Snail ; a dissertation on the Pipa, 
or Surinam Toad ; and different treatises on Bees. 

In 1783, he was elected honorary member of the aca- 
demy of sciences at Paris, and of the academy of scien- 
ces and the bielles lettres at Berlin. Much of his time was 
employed in a very extensive correspondence with some of 
the most celebrated natural 'philosophers and others. Of 
this number were Reaumur; De Geer, the Reaumur of Swe- 
den ; Du Hamel ; the learned Haller ; the experimental 
philosopher Spalianzani ; Van Swieten*; Meriail ; and that 
ornament of Swit;zerland, the great Lambert, He enter- 
tained, however, the utmost aversion to controversy. He 
thought that no advantage to be obtained by it could com- 
pensate for the loss of that repose which he valued, with 
.^Newton, as the rem prorms substantiakm. He never 

72 bonnet: 

answered remarks that were made to the prejudice of his 
writings, but left the decision with the public : yet, ever 
ready to acknowledge his errors, he was sincerely thankful 
to every one who contributed to the perfection of his works. 
He was used to say, that one confession, ^^ I was in the 
wrong,'' is of more value than a thousand ingenious 
confutations. His literary occupations, and the care he 
was obliged to take of his health, prevented him from tra^ 
veiling. He delighted in retirement, and every hour was 
occupied in the improvement of his mind. The last 
twenty-five years of his life were spent in the same rural 
situation where he had passed the greater part of his early 
days; yet, notwithstanding the pursuit of literature was 
his supreme delight, he never refused to suspend his stu- 
dies, when the good of his country seemed to demand his 

He was chosen, in 1752, member of the grand council, 
in the republic of Geneva ; and he assisted regularly at 
their deliberations, till 1768, where he distinguished him- 
self by his eloquence, his moderation, united with firm- 
ness ; by his good sense and penetration, in cases of difE- 
culty ; and by the zeal with which he endeavoured to re- 
claim his fellow citizens to that ancient simplicity of man- 
ners which had been so conducive to the welfare of the 
state, and to the love of virtue, so essential to the exist- 
ence of genuine liberty. His conduct, in every case, was 
consistent with his principles. He took no pains to accu- 
mulate wealth, but remained satisfied with a fortune, equal 
tb his moderate wants, and to, the exercise of his benevo- 
lence. The perfect correspondence between his extensive 
knowledge and virtuous deeds, procured him universal 
» esteem. 

In the year 1788, evident symptoms of a dropsy of the 
chest manifested, themselves ;' and from this time he gra- 
dually declined. He sustained his indisposition with un- 
remitted cheerfulness and composure. After various fluc- 
tuations, usual in that complaint, he died, on the 20th of 
May, 1793, in the seventy-third year of his age; retaining 
his presence of mind to the last moment; administering 
comfort to surrounding friends and relatives ; and attempt- 
ing to alleviate the distress of his disconsolate wife, in 
whose arms he expired. 

As a demonstration of the high value placed upon his 
labours and talents, by the literati, we have only to add, 

B O N N ET T. 73 

that lie was member of most of the learned societies of Eu* 
rorpe. The latter part of his life was employed in revising 
his works, of which a complete edition was published at 
Neuchatel in 9 vols. 4to, or 18 vols. Svo, containing, be- 
sides these already noticed, several smaller pieces in na** 
taral history and metaphysics. Notwithstanding the high 
praises bestbwed on Bonnet by his countrymen, there are 
many parts of his works which must be read with caution, 
nor, where there is not much danger iu his speculations, 
is he always a very conclusive reasoner. ^ 

BONNEVAL (Claudius Alexander de), count, known * 
in the latter part of his life by the name of Osman Bashaw, 
descended from a family related to the blood royal of 
France, was born in 1672, and entered himself at the age 
of sixteen, in the service of that crown, and married the 
daughter of marshal de Biron. He made the campaign in 
Flanders in 1690, but soon after left the French army, 
and entered into t}^ Imperial service under prince Eugene, 
who honoured him with an intimate friendship. The in-p 
trigues of the marquis de Pri£, his inveterate enemy, mined 
his credit however at the court of Vienna, and caused him 
to be banished the empire. He then offered his service to 
the republic of Venice, and to Russia ; which being de- 
clined, his next tender was to the grand Signior, who 
gladly received him : it was stipulated that he should have 
a body of 30,000 men at his disposal ; that a government 
should be conferred on him, with the rank of bashaw of 
three tails; a salary of 10,000 aspers a day, equal to 
45,000 livres a year; and that in case of a war, he should 
be commander in chief. The first expedition he engaged 
in after his arrival at Constantinople, was to quell an in- 
surrection in Arabia Petrsea, which he happily effected ; 
and at his return, had large offers made him by Kouli 
Khan, which he did not choose to accept. Some time 
after, he commanded the Turkish army against the em- 
peror, over whose forces he gained a victory on the bank^ 
of the Danube. But success does not always protect a , 

Serson against disgrace ; for Bonneval, notwithstanding 
is service, was first imprisoned, and then banished to the 
island of Chio* The sultan, however, continued his friend; 
and the evening before bis departure made him bashaw 
general of the Archipelago, which, with his former apr 

V 1 MemoireAour servhr a Phistoirey &c. de M. Charles Bonnet, BerOi Svo* 

74 B O N N E V A L. 

pointment of beglerbcg of Arabia, rendered hiiri one of the 
most powerful persons in the Ottoman empire. In this 
island, he found a retirement agreeable to his wishes, but 
did not long enjoy it, being sent for back, and made to- 
pigi or master of the ordnance, a post of great honour and 
profit. He died in this employment, aged 75, in 1747; 
and wrote the memoirs of his own life, which were pub- 
lished in London in 1755, 2 vols. 12aK), and give but an 
indifferent idea of his personal character. ^ 

BONONE (Carlo), an eminent artist, was born at 
Ferrarain 1569,- and died in 1632. He was the scholar of 
Bastaruolo, and the rival of Scarselliuo, whose suavity of 
manner he attempted to eclipse by energy and grandeur. 
He studied at Bologna, for that purpose, the Carracci ; at 
Rome, with nature and the antique, perhaps the Roman 
style; at Venice, Paolo, and at Parma, Corregio. In 
compositions of a few figures only, he resem-bles Lod. 
Carracci sometimes to a degree of delusion ; but in works 
of numerous grouping, suph. as the "Feast of Herod,'* 
and the " Nuptials of Cana," at Ferrara, and chiefly in 
. the " Supper of Ahasuerus,'* at Ravenna^ he rivals in 
abundance and aiTangement the ornamental style of Paolo* 
At St. Maria in Vado at Fen*ara, his science in Corre* 
giesque fore-shortening and forcible effects of chiaroscuro^ 
itxed and astonished the eye of Guercino. His cabinet 
pictures possess a high degree of finish. That such powers 
should not hitherto have procured Bonone an adeqi!kate de-- 
gree of celebrity in the annals of painting, proves only, 
tiiat no felicity of imitation can ever raise its possesisors to 
the honours of originality and' invention. * 

BONOSUS, an ancient prelate of the fourth century, 
is known in church history as the heretical bishop of 
Naissus in Dacia, though some authors say of Sardica^ the 
metropolis of that province. In the year 391 he was ac* 
cused of crimes against the canons of the church and the 
law of God, and was reported for heresy at the council of 
Capua, which met the latter end of that year. The par- 
ticulars of his crimes cannot now be known, but his heresy 
may be gathered from St. Augustih and St. Ambrose. He 
had, 'before, been condemned by Damasus, bishop of Rome, 
who died A. D. 384. The council of Capua committed the 
hearing of his cause to the bishops of Mecodon, his neighs 

1 Memoire.— Diet. Hist * PilkiD^toxi by FuselK 

B O N O S U S. 75 

hours, under their metropolitan Anysius, hishop of Thes- 
salonica. The bishops assembled, agreeably to the order 
of the council, and Bonosus appeared before them ; after 
examination, they were so well convinced of the truth of 
the charge, that they immediately suspended him from 
all episcopal functions ; at the same time writing#a letter 
to Syricius bishop of Rome, declaring their abhorrence of 
the detestable error, that the virgin Mary should have other 
children than Christ. Bonosus died A. D. 410; but his 
doctrine did not die with him, being maintained by some 
200 years aftes his death. Pope Gregory makes mention 
of the Bonosians in the latter end of the sixth century.' 

BONTEMPI (Akgeuni), a native of Perugia, and au- 
thor of the first history of music in the Italian language 
with which we are acquainted, was nn able professor, of 
considerable learning, who flourished about the middle of 
the seventeenth^ century. His work, which has for title 
*^ Historia Musica di Gio. And. Angelini Bontempi,'' was 
published at Perugia, in small folio, 1695. It is become 
somewhat scarce, which enhances its value with collectors 
of books; but Dr. Bqrney^s opinion is unfavourable. He 
says that with great parade of his learning, science, and 
acquaintance with the Greek theorists, that are come down 
to us, he leaves us in. as utter darkness concerning the 
practice of ancient music as ever, and has furnished us 
with but little information concerning the modern of his 
own time, with which, however, as a contrapuntist, he 
seems to have been perfectly well acquainted. Indeed, by 
the frequent use he makes of scientific terms, his book, 
when casually opened, has more the appearance of a dry 
mathematical treatise, than the history of an elegant art. 
The most curious and interesting pari of his work is, the 
account which he gives of the discipline of the college of 
singers in the service of the pontifical chapel, and of the 
great masters who then flourished at Rome, who had dis- 
tinguished themselves in writing '^ Alia Palestrina^* for the 
church : secular music was then but little cultivated, and 
less respected there', till operas and oratorios had made 
some progress in polishing melody, and in the just ac« 
centuation and expression of words. ^ 

BONTEMS (Madame), a lady who was born at Paris 
in 1718, and died in the same city April 18, 1768, had 

^ Burney'K and Hawkins's Hist, of Music. — Rees's Cyclopsedia. 

76 B O N T E M S. 

received from nature a good understanding and an excel<- 
lent taste, which were cultivated by a suitable education. 
She possessed the foreign languages, and was mistress of 
all the delicate turns of her o\vn. It is. to her that the 
French are indebted for a translation, said to be accurate 
and elegant, of Thomson's Seasons, 1759, 12mo. Madame 
Bontems had a select society that frequented her house, 
and though she had a great talent for wit, she only made 
use of it for displaying that of others. She was not less 
esteemed for the qualities of her heart than those of her 

BONTIUS (Gerard), professor in medicine at the uni- 
rersity of Leyden in the latter part of the sixteenth cen- 
tury^ was a man of profound erudition, and critically 
versed in the Greek language. He was born at Ryswick, 
a small village of Guelderland, and died at Leyden, Sept. 
15, 1599, sixty-three years old. Bontius is the inventor 
of a composition of pills, which, from his name, are called 
Pilulse tartar^se Bontii. The Dutch for a long time kept 
this composition a secret; but they have been analysed by 
the industry of some physicians, and the ingredients are 
now well known. He wrote some commentaries on Hipr- 
pocrates, but published no part of them. He left two 
sons, both eminent in the medical art, James and Heyner. * 

BONTIUS (James), called by some, JoHL>f, a native of 
I^eyden, was educated in philosophy and medicine under 
his father, Geraixl ; and being sent to the East Indies, 
practised physic at Batavia about the middle of the seven- 
teenth century. On his return to Europe he wrote several 
valuable works on the diseases and practice of medicine of 
India. These are, ^* De conservanda Valetudine, ac dieta 
sanis in India observandis ;*' ^' Methodus medendi, quiL 
oportet in India orients^li uti;'* " Observationes selectae 
ex dissectione cadaverum ac autopsia descriptse.*' He also 
published curious observations relating to the botany and 
natural history of those regions, especially the vegetables 
used in medicine and diet, in his work entitled ** De Me- 
dicina Indorum,'* in 1642, and afterwards, with Alpinus's 
work, " De Medicina iEgyptiorum,'* 1718, 4to. He also 
published " Historia Nat. et Med. Indi® orientalis,'' 1658,- 
fbl. His brother Reyner was many years professor of me- 

1' Di«*t. Historique. 

% Freber^ Tbeatruin.<^IcoaeB aQ ViUe Rect. Acad* Lei(^n> 4to, HI 4^ 

B O N W I C K E. 77 

dicine at Leyden, and rector of the university. He died 
in 1623.* 

BONWICKE (Ambrose), a nonjuring clergyman of 
great piety and learning, son of the rev. John Bonwicke, 
rector of Mickleham in Surrey, was born April 2 9> 1652, 
and educated at Merchant Taylors school. Thence he was 
elected to St. John^s college, Oxford, in 1668, where he 
was appointed librarian in 1670 ; B. A. 1673 ; M. A. March 
18, 1675; was ordained deacon May 21, 1676; priest, 
June 6 (Trinity Sunday), i680 ; proceeded B. D. July 21, 
1682 ; and was elected master of Merchant Taylors school 
June 9, 1686. In 1689, the college of St. John's peti- 
tioned the Merchant Taylors company, that he might con- 
tinue master of the school (which is a nursery for their 
college) for life; but, at Christmas 1691, he was turned 
out for refusing to take tne oath of allegiance, and was 
afterwards for many years master of a celebrated school at 
Headley, near Leatherhead in Surrey, where he bad at 
one time the honour of having the poet Fenton for his 
usher^ and Bowyer (who was afterwards the learned prin- 
ter) for a sgholar. 

Mr. Nichols has in MS. a curious correspondence of 
Mr. Bonwicke with Mr. Blecbynden, on occasion of his 
ejection from the Merchant Taylors school, with many of 
his college exercises, and letters to his father. Some let- 
ters, which convey an admirable idea of his unaffected 
piety and goodness, may be seen in the Life of Bowyer. 
A copy of his verses, whilst fellow of St. John's, is printed 
in an Oxford collection, on the death of king Charles II. 
1685. By his wife (Elizabeth Stubbs) Mr. Bonwicke had 
twelve children,, one of whom furnished the subject of a 
very interesting little volume, entitled " A Pattern for 
Young Students in the University, i^et forth in the Life of 
Mr. Ambrose Bonwicke, some time scholar of St. John's 
College, Cambridge,'* 1729, 12mo, of which Mrl Nichols 
has given an excellent analysis, with additions, in his late 
Literary History. * 

BOOKER (John), one of those impostors who amused 
the public in the seventeenth century, was born at Man- 
chester in 1601, and was bred a haberdasher in Lawrence- 
lane, London, but quitted this employment and followed 

1 Freheri Tbeatrum.«-Icones ac Vile Rect. Acad. Leidea, 4to, 1714. ^Reel's 
* Kicholi'ji Bowyer, ro\u I. and V. 

TS B O K £ R. 

that of a writing-master at Hadley in Middlesex, and ^M 
afterwards for some time clerk to the sitting aldermen at 
Guildhall. He in a few years rendered himself so eminent, 
that he was appointed licenser of mathematical books, under 
which were included all those that related to the Celestial 
sciences. Lilly tells us, that he once thought him the 
greatest astrologer in the world ; but it appears that he 
afterwards sunk in his esteem, and that he thought himself 
a much greater man. We are told by the same author, 
that ^^ he had a curious fancy in judging of thefts, and 
was as successful in resolving love questions,*' which was 
a capital branch of his trade. George Wharton, who was 
formerly one bf his astrological friends, had a great quarrel 
with him, which occasioned bis publishing ** Mercurio- 
Ccelico Mastix ; or an Anti-caveat to all such as have here- 
tofore had the misfortune to be cheated and deluded by 
that great and treacherous impostor John Booker ; in an 
answer to his frivolous pamphlet, entitled Mercurius Ccer- 
licusy or a Caveat to all the people of England ;" Oxon. 
1644, 4to. The only work of Booker's worth notice is, 
his " Bloody Irish Almanac,'* which contains some me- 
morable particulars relative to the war in Ireland. He 
died April 1667, and his books were sold to Elias Ashmole, 
who, as Lilly informs us, and we may readily believe, gave 
more for them than they were worth. * 

BOONEN (Arnold), a portrait-painter, was born at 
Dort, in 1669, and after having been for some time a 
disoiple of Arnold Verbuis,^ placed himself under Godfrey 
Schalcken, who recommended to him, after having re- 
ceived his instructions for six' years, to study nature. By 
following this advice, Boonen obtained the reputation of a 
great master at the age of twenty*five years. His style of 
colouring was extremely good ; the attitudes of his figures 
were elegantly disposed ; his touch neat. The whole pos-, 
sessed such harmony, and his portraits maintained such a 
striking likeness, that he was ranked among the ablest 
artists of his time ; he had a number of admirers, and a 
greater demand for works than he was able to execute. He 
had the honour of painting the portraits of the czar of 
Muscovy, of Frederick I. king of Prussia, of the victorious 
duke of Marlborough, as well as of many of the princes of 
Germany, and most of the noblemen who attended the 

1 Granger.— Lilly's life and Times, p. 40, edit 1774. • ' 

B O O N E N. 7§ 

(pear. His health was impaired by his excessive appUca* 
tioD, and be died rich in 1729.^ 

BOOT, or BOETIUS (Gerard), of a noble family, was 
bom at Gorcum, in Holland, in 1604. After taking his 
degree of doctor in medicine, be came to England, and was 
in such estimation for his skill in his profession, that he 
was made physician to king Charles I. On the death of 
that prince be settled in Dublin, but died soon after, viz. 
in 1650. In 16S0 he published " Heures de Recreation,'' 
4to, in the Dutch language; and in 1640, ^^ Philosophia 
Naturalis reformata," which are not, howerer, much esteem- 
ed. His brother Arnold, likewise a ph3;sician, was well 
versed in the Latin, Greek, Hebrew, and Syriac languages. 
After taking his degree of doctor in medicine, he came also 
to London ; but on the breaking out of the troubles here^ 
be removed to Ireland, where be practised with success 
and reputation for some years. Tired at length with the 
hurry aud confusion incident to civil commotions, and hav- 
ing experienced some losses, he went to Pari#, and there 
passed the reminder of his life in retirement and study. 
He died in 1653. He published, in 1649, ^^ Observationes 
Medicae de affectibus a veteribus omissis,'' 12mo. Haller 
gives a particular account of this volume, which contains 
many interesting and curious observatit)os. ' 


BOOTH (Abraham), a pious and popular dissenting 
minister of the Baptist persuasion, was born at Black well 
in Derbyshire, May 20, 1734, of poor parents, who were 
unable to give him any education. He spent a consi- 
derable part of his youth in the farming business, and that 
of the stocking frame,' but appears to have during this time 
read much, and at length began to preach among the sect 
called the general baptists, throughout the towns and vil- 
lages in his neighbourhood. In his twenty-third year he 
married ; and this producing a numerous family, be opened 
a school at Sutton- Asb field. At this time he held the 
doctrine of universal redemption, and disliked predestina- 
tion to such a degree^ as to ridicule it in a poem (of which 
he was afterwards ashamed), but he now changed bis sen- 
timents and became a zealous Calvinist in that and othei 
points supposed to constitute the Calvinistic system. The 


'■ Pilkingtoa. — Descamps, vol. IV. 

• Haller, Bibl. Med. — Reel's Cyclopaedia,— Moreri. 


80 BOOTH. 

consequence of this change was, an avowal and defence of 
his new opinions in bis first publication, *^ The Reign oi 
Grace," in which be was encouraged by the late rev. Henry 
Venn, vicar of Huddersfield, who wrote a recommendatory 
preface to it. It appeared in 1768, and led to a new and 
important aera in his life, being so much approved by the 
congregation of particular baptists in Prescot-street, Good* 
man's fields, whose pastor was just dead, that they invited 
Mr. Booth to succeed him. This invitation he accepted, 
and in Feb. 1769, took possession of bis pulpit, after being 
regularly ordained for the first time. Here he appears for 
some years to have spent what time he could spare from 
his public labours in laying in a stock of knowledge ; and 
although he always lamented the want of a regular educa* 
lion, his proficiency, and the extent of his reading were so 
great as in some measure to redeem his time, and place 
him on a footing, both as a scholar, prwcher, and writer, 
with the ablest of his bretbren. He knew Greek and 
Latin usefully, if not critically : the Greek Testament, he 
went through nearly fifty times by the simple expedient 
of reading one chapter every day. General science and 
literature, history, civil and ecclesiastical, he investigalied 
with acuteness in the ablest writers^ English, French, 
Dutch, and Germany and his works show that he particu* 
larly excelled in a knowledge of controvemal divinity, 
and of those arguments, pro and con, which were con- 
nected with his opinions^ as a baptist. After exercising 
his ministry in Prescot- street for nearly thirty-seven years, 
he died Monday, Jan, 27, 1806, and his memory was ho* 
noured by a tablet and inscription in his meeting-house, 
recording his virtues and the high respect his congrega* 
tion entertained for him. Besides the work already men* 
tioned, he published, 1. '^ The Death of Legal Hope, the 
Life of Evangelical Obedience,'' 1770, 12mo. 2. "-The 
Deity of Jesus Christ essential to the Christian Religion,*' 
a translation from Abbadie, and occasioned by the sub* 
scription controversy, 1770. 3. " An Apology for the Bap- 
tists — in refusing communion at the Lord's Table to Pse- 
dobaptists,'' 1778. 4. '^ Psedobaptism examined, on the 
principles, concessions, and reasonings of the most learned 
Pasdobaptists,'' 1784, and enlarged 1787, 2 vols, a work 
which his sect consider as unanswerable. He published 
also some lesser tracts and occasional sermons^^ 

1 £May on his Life and Writings, by William Jones^ 1808, Bvo, 

BOOTH. 81 

• Booth (BARraN), a celebrated tragic actor, was bora 
in the county palatine of Lancaster, 1681: At the age of 
nine jears he was put to Westminster school, under the 
tuition of the famous Dn Busby, where he soon discovered 
an excellent genius and capacity. He had a peculiar turn 
for Latin poetry, and had fixed many of th^ finest passages 
of the antients so firmly in his memory, that he could 
repeat them with such propriety of emphasis, and grace-> 
fulness of action, as to charm every body who heard him. 
Thence it was^ that when^ according to custom^ a Latin 
play was to be acted, one of the first parts was given to 
young Booth ; who performed it in such a mahner as gained 
him universal applause^ and particular respect from the 
doctor; This first gave him an inclination for the stage. 
His father intended him for the church : but when Barton 
reached the age of seven teeii, and was about to be sent to 
the university, he#tole away from school, and went over 
to Ireland in 1698, with Mr. Ashbury,. master of the com-^- 
pany. Here he was soon distinguished greatly by his 
theatrical abilities, especially in tragedy^ for which he 
seemed to be formed by nature ; for he had a grave coun- 
tenance and a good person^ with a fine voice and a manly 
action. When he had been three seasons in Dublin, in 
which time he had acquired a great reputation^ he resolved 
to return to England; which )ie accordingly did in 1701^ 
and was recommended to Mr. Betterton^ who behaved to 
him with great civility,, and took him into bis company. 
The first character in which he appeared on the Eng-* 
hsh stage, was that of Maximus, in the tragedy of Va- 
lentinian ; and it was scarce possible for a young actor to 
meet with a better reception. The Ambitious Stepmother 
coming on soon after, he performed the part of Artaban, 
which added considerably to the reputation he had ac- 
quired, and made him esteemed one of the first actors. 
Nor was his fame less in all the succeeding characters 
which he attempted ; but he shone with greatest lustre in 
the tragedy of Cato-, which was brought on the stage in 
1712. <' Although Cato (says Mr. Gibber) seems plainly 
written upon what are called whig principles, yet the 
tortes at that time had sense enough ^ot to take it as the 
least reflection on their administration; but^ on the con- 
trary, seemed to brandish, and vaunt their approbation of - 
every sentiment in favour of liberty, which, by a public 
act of their ^ generosity^ was carried so high, tl^at one day 
Vql. VL Q 

S2 ^ BOOTH. 

while the play was acting, they collected 50 guineas in 
the boxes, and made a present of them to Booth, with this 
compliment — For his honest opposition to a perpetual dic- 
tator, and his dying so bravely in the cause of hberty.'* 
The reputation to which Booth was now arrived seemed to 
entitle him to a share in the management of the theatre ; 
but this perhaps his merit would never have procured, had 
it not been through the favour of lord Bolipgbroke, who, 
in 1713, recalling all former licences, procured a new one, 
in which Booth's name was added to those of Cibber, 
Wilks, and Dogget. Dogget, however, was so much of- 
fended at this, that he threw up his share, and would not 
accept of any consideration for it ; but Cibber tells us, he 
only made this a pretence, and that the true reason of his 
quitting was his dislike to Wilks, whose humour was be- 
come insupportable to him. When Booth came to a share 
in the management of the house, he wA in the thirty-third 
year of his age, and in the highest reputation as an actor ; 
nor did his fame as a player sink by degrees, as sometimes 
has happened to those who have been most applauded, but 
increased every day more and more. The health of Booth, 
however, beginning to decline, he could not act so often 
as usual ; and hence became more evident the pubUc fa-^ 
Tour towards him, by the crowded audiences his appear- 
ance drew, when the intervals of his distemper permitted 
him to tread the; stage: but his constitution broke now 
very fest, and he was attacked with a complication of dis<« 
tempers, which carried him off, May 10, 1733. 

His character as an actor has been celebrated by some 
of the best judges. Mr. Aaron Hill, a gentleman, who by 
the share he had in the management of the play-house, 
could not but have suflEicient opportunities of becoming 
well acquainted with his merit, has given us a very high 
character of him. ^* Two advantages (says this gentleman), 
distinguished him in the strongest light from the rest of his 
fraternity ; he had learning to understand perfectly wha(« 
ever it was his part to speak, and judgment to know how 
far it agreed or disagreed with his character. Hence arose 
a peculiar grace, which was visible to every spectator, 
though few were at the puns of examining into the cause 
of their pleasure. He could soften, and slide over with a 
kind of elegant negligence, the improprieties in a part he 
acted ; while, on the contrary, he would dwell with energy 
upon the beauties, as if he exerted a latent spirit^ whichi 

fi O O T^ m 8S 

had been kept back for such an occasion, that he might 
alarm, awaken, and transport in those places only where 
the dignity of his own good sense could be supported by 
that of his author* A little reHectiori upon this remarkable 
quality will teach u8 to account for that manifest languor, 
which has sometimes been observed in his action, and 
which was generally, though I think falsely, imputed, to 
the natural indolence of his temper. For the same reason, 
though in the customary rounds of his business he would 
condescend to some parts in comedy, he seldom appeared 
in any of them with much advantage to his character. 
The passions which he found in comedy were not strong 
enough to excite his fire, and what seemed want of quali- 
fication, was only absence of impression. He had a talent 
at discovering thfe passions, where 'they lay hid in some 
celcibrated parts, b^the injudicious practice of other actors^ 
which when he hln discovei^ed, he soon grew able to ex* 
press : and his secret for attaining this great lesson of the 
theatre was an adaption of his look to his voice, by which 
artful imitation of nature, the variations in the sound of his 
words gave propriety to every change in his countenance. 
So that it was Mr. Booth's peculiar felicity to be heard an4 
seen the same-^whether as the pleased, the grieved, the 
pitying, the reproachful, or the angry. One would almost be 
tempted to borrow the aid of a very bold figure, and, to ex- 
press this excellence the more significantly, beg permission 
to affirm, that the blind might have seen him ifi his voice, 
and the deaf have heard him in his visage. His gesture^ 
or^ as it is commonly called, his action, was but the result 
and necessary consequence of his dominion over his voice 
and countenance; for having, by a concurrence of twa 
such causes, impressed his imagination with such a stamp 
and spirit of passion, he ever obeyed the impulse by a 
kind of natural dependency, and relaxed or braced sue-* 
cessively into all that fine expressiveness, with which he 
painted -What he spoke without restraint or affectation.'' 

Mr. Cibber has also taken particular notice of Booth, 
nor has he omitted either his excellencies or defects : this 
Writer, speaking of Wilks and him^ says, ** they were ac- 
tors so opposite in their manner, that if either of them 
could have borrowed a little of the other's fault, they 
would both have been improved by it. If Wilks had some- 
times too great a vivacity, Booth as often contented him- 
^If t?ith too grave a dignity. The latter seemed too 

G 2 

84 BOOTH. 

much to heave up his words, as the other to dart them ta 
the ear with too quick and sharp a vehemence. Thu^ 
Wiiks would too frequently break into the time and mea- 
sure of the harmony by too many spirited accents in one 
line ; and Booth, by too solemn a regard to harmony, would 
as often lose the necessary spirit of it : so that (as I have 
observed) could we have sometimes raised the one and 
sunk the other, they had both been nearer the mark. 
Yet this could not be always objected to them ; they had 
their intervals of unexceptionable excellence, that more 
than balanced their errors. The master-piece of Bootti 
was Othello ; then he was most in character, and seemed 
not more to sinimate and please himself in it than his spec- 
tators. It is true he owed his last. and highest advance- 
ment to his acting Cato ; but it was the novelty and critical 
appearance of that character, that chiofly swelled the tor- 
rent of his applause ; for, let the sentiments of a declaim- 
. ing patriot have all the sublimity of poetry, and let them 
be delivered with all the utmost grace and elocution, yet 
this is but one light wherein the excellence of an actor 
can shine ; but in Othello we may see him in the variety 
of nature. In Othello, therefore, I may safely aver, that 
Booth shewed himself thrice the actor that he could in 
Cato, and yet his merit in acting Cato need not be di- 
minished by this comparison. Wilks often regretted, that 
in tragedy he had not the full and strong voice of Booth, 
to command and grace his periods with. But Booth used 
to say, that if his ear had been equal to it, Wilks had 
voice enough to have shewn himself a much better trage- 
dian. Now, though there might be some truth in this, yet 
these two actors were of so mixed a merit, that even in 
tragedy the superiority was not always on the same side. 
In sorrow, tenderness, or resignation, Wilks plainly had 
the advantage, and seemed more pathetically to feel, look, 
and express his calamity. But in the more turbulent trails 
sports of the heart. Booth again bore the palm, and left 
all competitors behind him.'* 

Besides his professional merit. Booth was a man of let- 
ters, and an author in more languages than one. He had 
a taste for poetry, which discovered itself when he was 
very young, in translations from several Odes of Horace; 
and in his riper years, he wrote several songs and other 
original poems, which were very far from injuring his re- 
putation. He was also the author of a mask or dramatic 

BOOTH. 85 

entertainment called " D\do and ^neas/* that was very 
well received upon the stage ; but his best performance 
was a Latin inscription to the memory of a celebrated 
actor, Mr. William Smith, one of the greatest men of his 
profession, and of whom Mr. Booth always spoke in rap- 
tures. This short elogy has much strength, beauty, and 
elegance. In his private life he had many virtues, r id 
few of the failings so common to his profession. He had 
no envy in bis composition, but readily approved, and as 
readily rewarded, merit, as it was in his power. He was 
something rough in his manner, and a little hasty in his 
temper, but very open and free to speak his sentiments, 
which he always did with an air of sincerity, that procured 
him as much credit with people at first sight, as he had 
with those to whom he had been long known. He was 
kind to all the players whose circumstances were indifferent, 
and took care not to make them uneasy, either in point of 
salary or of usage. He was no great speaker in company, 
but when he did, it was in a grave lofty way, not unlike 
his pronunciation on the stage. He had a great venera- 
tion for his parents while they were living, and was also 
very useful to his brother and sister after their decease^ 
Booth was twice married; first in 1704, to Miss Frances 
Barkljam, daughter of sir William Barkham, of Norfolk, 
hart, who died in 1710, without issue; and secondly, to 
Mrs. Santlowe, an actress, who survived him forty years, 
and in 1772, erected a monument to his memory in West- 
fninster abbey. In 1737 she married Mr. Goody er, a 
gentleman of fortune in Essex. ' 

BOOTH (George), Lord Delamer, the son of Wijliam 
Booth, esq. and grandson of sir George Booth, bart. ren-!- 
dered himself remarkable by heading an insurrection in 
Cheshire, about a year after the death of Oliver CromwelU 
He received a commission from king Charles II. under hisf 
signet and sign-manual, bearing da^e July 22, 1659, by 
which he was constituted commander in chief of all forces 
to be raised for l^is ipajesty's service in Cheshire, Lan^ 
cashire,^ and North AVales. A duplicate of this was dated 
at Brussels, Aug. 9, the same year, but .sir George did 
not. opeiijy profess to act by the king's authority, or with 
a view tp his restoration, but only in opposition to the 

' ^ fiiog. 5rit. — ^Biog. Dram. — Cibber»8 Lives. — Life by Theophilus Cibber, 
•1*753, Svo.^Viotor'B Works, vol L p. 79, 96, 316.-i-Bowle8*8 edit, of Pope'g 
IfTorks^-rr^ent, Ma^. vol. VII. y, 252, • 

86 BOOTH. 

tyranny of the parliament. He assembled about four thouv 
sand men, took possession of Chester, and was joined by 
the earl of Derby, sir Thomas Middleton, and major Brook, 
But the parliamentary forces pursued sir George and h\% 
adherents so closely, that they could not avoid coming to 
an action ; and, after a sharp cpntest, on the 1 9th of Aur 
gust, 1659, Lambert totally routed sir George Booth** 
troops, pursiied them a* considerable way, and killed and 
took many of them. Ludlow informs us, that " Sir George 
Booth, after his defeat, put himself into a woman^s habit, 
and with two servants hoped to escape to London, riding 
behind one of them. The single horseman going before, 
went to an inn on the road ; and, as he had been ordered, 
bespoke a supper for his mistress, who, he said, was 
coming afterK The pretended mistress being arrived, 
either by alighting from the horse, or some other action, 
raised a suspicion in %he master of the house, that there 
was som^ mystery under that dress. And thereupon rer 
solving to make a full inquiry into the matter, he got tOr 
gether some of his neighbours to assist him, and with thei^t 
entered the rooip where th6 pretended lady was. But sir 
George Booth suspecting their intentions, and being un-» 
willing to put them to the trouble of a farther search, dis- 
covered himserf. Whereupon they took him into their 
custody, "and sent him up to London, where the parlia-' 
ment committed him prisoner to the Tower." Sir George 
made applications to many of the parliament and council, 
by his friends, for favour; was examined by Has^lrig and 
Vane, who referred his examination to the council of state; 
and applications were made from the lord Say, and others, 
to save his life. 

He was afterwards set at liberty, upon giving bail ; and 
being member of parliament for Chester, he was the first 
of the twelve members sent by the house of commons, in 
May 1660, to carry to king Charles IL the answer of that 
house to his majesty's letter, as appears by tde journals of 
the house of commons, May 7, 1660. And on the I3th of 
July following, the house of commons ordered, that the 
sum of ten thousand pounds should be conferred on him, 
as a mark of respect for his eminent services, and great 
suflFerings for the public. In this resolution the lords after- 
wards concurred. ' It appears, that the first motion was ^r 
twenty thousand pounds, which the house of commont 
was about to agree tb, had not sir George Booth himself. 

BOOTH. ?7 

in hl^ place, requested of the house, that it might be no 
more than ten ; declaring, that what he had done was 
purely with intention of serving his king^nd country, as 
became him in duty to do, without view of any reward. 
After the restoration, his services were also considered as 
so meritorious, that the king gave him liberty to propose 
six gentlemen to receive the honour of knighthood, and 
two others to have the dignity of baronet conferred on 
them. He was also himself created baron Delamer of Dun* 
bam-Massey ; and on the 30th of July, 16'60, he was ap- 
pointed custos rotulorum for the county of Cheshire, but 
on the 30th of May, 1673, he resigned this office to 
Henry, his son and heir. " After this," says Collins, " he 
not being studious to please the court in those measures 
which were taken in some parts of that reigp, both he and 
his family were soon afterwards disregarded by the king, 
and ill used by his successor king James the Second." His 
lordship died at Dunham- Massey, in the 63d year of his 
age, on the 8th of August, 1684, and was buried in a very 
splendid manner at Bowdon, in the burial-vault of the 
family. He was twice married : his first wife was the lady 
Catherine Clinton, daughter and co-heir to Theophilus 
earl of Lincoln, who died in child-bed in 1643, by whom 
he had issue one daughter, Vere, who died unmarried at 
Canonbury-house, in 1717, in th^ seventy-fourth year of 
her age, and was buried in Islington church. His second 
wife was the lady Elizabeth Grey, eldest daughter of 
Henry earl of Stamford, by whom he had issue seven sons 
Itnd five daughters. His eldest son, William, died youngs 
and he was succeeded in his honours and estate by his se- 
cond son, Henry, who is the subject of the following 
article. * 

300TH (Henry), earl of Warrington, and baron Dcr 
lamer of Dunham Massey, an upright senator and distin- 
guished patriot, was born on the l3th of January, 1651« 
He was the second son of the preceding George lord De- 
lamer, by the lady Elizabeth Grey. In the life-time of 
his father, he was custos rotulorum for the county palatine 
of Chester, and also knight of the shire for that county, in 
several psirliaments during the feign of king Charles the 
Second. He very early rendered himself conspicuous by 
his zeal for the protestant religion, and the liberties of his 

> Biog. BriU 


country. When the bill for eKcluding the duke of York 
from the throne was brought into parliament^ Mr. Booth, 
was very active in the promotion of it, and also made a 
spirited speech in support of the necessity of frequent par-* 
liaments, and against governing by favourites ; and he op^ 
posed, with a becoming spirit, the unjust and arbitrary 
power assumed by the privy council, of imprisoning men 
contrary to law. 

As he was solicitous for frequent parliaments, so he was 
also anxious that they should be preserved incorrupt. > He 
was, therefore, desirous of procuring an act for the punish* 
ment of those who had received bribes from the court, as 
members of that parliament which was styled the pension* 
parliament. He proposed, that a, bill should be brought 
in, by which these prostituted senators should be rendered 
incapable of serving in parliament for the future, or of 
enjoying any office, civil or military ; and that they shouU 
be obliged, as far as they were able, to refund all the money 
that they had received for secret services to the crown. 

He made likewise a speech in parliament against the 
corruption of the judges, in which be affirmed, that, in a 
variety of cases, they bad sold, denied, or delayed justice. 
** Our Judges,'* said he, " have been very corrupt and 
)ordly, taking bribes, and threatening juries and evidenced; 
perverting the law to the highest degree, turning the law 
upside down, that arbitrary power may come in upon their 
shoulders." He therefore recommended, that an inquiry 
should be made into their conduct, and that such of them 
as were found guilty might receive the punishment they 

Mr. Booth was also extremely zealous against the pa-^ 
pists ; and this circumstance, together with the vigorous 
opposition that he made in parliament to the arbitrary 
measures of the court, occasioned him to be put out of the 
commission of the peace, and removed from the office of 
custos rotulorum of the county of Chester, In 1684, by 
the death of his father, be became lord Delamer ; but 
about this time he was committed close prisoner to the 
Tower of London. The pretence probably, was, that he 
was suspected of being coocerned in some practices against 
the crown ; but we have met with no particular accoi^nt of 
the accusation against him : and as no parliament w%$, tbeu 
sitting, it may be presumed, that less attention was paid 
to any illegality in the proceedings respecting himt« He 

BOOTH. 8» 

was, however, set at liberty, after a fevr months imprison-^ 
meiit. But soon after the accession of king James IL he 
was again committed prisoner to the Tower. After being 
confined for some time, he was admitted to bail; but was, 
shortly after, a third time committed to the Tower. This 
was on the 26th of July, 1685 ; and a parliament being 
assembled in the November following, on the first day of 
the session he stated his case in a petition to the house of 
peers. He represented to their lordships, that the king, 
by his proclamation, had required him to appear before 
him in council within ten days. He had accordingly sur<» 
rendered himself to lord Sunderland, then principal secre- 
tary of state ; and being brought before his majesty, then 
sitting in council, he was neither confronted by any per- 
son who accused him, nor otherwise charged with any 
kind of treason, but only questioned about some inferior 
matters, and which were of such a nature, that, if he had 
i>een really guilty of them, he ought by law to have been 
admitted to bail : notwithstanding which, he had been 
committed close prisoner to the Tower, by a warrant from 
the secretary of state, in which he was charged with high 
treason. After some debate, it was resolved, that the lords 
.Mth white staves should wait upon his majesty, ^^ to know 
.the reason why the lord Delamer, a member of their house^ 
was absent from his attendance there." The day follow- 
ing, the earl of Rochester, lord treasurer, reported to the 
•house, ^^That he, with the other lords, having waited on 
. his majesty with their message, his majesty was pleased to 
answer. That ^he lord Delamer stood committed for high 
treason, testified upon oath; and that his majesty had 
already given directions, that he. should be proceeded 
r gainst according to law." 
. After the parliament was broken up, lord Delamer was 
)>rought to his trial, before a select number of the peers, 
pn the 14th of January, 1685-6. The peers who tried 
him were, the dukes of Norfolk, Somerset, Beaufort, and 
jGrafton; the earls of Rochester, Sunderland, Mulgrave, 
Oxford, Shrewsbury, Uuutingdop, Pembroke, Bridg- 
water, Peter|)orough, Scarsdale, Craven, Feversham, 
JBerk($ley» Npttingbam, and Plymouth ; the viscounts Fal- 
conberg and Newport ; and the lords Ferrers, Cromwell, 
. Maynard, Dartmouth, Godolphin, and Churchill. Jef- 
feries, then lord chaucellor, was appointed lord high 
Meward on the occasion. He was known to be a personal 

90 BOOTH. 

enemy of lord Delamer, who bad arraigned in parliament 
the conduct of Jefferies as chief justice of Chester. Lord 
Delamer, after the indictment against him was read, ob- 
jected against the jurisdiction of the court ; alleging, that 
be ought no( to be tried by a select number of the peers, 
but by the whole body of the house of peers in parliament, 
because the parliament was then only under a prorogation, 
and not dissolved. But HU plea was overruled. In Jef^ 
feries^s charge to the peers, previous to tbe opening of the 
evidence against lord Delamer, he threw Out some hints 
relative to me share his lordship had in promoting the bill 
p{ exclusion, and introduced an eulogium on the conduct 
pf king James the Second, Tbe only positive evidence 
against lord Delamer was one Thomas Saxon, a man of a 
very bad character, and who in the course of the trial was 
proved to be perjured. Jefferies maintained, that there 
was no necessity, in point of law, that there should be two 
positiye witnesses to convict a man of treason ; and that 
where there was only one positive witness, additional cir- 
cumstances might supply tbe place of a second. Lord 
pelamer made a very able defence ; and by tbe lords who 
were appointed to try him he was unanimously acquitted. 

After this he lived for some time in a retired manner, 
^t his seat at Dunham-M assey ; but matters being at length 
ripe for the revolution, he exerted himself in the promo- 
tion of that great event. Upon the prince of Grangers 
landing, he raised> in a very few days, a great force in^ 
Cheshire and Lancashire, with which he marched to join 
that prince. On his first appearance in arms, besides as- 
signing other reasons for his conduct, he is said to have 
snade this declaration : ^M am of opinion,' that when the 
nation is delivered, it must be by force, or miracle : it 
would be a great presumption to expect tbe latter; and, 
therefore, our deliverance must be by force ; and I hope 
this is tbs time for it." After he bad joined the prince, 
be was sent by his highness, together with the marquis of 
Halifax, and the earl of Shrewsbury, on the 17th of De- 
cember, 1688, with a message to king James, intimating 
to him, that he must remove from Whitehall. Lord Dela« 
mer, though little attached to that prince in his prosperity^ 
was too generous to insult him in his distress ; and ^ere^- 
fore, on this occasion, treated him with respect. And 
James wais so sensible of this instance of bis lordship^s civi- 
lity to him, that, after his retirement into France, be said, 

BO O T H- 9i- 

that ** the lord Pelamer, whom be had used ill, bad then' 
treated him with much more regard than the other two 
lords, to whom he had been ki^ndi and from whom he 
might better have expected it.** 

Lord Deiamer, however, had no inclination that an ac- 
commodation should take place between king James and 
the nation. For in a debate in the house of peers, the 
31st of January, 1688-9, relative to declaring the thronef 
vacant, lord Delanier said, that ^^ it was Ipng since he 
thought himself absolved from his allegiance to king James; 
that he owed him none, and never would pay him any; 
and, if king James came again, he was resolved to fight 
against him, and would die single with his sword in his 
band, rather than pay him any obedience.** It is inti- 
mated by sir John Dalrymple, that lord Delamer was not 
sufficiently ei^peditious in' joining the prince of Orange 
when be first landed in England ; and that gentleman 
affirms, that this was never forgiven by king William : but' 
this^is an assertion unsupported by any proper evidence; 
It is certain, that his services in the promotion of the revo- 
lution were thought so meritorious at that period, that on- 
the 13th of February, 1688-9. he was sworn a privy coun- 
sellor; on the 9th of April following, he was appointed 
chancellor and under treasurer of the exchequer; en the 
12th of the same montb> made lor4*lieutenant of the city 
and county of Chester; and on the 19th of July made 
custos rotulorum of the same county. These last offices^ 
together with that of privy counsellor, he enjoyed for life : 
but he continued in the others only for about a year. The 
reason appears to have been, that lord Delamer seems tp 
have wished for more retrenchments of the regal preroga- 
tive, than were made at the revolution. That he was de- 
sirous of some new limitations of the prerogative, is evi- 
dent from a protest signed by him, relative to a clause 
proposed to be added to the bill of rights. He also signed ' 
a protest respecting an amendment to the bill for recog- 
nizing king William and queen Mary. 

Though lord Delamer was removed from the administra- 
tion, it was thought necessary to confer on hini some mark 
of royal favour. Accordingly, by letters-patent, bearing 
date at Westminster, April 17, 1690, he was created ean 
of Warrington, in the county of Lancaster, to continue to 
him and the heirs-male of his body. * A peniiion likewise of 
two thousand pounds per annum was granted to himi for 

92 BOOTH. 

the better support of that dignity. And it was said, in the 
preamble of the patent for bis earldom, that it' was con- 
ferred on him, *^ for his great services in raising and bring- 
ing great forces to his majesty, to rescue his country and 
religion from tyranny and popery." On the 3d of January, 
1692*3, the earl of Warrington signed a protest against 
the rejection of the bill for incapacitating persons in office 
under the crown, either civil or military, from sitting in' 
the house of commons. Two other protests were also 
signed by him on different occasions. But this patriotic 
peer did not live long to enjoy his new dignity ; for he 
died at London on the 2d of January, 1693-4, having not 
quite completed the forty -second year of his age. He was 
interred in the family-vault in Bowdon church, in the 
county oi Chester, on the 14th of the same month. Mr. 
Grander says, that lord Delamer was "a man of a gene- 
rous and noble nature, which disdained, upon any terms, 
to submit to servitude; and whose passions seemed to 
centre in the love of civil and religious liberty.'* In every 
part of his life, indeed, he appears to have been actuated 
by the same principles; and in his ^^ Advice to his Chil- 
dren," printed in his works, he says, "There never yet 
was any good man who had not an ardent zeal for his 
country.** He was not only illustriously distinguished by 
his public spirit, and his noble ardour in defence of the 
liberties of his country ; but in his private life he appears 
to have been a man of strict piety, and of great worth, ha- 
nour, and humanity. He married Mary, sole daughter 
and heiress to sir James Langham, of Cottesbrooke, in the 
county of Northampton, knight and baronet, by whom be 
had four sons, and two daughters. His first son died an 
infant, and his second son, George, upon the death of his 
father, became earl of Warrington. He died on the 2d 
of August, 1758, and leaving no heirs male, the earldom 
became extinct, but was revived in his daughter's husband. 

The works of Henry earl of Warrington, the subject of 
this article, were published in 1694, in one volume 8v6. 
They consist chiefly of speeches made by him in parlia- 
ment, prayers used by his lordship in his family, some 
short political tracts, and the case of William earl of De- 
vonshire. He published also, ^^ The late lord R^ssePs 
case, with observations upon it,'* 1689, fol. 

The son of the preceding, who, we have just mentioned, 
died in 1758, has obtained a place among the royal and 

BOOT tt: 9$ 

noble authors/'for faavirtg published, but without bis name, 
" Considerations upon the institution of Marriage, with 
some thoughts concerning the force and obligation of the 
marriage contract; wherein is consiidered, how £ar divorces 
may or ought to be allowed. By a gentleman. Humbly 
submitted to the judgment of the^ impartial," Lond. print- 
ed for John Whiston, 1739. It is an argument for di* 
vorte on disagreement of temper, which was the aim of 
Milton in his ** Tetrachordon," and would, if we may con- 
jecture from the effects of the experiment in a neighbour- 
ing nation, create more dissoluteness and misery than it 
was intended to remove. He also wrote a letter to the 
writer of the " Present state of the Republic of Letters" in 
August 1734, vindicating his father from some reflections 
cast on him in Burnett's ** History of his own times." 
His only daughter married Henry earl of Stamford, in 
whose son, the title of Earl of Warrington was revived in 

BOQUINE (Peter), 9r BOQUINUS, a French di- 
vine, and one of the contributors to the reformation, was 
born in Aquitaihe, and educated in a monastery at Bourges, 
of which be became prior, and in high estimation with his 
brethren. Having, however, perused some of the writings 
of Luther, Bucer, &c. he imbibed their sentiments, and 
went to Wittemberg, where he became acquainted with 
Luther and Melancthon, and at Basil he attended the lec- 
tures of Myconius, Carlostadt, v and Sebastian Muncer. 
Melancthon aftervpards recommended him as a proper per- 
son to supply Calvin's place at Strasburgh, who had gone 
back to Geneva ; and there he gave lectures on the epistle 
to the Galatians, and soon after had for his coadjutor 
Peter Martyr. Boquine being at some distance of tim^e 
invited by his brother, who was a doctor in divinity, and 
not an enemy to the reformation, removed to Bourges, iu 
hopes that the French churches were friendly to his doc- 
trine, and there he publicly read and expounded the He- 
brew Bible. About this time, Francis, king of France, 
bj6ing dead, the queen of Navarre came to Bourges, when 
Boquine presented her with a book he had written on the 
necessity and use of the Holy Scriptures, which she re- 
ceived very graciously, allowed him a yearly stipend out 

1 Biojf. Brit.— Park's edit, of Walpok's Royal and Noble Authors; vol. IIU 
•ad IV. 

»4 B Q. U I N E* 

of her tresLsllry^ and appointed him to preadb a public I^ci^ 
tiire in the great church of Bourges^ with the consent of 
the archbishop. He remained in like favour with her sue- 
cessor, king Henry's sister; but the enemies of the re- 
formation threatening his life> he was obliged to desistt 
irom his labours, and went back to Strasburgh, where he 
was appointed pastor to the. French churcbi This office^ 
however, he filled only about four months^ and in 1557 
went into Heidelberg, at the invltattion of Otho Henry^ 
prince elector Palatine, who was carrying on the reforma- 
tion in his churches. Here he was appointed professor of 
divinity, and continued in this office about twenty years, 
under Otho and Frederic HL After the death of the lat- 
ter in 1576, the popish party again prevailing, drove him 
and the rest of the reformed clergy firom the place, but 
almost immediately be was invited to Lausanne^ where he 
remained until his death in 1582. He left various works^ 
the dates of which his biographers have not given, except 
the following *f Oratie in 'obitum Frederici IIL Comit* 
Palatini," Leyden, 1577, 4to; but their titlesare, I. " De- 
fensio ad calumnias Doctoris cujusdam Avii in Evangelii 
professores.** 2. " Examen libri quern Heshusius in- 
scripsit de prsesentia corporis Christi in cceua Domini.^ 
3. " Theses in coena Domini." 4. " Exegesis dtvinaft 
communicationis." 5. " Adsertio veteris, ac veri Chris* 
tianismi adversus novum et ficttim Jesuitismum." This 
appears to have been one of his ablest works, and was 
translated into English under the title, " A defence of the 
old and true profession of Christianitie against the new 
counterfeite sect of Jesuites, by Peter Boquine, translated 
by T. G." London, 1581, 8vo, by John Wolf, city printer. 
6. ^^ Notatio prsecipuarum causarum diuturnitatis contro* 
versiae de cosna Domini," &c. * 


BORCHT, or BORGT (Henry Vander,) a paititer, 
engraver, and antiquary, was born at Brussels in 1583, but 
when in his third year, the war obliged hi^ parents to re« 
move into Germany. From his earliest years he discovered 
a taste for painting,\ which induced his father to place him 
und^r Giles Van Valkenberg. He afterwards studied in 
Italy^ and travelling over Germany, settleci first at Fi^anhen* 
dal^ and in 1627 at Francfort on^he Maine. His paint*' 

' Melchior Adam d« Yitis Theolog. — ^Freberi Theatrum» 

B O R C H T, 9i 

ings, principally fruit and flowers, were much admired, but 
he perhaps had more reputation as an antiquary, in which 
capacity, the eari of Arundel sent him into Italy to Mr. 
Petty, who was J:ben collecting for his lordship, and re- 
tained him in his service as long as he lived. After the 
death of this patron, Vander Borcht was employed by the 
prince of Wales (afterwards Charles II.) and lived in esteem 
at London several years, till he returned to Antwerp, where 
he died in 1660. As an engraver we have some few etch»- 
ings by him ;* among the rest the- " Virgin and Child,'* a 
small upright print, from Parmigiano, engraved at London 
in 1637; a ** Dead Christ, supported by Joseph of Arima* 
thea,'' from the same master, and <^ Apollo and Cupid," a 
small upright oval from Perin del Vago^ 

BORDA (John Charles), a celebrated French mathe* 

matician and natural philosopher, was born at Dax, in the 

department of the Landes, May 4, 1733. His mother was 

Maria Theresa de Lacroix, and his father John Anthony 

Bord^, whose ancestors had acquired considerable dtstinc*- 

tion in the French army. He began his studies in the coN 

lege of the Bamabites at Dax, where he gave early indica* 

tions of his future genius. He was a considerable time after 

put under the charge of the Jesuits of La Fleche, and by 

bis ardour for study and superior talents, frequently carried 

off the prizes .which were held out as the reward of youthful 

genius. This induced the Jesuits to endeavour to press 

him into their order, but his attachment to geometry was 

too powerful to be weakened by their persuasions. He en* 

€M>untered afterwards a more formidable opposition from his 

father, who was hostile to the prosecution of what he called 

unprofitable studies, and endeavoured to please him by 

proposing to enter into the engineer service of the army^ 

where the objects of his profession would necessarily re«> 

quire a knowledge of geometry and physics. His father^ 

however, having eleven children, and being obliged to sup«< 

port two of his sons who were already in the army, was anx-> 

bus that Charles should look forward to some situation in 

the magistracy, which might be obtained without much ex^* 

pence and trouble. To these views Borda reluctantly sub*'- 

mitted ; but after having thus lost some of the most precious 

years of his youth, a Ariar, who was a particular friend of 

his father, obtained, by earnest solicitation, that he shouM 

* £>eMampt, rol. I.— PUkrngton And Stmtt.— Oribrd*'s Btof raT«ri« 

96 B O R D A. 

be allowed to devote himself to his fgiFOurite ^iencfe; sn^^ 
every restraint being now removed, he was in 1753, when 
only twenty years of age, introduced to D'Alembert, who 
advised him to remain in the capital, and look forward to a 
situation in the academy. Borda accordingly entered die 
light horse, and continuing his mathematical studies, he be* 
came professor to his comrades. 

In 1756, he laid before the academy a memoir on the 
motion of projectiles, which was pairticularly mentioned in 
the history of its proceedings ; and in the same year he was 
appointed an associate of the academy. In the following 
year he was called into active service, and was present at 
the battle of Hastembeck, July 26, 1757, as aid-^de-camp 
to M. de Maillebois. He willingly returned, however, 
from a species of duty which interrupted the progress of 
his studies ; and, upon his arrival at Paris, he became a 
candidate for a situation in the engineer service : and such 
was the estimation in which his talents were held, that he 
was received without examination, and immediately em* 
ployed as an inspector of the dock-yards. This new ap* 
pointment was highly favourable for calling. into action the 
peculiar talents of Borda. It inspired him with a fondness 
for every thing that related to the naval service : and, what 
seldom happens to the man of genius, he found himself ia 
a situation in which he was led both by his profession and 
by his inclination to the same line of study. 

The first object of his research was an examination of the 
theories of the resistance of fluids, a subject intimately 
connected with the advancement and perfection of naval 
architecture. The experiments upon this subject made by 
the academy of sciences, were by no means fitted to de* 
termine the resistance of bodies that were wholly immersed 
in the fluid. Borda, however, employed a method which 
was susceptible of great accuracy, and had also the ad van* 
tage of ascertaining accurately the velocity of the motion. 
The surfaces upon which his experiments were made were 
of various forms, and the experiments were made both in 
air and water. The results of these inseresting experi- 
ments are given at length in the Memoirs of the Academy 
for 1763 and 17^7. The apparatus, however, employed 
by Borda, was not of his own invention. A machine of the 
same kind had been used some time before by our inge* 
nious countryman, Benjamin Robins, in his admirable ex*. 
perimentson the^ resistance of air. Yet we are indebted. 

B O R D A. 97 

to Borda for many ingenious, experiments and obser- 
vations on the motion of fluids through different orificea. 
He prepared a theory of the motion of fluids diflerent from 
that which had been given by Bernouilli and D'Alembert^ 
and be made new experiments on the vena cantracta. 

In 1767, he published an excellent dissertation in the 
Memoirs of the Academy, entitled ^^ Memoire sur les Roues 
.Hydrauliques/' shewing that an undershot wheel produces 
a maximum efliect when its velocity is one-half that of the 
current, though in practice the velocity is never more than 
three-eighths that of the current. He 'proved^ after De- 
parcieuzy from theory, before Smeaton had determined it 
by experiment, that the effect of overshot wheels increases 
with the slowness of their motion : that they are capable of 
raising, through the height of the fall, a quantity of water 
equal to that by which they are driven ; that undershot ver- 
tical wheels produce only three-eighths of this efiect ; that 
horizontal wheels produce about one-half of this efiect with 
plain float-boards, and a little more than one half with curvi* 
lineal float-boards. This memoir was followed by another, 
in 1768, oh the construction of vrater-pumps. About 
this time Borda's attention was directed to isoperimetricai 
problems, in which he obtained the same results as La- 
grange, though by a diflerent method. His last work, in 
the Memoirs of the Academy, was a dissertation on the 
" Theory of Projectiles." 

These labours induced M. Prasslin, the minister of the 
Sparine, to wish for the aid of his talents in the French navy, 
and after some opposition from official etiquette, he ap- 
.pointed him sub-lieutenant, in which character he first ap* 
peared in 1768 ; but nothing occurred of consequence un« 
til 1771, when the French and English were employed in 
many inve^ntions for the discovery of the longitude at sea, 
and the French government having determined to try the 
accuracy of some improved chronometers, the academy of 
sciences appointed Borda and Pingre to sail for that pur* 
pose in the Flora frigate. The result of their voyage was 
published at Paris in 1778, entitled, ^'Voyage fait par 
ordre du Roy en 1771 et 1772, &c." 2 vols. 4to. He 
was afterwards employed to determine the position of the 
Capaiy Isles, and being promoted to the rank of lieutenant^ 
sailed in 1776, and in the course of his voyage, performed 
its ibimediate object, with others. Being appointed major* 
general to the naval armament which served under Count 
. Vol. VI. H 

98 B O R D A. 

D'Estaign in America, his experience led him to disc^ijnreif 
many defects in the construction of vessels, which he thought 
might be easily remedied. He considered the want, of 
uniformity in the construction of ships, which were to act ' 
together, as a great defect, because 9. great discordance 
arose in their movements and in the execution of signals; 
Upon his return to France he communicated this idea to 
government, who immediately resolved to carry it into ef- 
f(»ct, and his profound knowledge and patriotic exertionii 
did not fall to be acknowledged not only by France, but by 
the best-informed men in England. The reputation. which 
he had npw acquired enabled him to be further serviceable 
to his country, by drawing up a plan for the schools of na- 
tal architecture^ of which he may justly be termed the 
founder j as he not only suggested the idea^ but formed the 
scheme for regulating these seminaries, and laid down die 
rules for the instruction of the pupils admitted into them^ 

As a naval officer, however, Borda acquired little ikme,r 
and being captured by the. English^ though after a very 
brave resistance, he determined to devote the remainder of 
his days to science arid philosophy. During hi* voyage 
along with Pingre in 1771, Borda found h[y experience 
that Hadley's quadrant was susceptible of great tmpi'ove- 
ment. The celebrated Tobias M:tyer had already endea* 
voured to remove its imperfections, but the merit of this 
Borda's biographer has transferred to him, declaring that 
Mayer's idea was never carried into effect, which is com* 
pletely false : one of Mayer's circles was made fgt Admiral' 
Campbell by Bird ; and Mayer had himself used an instru-* 
ment for measuring terrestrial angles upon the repeating 
principle^ which is described in "Commentaries of the 
Royal Society of <5ottingen" for 1752. Borda having ex^* 
uno^ined, with the utmost attention, the construction pro- 
posed by Mayer, pointed out its defects, and in a great 
measure removed. them by a circle of his pwn invention in 
1777, known by the name of the " Circle of Borda," but 
atill it was Hot witbcHit its numerous imperfections, and i% 
was reserved to put* ingenious countryman Troughton to 
bring to perfection one of the happiest inventions that was 
ever made. 

, To Borda J^rance is indebted for the invention of the 
mensuration -rod, with which the new station-lines were 
lately ascertained. He was also a zealous promoter of the 
reform in weights and measures; and in order to assist ia 
this^ he published ^^ Tables ^f Sines in the decimal sy 9* 

B O R D A; 99 

tem/^ at bis own expence. One of his last labours was| 
tbe accurate determination of the length of the pendulum 
vibrating seconds at Paris. Such were the acknowledged 
reputation and patriotism of Borda, that the highest ofBce« 
iuthe state were not deemed too great for merit such as 
fais ^ and we accordingly find the name of a man who bad 
been decorated with the cross of merit during the raor 
narcby, entered in the list of candidates for the office of 
Director under the republic. This occurred in 1797, and 
on tbe 20th of February 1799, the National Institute lost 
one of its greatest ornamenis and most assiduous sup- 
porters, in consequence of his death, which was occasioned 
by a dropsy, that cut him off Feb. 20, 17i)9, in the ^4th 
year of fais age. ' 

At tlie interment of his corpse, nearly the whole of his 
colleagues attended.-^Notwitbstandinrg a h^avy rain, up* 
wards of one hundred members of the National Institute 
walked on foot to Montmartre, ^wo a- breast, with a black 
crape round their arms, and with the eyes of nearly all suf- 
fused in tears. On their arrival at the place of interment, 
Bougainville, a man no less distinguished in arms than in 
letters, spoke an oration in honour of the deceased.^ 

BORDE, or BOORDE (Andrew), or as he styles him- 
9^ in Latin, Andreas Perforatus, was a very singular 
character, and the reputation he acquired among his con- 
temporaries must be considered in a great measure as a 
proof of the ignorance and credulity of the times. He was 
born at Pevensey in Sussex about 1500, and was educated 
at Oxford; but before he had taken a degree, entered 
among the Carthusians in or near London. He afterwards 
left them, and studied physic at Oxford ; and then tra- 
velled over most parts of Europe and Africa. On his re- 
turn be settled at Winchester, where he praotisg^d physic 
with considerable reputation, and in this capacity he is said 
to have served- Henry- VIII. In 1541 and 1542 he was at 
Montpellier, where he probably took the degree of doctor, 
in which he was soon after incorporated at Oxford. He 
lived then for some time at Pe^vensey, and afterwards re- 
turned to Winchester, still observing all the austerities of 
the order to which he formerly belonged ; though he has 
beedi. accused of man}^ iri;egularitie8. It is oertain that hi« 

I Principally from Brewster's £ncyclopedia.-^ee alsa Lalande's History »iF 

100 B O R D E. 

-character was very odd and whimsical, as appears from the 
books he wrote ; yet he is said to have been a man of great wk 
^and teaming, and an *' especial physician.** That he was not 
of consequence eminent enough to rank with the first of his 
profession, may be inferred from his dying insolvent in the 
-Fleet, April 1549. Bale intimates that he hastened his end 
by poison* on the discovery of his Ireeping a brothel for his 
brother bachelors. His works are very various in their 
subjects', one of the most considerable is intituled, <^ A 
book of the introduction of knowledge," black letter, im- 
printed by William Coplande, without date. He there pro- 
fesses to teach all langoages| the customs and fashions of 
all countries, and the value of every species of coin. This 
is a motley piece, partly in verse and partly in prose ; and 
is divided into thirty-nine chapters, before each of which is 
a wooden cut, representing a man in the habit of some par* 
ticular country. His well known satire on the Englisbanan, 
who, to express the inconstancy and mutability of his 
fashions, is drawn naked*with a cloth and a pair of sheers in 
his hand, is borrowed from the Venetians, who characterised 
the French in that manner. Before the 7th chapter is the 
effigies of the author, under a canopy, with a gown, a lau- 
rel on his head, and a book before htm. The title of thb 
chapter shews how the author dwelt in Scotland and other 
islands, and went through and round about Christendom. 
An edition of this singular work was printed in London iii 
1 542. His " Breviary of Health," which is a very trifling, 
coarse, and weak performance, ivas published in 1547, and 
IS supposed by Fuller to be the first medical piece written 
in English. As a specimen of the style, take what follows^ 
•which is the beginning of the Prologue, addressed to phy- 
sicians : ** Egregious doctors arid maisters of the eximious 
and arcane science of physicke, of your urbanity exasperate 
hot yourselves against me for making this little volume.'' 
This work, with a second part called the ** Extravagartts,** 
was reprinted in 4to, 1 575. He was also author of the fol- 
lowing; " Compendyouse Regimente, or Dietaiy of 
"Healthe made in Mounte Pyllor,** an edition of whicn was 
printed several years after his death, in 1 562. A famous 
jest book called the ^*Merrye tales of the madmen of Go* 
tham ;'* ** The historye of the miller of Abingdon and the 
Cambridge scholars,'* the same with that related by 
Chaucer in his Canterbury Tales; a book of ^' ProgQostics,^' 

B O R D E. 101 

and another of Urines, &c. It is said that the phrase 
** Me;-ry Andrew" is derived from him. * 

BORDE (John Benjamin de la), a French historical and 
miscellaneous writer of considerable fame, was born at Pa* 
ris in 1734, of an opulent family, and devoted himself in 
bis youth to high life and the fine arts. From being first 
valet de chambre to Louis XV. he became his favourite, 
and on (he death of that monarch, he obtained the place of 
farmer-general, the duties of which unpopular office he 
performed with great assiduity, employing his leisure hours 
in cultivating music and general literature. He became one 
of the most celebrated composers of songs, and his *^ Re- 
eueil d'airs,'' 4 vols. 8vo, ornamented with fine engravings^ 
is in high esteem. He composed also the music of the 
opera of " Adela de Ponthieu,'* which was peirformed with 
considerable success. ' Happe;uing to read in De Bure, thrt 
there had been only thirty copies published of the CoUec- 
, tion of antient paintings of Rome, coloured after Bartoli's 
designs, he made inquiry for thcf coppers, had theatre- 
paired, and published a second edition of that work. His 
other works are : I . ^^ Essais sur la Musique ancienne et mo- 
derne,'* 1780, 4 vols. 4to, a vast mass of useful materials, 
hxit many part^ of it are written in the spirit of system and 
partiality, and many valuable passages of considerable 
length are borrowed from Dr. Burney and other authors of 
eminence, without any acknowledgment. The best part 
is that which treats of the Frefich lyric music and poetry. 
2. ^' £ssai snr I'bistoire chronologique de plus de quatre- 
vingts peuples de Tantiquit^," 1788, 8vo. 3. '^Memoires 
historiques, de Coucy," 2 vols. 8vo. 4. ** Pieces interes- 
saotes pour servir 4 Thistoire des regnes de Louis XIII. et 
de Louis XIV." 12mo, 5. " Lettres sur la Suisse," 1781, 
^ vols. Bvo. 6^ ^^ Abregi chronologique des principaux 
faits arrives depuis Henoch jusqu'a Jesus Christ,'* 1789, 8vo. 
'^. ^'Eecueil de vers dedies a Adelaide par le plus heureux 
des epoux,'' 16mo, a tribute to conjugal happiness, so seU 
dom celebrated by poets, La Borde also published a trans- 
lation x]f Swinburne's Travels ; a fine edition of the Histo* 
rical ilomances of the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries, 
printed by Didot, in 1 1 vols, 12mo. ; << Tableaux topogra- 

1 AUi. Ox. vol. I.— rHeanie's Pre£ice to Benedictus Abbas Petrobur^nsit.— t 
Dodd's Ch. Hiat. vol. I.— WartoQ*8 Hist, of Poetry, vol. III. p. 70— 78.— Gent. 
Mag. voUXVIfU aadXIX—^Rilson** Blbl. Poet«««-Cooper'$ M^seg Library, p. 
i6,-tPl|ilips'f 'Fheatnua Poet, A«sL 

102 iB O R D E. 

% • 


.phiques et pittoresqlies de la Suisse,** with letter-press and 
beautiful engravings by ^ Robert : and lastly^ in 1792, 
♦* L^Histoire abreg^e de la m^r du Sud," 3 vols. 8vo, con- 
taining an analysis of all the voyages to that sea from the 
time of Goneville, in the fifteenth century, to that of our 
countryman, Capt, Riou, in 1789. In this also he urges the 
Spaniards to widen the passage of Nicaragua, which is only 
three leagues, and make it navigable, and a communication 
between the North and South Seas, pointing out the ad^ 
vantages this would be attended with in voyages from £u^ 
rope to China, . During the Convention, la Borde retired 
.to. Rouen where he hoped to be overlooked, but the spies 
of the reigning tyrants discovered him, and conducted him 
to Paris, where ;he was beheaded July* 22, 179^. His wife 
was the authoress of some " Poems" imiUted from the En- 
glish, and printed by Didot in 1785, l8mo. * 
. BORDENAVE (TousiJAiNT,) regius professor and di^ 
rector of the academy of surgery, veteran associate of the 
academy of sciences of Paris, and member of the imperial 
academy of Florence, was born at Paris April' 10, 1728. 
:Hi2> father, who was also a surgeon, destined him for the 
same profession, which had long -heeh followed by the 
branches of his family, but began with giving him the or*- 
dinary course of a learned education that he might acquire 
the languages in which the most, celebrated anatomists of 
)i)rmer ages wrote, and sonae of those principles. of phi^ 
losophy* which are the foundation of. all sciences and arts, 
.Young Bordenave's proficiency fully answered bis father's 
expectation V sind he soon filled the disitinguisbed situations 
iilready mi^ntioned, and contributed noiany valuable papers 
to the Memoirs of the academy of sui^ery, on extraordinary 
oases which occurred in his practice : the I2reatmentt)f gun- 
shot wounds, and anatomical subjects. He also, in 175t 
made some experiments to illustrate Ualler's^c^ioion ontt^ 
<li0erence between sensible or irritable parts, and wrote a 
>Tork in defence of that celebrated anatomist's opinion oa 
|be formation ot the bones, against that of DubamjeL Ha 
also, in 1768i translated Haller^s Elements of Physiology 
for the use of bis students, but he had previously, m 18^56, 
pubiisbed a n€[w work on the same subject, admiredrfor 
precision of method. Bordenave had long wished for a 
place in the academy of sciences, and in 1774 was* elected 

' Diet. Hi8t.-:*-Barn<y's Hist of Music, vol. IV.^^and an article iivthe Cfit« 

llev. voL L. p. 378. probably by the same pep. . . «■ 

B O R D E N A V E. 103 

a veteran as^ciate. This title, it sjeems, indicates that the 
party has been chosen contrary to the statutes, and that thie 
academy did not choose him of their o^rn will ; but for this he 
was not to blame, as such an election was totally contrary to / 
his .wish* In a, short time, however, the academicians were 
reconciled, and Bordenave enriched their memoirs with 
some important papers. Bordenave also became echevin^ 
:or sheriff, of Paris, an office never before conferred on a 
i(urgeon, but which he filled in a manner highly creditable, 
•and directed his attention, as a magistrate, chiefly to the 
health of the city. On the birth of Louis XVIL be was ho- 
noured with the ribbon of the order of St« Michael, in cpn^ 
sideration of his talents and services, but did not long enjoy 
this honour, beine seized i#ith * a[n apoplexy, which after 
<eight days proved fatal, March 12, 1782. Besitles the 
works ali^ady noticed, he published, *< Dissertations sur 
Jes Antiseptiques,*' 1769^ 8vo; and '^Memoires sur le 
danger ties Caustiques pour la cure radicale des Hernies^^' 


BORDEU (Anthony,) a French physician of consider* 
rable eminence^ wasborn at Iseste, in Beam, in 1693. A& 
ter being initiated in the study of medicine by his father, 
he went to Montpellier, where he was admitted doctor in 
thai: faculty in 1 7 1 9* Invited, in 1723, to Pau, the oapi*- 
jfcal of tiie profvince, he acquired so much reputation, as to 
•be appointed physician to the military hospital at Barege^ 
and inspector of the mineral waters there. To the waters 
Jie paid great attention, and in 1750, he published a small 
jbreatise, shewing the effects, he bad experienced from them 
in a variety of diseases. He lived to an advanced age, but 
the precise time of his death is not known. * 
. BORDEU (ThbOphilus OE), son to the preceding, was. 
born Feb« 22, 1722, at laeste in the valley of Ossan in Beam, 
and at die. age of twenty, for hi» degree of bachelor in the 
university of Montpellier, where be was then a student, he 
lield a thesis '^ De sensu generice consideratu," which contains 
the ground* work of ail the publications he afterwards gave. 
jSnch early knowledge determined his professors to dispense 
with several, acts usual before admission to practice. In 
)743, he was created M. D. at Montpellier, and two years 
after succeeded his father^ as inspector of the mineral wa* 
ter^ and professor ojf anatomy. In 1747| he was mad« 

* ^loges deff Acadcmtciens, vol. in.«P»Haller Bibl. Cbirui^, 
. > nict. Hist.-— aew's Cyclopcditik 

104 B O R D E U. 

corresponding member of the royal academy of Sciences at 
Paris/ whither be soon after went, and where be acquired 
^reat reputation. Having taken out bis licence in tbat city 
in I754y be was appointed physician to the b6pital de la 
charit6. He died of an apoplexy, Nov. 24, m&, A 
deep melancholy, occasioned by the flying gout, was the 
fore*runner of his end. He was found dead in his bed. 
One of the faculty, jealous of bis fame, and who had tried 
to ruin him by a prosecution, kaid on the occasion: ^^ I 
should never have thought he would have died in a horizon- 
tal position.'* But a witty lady retorted by observing 
** that death was so much afraid of him, that he wais obliged 
to catch him napping." The facility with which be exer- 
cised his profession, his reluctance to give medicines, and 
his great confidence in nature, sometimes drew upon him 
the reproach that he had not much faith in medicine ; but 
bis doubts were so much the less blameable, as he was con- 
tinually occupied in rendering the resources of his art more 
certain* He never disputed at all towards the latter end of his 
life, because probably he bad disputed much to no purpose 
in his youth. Nobody knew better bow to doubt, and he 
had little confidence in his own knowledge, and trusted with 
difficulty to that of others. Seeing the great number of 
courses of lectures in all branches of science, advertised 
every day, he observed once to a friend : ** Will na one 
ever give a course of good sense ?" As he expressed him- 
self at times with rather too much acerbity on the merits 
of others, some of his professional brethren have called his 
own into question. His works, however, sufficiently attest 
his abilities. The principal are, 1. *^ Cbyiifieationis histo* 
ria," 1742, reprinted at Paris, 1752, Idmo. with his 
** Recherches sur les Glandes." He thought he observed a 
duct passing from the thyroid gland to the trachasa ; ad 
opinion which he repeats in another of bis works, but witfa^ 
put. sufficient ground. 3. '^'Dissertatio pfaysiologica de 
sensu generice considerate," Monspelii, 1743; 8vo ; Paris, 
1751, with his " Chylificationis historia." 4. " Lettrescon^ 
tenant des essais sur Thistoire des Eaux minerales du Beam^ 
&c. 1746, 12mo.'' In these he treats of the properties of 
the waters, and 6f the geografphy of Beam. 5. "Re* 
cherches anatomiques sur la position des /Glandes, et sur leur 
actions," Paris, 1751, 8vo. 6. '* Recherches sur* le poub 
par raport aux crises," Paris, 1756, 12mo; in which he 
has gone much beyond Solano in his discrimination of 

B O R D E U. 105 

pulses, and beyond what foUpured in practice^ 7. 
^^ Recfaerches sur le tissu muqueuz, et Torgane cellulaire/* 
Paris, 1766, 12mo. Haller accuses him of disingenuity in 
attributing to himself the discovery of some properties of 
the cellular membrane, which bad been before described 
by bim and others, but allows the work to have, on the 
whole, considerable merit. ^ 

BQRDEU (Francis), brother to Theophilus, and edct- 
<^ated und^ his father and him, was born at Pau, in 1737. 
Having taken bis degree of doctor in medicine at Montpel* 
lier, in 1756, he returned to Pau, and was appointed to 
supply the place of his brother, as inspector of the waters 
there* In 1757, he published ^^ De sensibilitate et con- 
tractibilitate,partium in corpore humane sano,'' MonspelL; 
and in 1760, ^< Precis d'observations sur les Eaux de Bare- 
ges,*' &c. 12mo, collected principally from the works of 
his father, brother, and other writers on the subject ^^ Re- 
cherches sur les maladies chroniques, leur rapports avec les. 
maladies aigues,'' &c. 1775, Svo; principally with the 
view of shewing the utility and the manner of administer*- 
iag mineral waters in the cure of chronical complaints. * 

fiORDONE (Paris), an Italian artist, was born atTrevigi^ 
IB 1513, and at eight years of age was conducted to Venice^, 
where be was carefully educated by one of his relations. 
At a proper age he was placed as a disciple with Titian^ 
under lyhom he made so happy a progress, that he di4 not 
cqatinue with him many years y especially as he observed 
that Titian was not so communicative as be wished, or in- 
deed had just reason to expect, and he lamented that 
Giorgione was not then alive to instruct bim, because he 
preferred the manner of that master to all others. How« 
ever, to the utmost of his power, he studied and imitated 
the style of Giorgione, and very soon rose into such repu« 
tation, that he was appointed to paint a picture in the 
church of St Nicholas, when he was only eighteen years 
of age. Some time after he received an invitation to Vin« 
ceoaa, to adorn a gallery with paintings in fresco, part of 
which had been formerly enriched by the hand of Titian, 
with a design representing the <^ Judgment of Solomon.'* 
Bordone engaged in the undertaking with an inward satis- 
faetioQ, as his work was to be contrasted with the work of 
lus mastery and. he composed the history of ^^ Noah and 

1 Diet Hist— Halier BiU Anat— Hees's Cyclopaedi*. * Ibid. 

106 B O R DO N E. 

his Sons/' which be finished with his titmost care; nor 
was it esteemed infi^ior to the work of Titian, both per- 
formances seeming to have been the product of on^ pencil. 
He likewise finished several considerable works at Venice 
and Trevigi, and in each city painted many portraits of the 
nobility and persons of distinction. But, in the j^ar 1538, 
he entered into the service of Francis L of France, and 
added, continually to his reputation, by every historical 
.subject and portrait which: he finished, as they were ex* 
-cellently designed, and had a charming tone of colour to 
'recommend them. On his quitting Frauee, lie visited the 
^principal cities of Italy, and left a number of memoraU^ 
works, as monuments of his extraordinary abilities. His 
.colouring has all the appearance of nature, ^ nor can any 
thing be more lively or more admired than the portraits of 
Bordone. Sereral of them are still preserved in tbe.Pa^ 
lazzo Pltti, at Florence, of which the jcolouviog is exees« 
si vely clear, fresh, ai>d truly beautiful* He di^ in 1588 
according to Vasari, but in. 1578 according to f elibien 
•and Argenville. * 

BOREL (Pjster), a French physician, naturalist, and 
^^hemist, was boni atCastres, in Languedoc, about 1620. 
After studying medicine, he received his. doctor's degree, 
as is supposed, in .1641, and began practice at his native 
place. ^ He collected a very fine museum of natural cario- 
sities, of which he, published a catalogue, ^' Catalc^ue des 
Haretes de Pierre Borel de Castres," ibid. 16.45^ 4ito. 
Niceron thinks he published this to get a name and prac* 
tice : it appears, indeed, from the dedication of his <^ Bib* 
liodseca Chimica,'' that he was not ricb^ as he there com- 
plains that he could not afford to print his works, iln 1 65*3, 
he came to Paris, .and some time after was appointed phy- 
sician to the king, but it is thought this was merely an. bau 
Borary title, and we are^ not certain whether he remained 
afterwards at Paris. He was, however, elected in 1674 
into the academy of sciences, as a chemist. Niceron sayit 
he. died in L689, but a letter addressed to Bayle in 16.78 
speaks of him as then just dead. He published, 1 . <^ Les 
Antiquit^s, Raretes, &c; de la ville et Castres, 
&c.** Castres, 1649, 8vo. 2. ^^ Historiarum et observa. 
tionum Medico-Physicarum, centuria prima. et aecunda,^' 
ibid*. 16 A3, 8vo, and often > reprinted. %. ^ Bib^othMa 

y Ptlkiostoii.'-*«>Aif«nTilk.— Vssari. 

B O R E ^ IDT 

rchimkay seu caialogus Ubrorum philosophieorumhenneli- 
,€aruin, in quo qoatuor millia circiter authorum ofaemico* 
rum, &c^ cum eorum editionibus,., usque ad annum 1653 
/coatinentur," Paris, 1654; Heidelberg, 1656, 12mo. la 
'this work he gives the titles of these chemical works, bot 
very rarely the dates. 4. *^ De vero Telescopii Inventore, 
cum brevi omnium oonspicillocum bistoria," &c.« Hague, 
J 655, 4ta. 5. <^ Tresor des Recherches et Antiquitds 
Gauloises^ reduites en ordre alpbabetique, et enrichiee de 
beaucoup d'origines, epitapbes, et autres choses rares et 
<:urieuses, comme aussi de beaucoup dermots de la langpue 
<Tbyoiae ou Tiieutfranque/* Paris,. I €55^ 4to. This is a 
very curious and rare work, much priced by the French 
antiquaries. 6. /^ Poeme a la louange de rimprimerieJ* 
,7. '^ Carmina in laudem regis,, reginae, et eardinalis Ma^a- 
riai,^^ 4to. 8, *^ Auctarium ad Vitam Peirescii,'* in the 
.^Hague edition of that life published in 1655, 4to^ 
r9, ^'Commenium in antiquum pbilosi^bum.Syrum,^' 1655. 
10, f^ Hortus seu Armamentarium simplicium Planiarum et 
Animalium ad artem medicam spectantium," &c. Castres, 
16j67,8vq. U. ^' De Curationibus Sympatbeticis,*' priiited 
in the ^^Theatrum Sympathetlcum,^' -Nuriipberg, 1662, 
4to. 12. ^' Discourse nouveau, prouvant la Plurality :d^ 
Mondes," Geneva, 8vo, and translated into English by O. 
.Sashott, Lond. 165.B. 13. ^^ Vitse Renati Cartesii coai- 
pendiuiB,^' Paris, 1656, 8vo. Borel appi^ars to have been 
a man of great learning, and indefatigable in his researches, 
but in medicine somewhat credulous. Hi$entiquariaD pro- 
ductions are most esteemed. ^ • i 
. BORELLI (John ALPHONsa), a celebrated philosopher 
and mathematician, was born at Naples the 28th of Janu- 
ary, 1606. He was professor of philoaopby and mathemii- 
tics in some of the most celebrated miiyersities of Italy, 
particularly at Florence and Pisa, where he became higfafy 
in favourwitb the princes of the hou^ of Medici* -But 
.Jiaving%been concerned in the revolt of Messina, be was 
obliged to retire to Rome, -where he spent the remainder 
i>f bis life under the protection of Christina queen of Sive- 
den, who honoured him with her friendship, and by her 
Ubejpality. to wards him softened, the rigour of his hard for- 
tune. He continued two years -in the convent of the regu« 
Jar clergy of St. Pantalepn, called the Pious Scboolg, wbeie^ 

' Chaofcpic's Dicr.-*NicenN}.-— Eloges jdeg AcademiciensV toI. I. p. ]80«— 
^H anget mmI UaHer;*— Saxti Oiioiiwsi)coo» 

lOB B O R E L L I. 

lie instructed the youth iu mathematical studies. And this 
study fare prosecuted with great diligence for many years 
aftersvard, as appears by his correspondence with several 
ingenious mathematicians of his time, and the frequent 
mention that has been made of him by others, who havi^ 
endeavoured to do justice to his memory. He wrote a let- 
ter to Mr. John Collins, in which he discovers his great 
desire and endeavouA to promote the improvement of those 
sciences : he also speaks of bis correspondence with, and 
great affection for, Mr. Henry Oldenhurgh, secre^ry of 
the royal society ; of Dr. Wallis ; of the then late learned 
Mr. Boyle^ and lamented the loss sustained by bis death to 
the common weahh of learning. Mr. Baxter, in his << En- 
quiry into the Nature of the Hiiman Soul^** makes frequent 
mse of our author's book <* De Motu Animalinm^*' aiMJl 
telld us, that he was the first who discovered that the force 
exerted within the body prodigiously exceeds the weight 
to be moved without, or that nature employs an immense 
power to move a small weight. But he acknowledges that 
Dr. James Keil had shewn that Borelli was mistaken in hia 
calculation of the force of the muscle of the heart i b^t 
that he nevertheless ranks him with the most authentic writ^ 
ers, and says he is seldom mistaken : and, having remarked 
that ittris so far irom being true, that great things arei 
brought about by small powers, on the contrary, a stu- 
pendous power is manifest in the most ordinary operar 
tions of nature, he observes that the ingenious Borelli first 
remarked this in animal motion ; and that Dr. Stephen 
Hales, by a course of* experiments in his ^* Vegetable 
Statics,^' bad shiswn the same in the force of the ascend<^ 
ing sap in vegetables. j\ er a course c^ unceasing labours^* 
Borelli died at Pan talc-on of a pleurisy, the 31st of De« 
'Cember 1679^ at 72 years of age, leaving the following 
works: 1. ^ Delle cagioni delle febri maligni,** 1649, 12mo* 
2. " Euclides restitutus,'* &c. Pisa, 1658, 4to. 3. " ApoU 
lonii Pergeei conicorum, libri v. vi. & vii. parapbraste AbaU 
phato Aspahanensi nunc primum editi,'^ &c. Floren. 16^1^ 
fol. 4. ** Theories Medicorum Planetarum ex causis pby^ 
sicis deductae," Flor. 1666^ 4to. 5. " De Vi Percussionis,** 
Bologna, 1667, 4to. This piece was reprinted, with bi^ 
•fiamous treatise ^^ De Motu Aoimalium,'* and that ^ De 
Motionibus Naturalibus,'^ in 1^86. 6. ** Osservazione in« 
torno alia virtu ineguali degli occbi.** This piece was in-t. 
serted in the Journal of Rome for the year 1669* 2^^!^Jd» 

B O R £ L L I. 109 

motioiubus naturalibus e gravitate pendentibus/* ttegiQ 
Julio, 1670, 4to. 8. " Meteorologia ^tnea," &c. Re- 
gioJalio, 1670, 4t6. 9. << Ossetvazione deir ecclissi lu^ 
pare, fatta in Roma,** 1675. Inserted in the Journal of 
'Borne, 1675, p. 34. 10. " Elementa conica ApoUonii Per- 
gaei et Archiniedis opera nova et breviori metbodo demon^. 
strata," Rome, 1^79, 12mo, at the end. of the 3d edition 
bf his Euclides restitutus. 11. '' De Motu Animalium: 
pars prim'ay et pars altera," Romaet, 1681, 4to.^ This was 
r&printed at Leyden, revised and corrected ; to which wa$ 
9ukled John Bernouilli's mathematical meditations concern* 
ing theinotiott of the muscles. 1 2. At Leyden, 1686, in 4to^ 
a more correct and accurate edition, revised by J. Broen^ 
M, D. of Leyden, of his two pieces ^^ De vi percussionis, 
^t de motionious de gravitate pendentibus," &c. 13. ^^ De 
renum usu judicium f' this had been published with Bel* 
4iui*s book ^^ De structura renum," at Strasburgb, 1664, 
Svo. » 

BOREMAN (RoBEaT), D. D. a piou« and learned di« 
^ne of tb6 seventeenth century, and brother to sir William 
Boreman, clerk of the green cloth to Charles IL was fel<« 
low of Trinity college, Cambridge, S. T. P. peY literas 
regias, 1661, and afterwards rector of St. Giles's in the 
Fields, London. He died in November, 1675, at Green«> 
wich, where he was buried. He published, 1. ^f The 
Churehman^s Catechism : or the Church's plea for Tithes,'* 
Lend. 1651^ 4to. 2. << The Triumphs of learning over 
ignorance, and of truth over falsehood ; being an answer 
to four queries, first, whether there be any need of uni- 
versities," &c. ibid. 1663, 4to.. 3. " A Panegyrick and 
Sermon at the funeral of Dr. Comber, master of Trinity 
collie, and dean of Carlisle," 1^54, 4to. 4. ^^ Life and 
death of Freeman Sends, esq." and *' Relation of sir 
George Sends' narrative of the passages on the death of 
bis two sons," ibid. 4to. This Freeman Sends was exe* 
cuted for the murder of his brother. 5. '* Life and death 
of Alice dutchess Dudley,'* ibid. 1669, 4to$ and two or 
three occasional sermons, ' 

• BORGHINI (Vincent), was born at Florence in 1515 
of a noble family, and became a Benedictine monk in 1531. 

He was one of the persons appointed to correct the Deca- 

•~ " ■ » 

. ^ Pahroni VitiB Italoinm. — Martin's Bios* Philosophica.— >Qea. Dict.^— Hallcr 
Bibl. 4iiat.;r-Saxii OnomasticOn. — Hutton's Math. Diet. 
^ ^ Atli. Ox. rol. H. Flitti.«— Xyfom'f Satlrom, toK IV. 

116 B O R G H I N L 

meron of Boecace, by order of the council of Trent, anil 
performed this curious task for the edition of Ftorence^ 
1573, 8to. But the best Jcndwli of his works, and which 
did him the most honour, is that entitled, ** Disconsi di 
M. Vincenzo Borghini,'* printed at Florence 1584 and 
1S85, in 2 vols. 4to, and reprinted at the same place in 
1755, with annotations. In these dissertations he treats of 
the origin of Florence, and of several interesting partitju- 
lars of its history, of its families, of its cofns^ &c. Borg^ 
hini died in 1680, after having refused, through humility; 
the archbishopric of Pisa, which was offered to bim soin« 
time before his death. His only promotion was that of 
prior of the hospital of St. Maria degli Innocenti in Fl<>»v 
rence. Another writer of the same name [Rafaello Boro* 
HiNfj, was author of several comedies, and of a traA on 
painting and sculpture, in some estimation, under the title 
of ** Riposo della Pittura, e della Scultura,'* published at 
Florence in 1584, 8vo.* t 

BORGIA (CiESAR), a monster of ambition and cruelty, 
was a natural son of pope Alexander VI« What year h^ 
was borh in, we do not find r but he was at his studi^ ii) 
the university of Pisa, when Alexander was elected pope, 
HI August 1492. Upon the news of his father's advance^ 
ment, he banished all thoughts of his former private con* 
dition of life ; and, full of^mbition, as if himself was to be 
made emperor of the world, he haistened directly to Rome^ 
ivfaere Alexander received him with formaHty and coldncsss, 
but whether it was real or but a^Gected, is not easy to deter- 
mine. Caesar, however, took it to be real ; and, greatly 
disgusted as well as' disappointed, went immediately ainct 
complained to his mother Vanozza, who bid him not be 
cast down ; and told him, that she knew tlie pope's mind 
better than any body, and for what reasons his holiness had 
given bim that reception. In the mean time the coinrt^ 
flatterers 8o|icited the pope to make Ccesar a< cardinal'^ 
which he absolutely refused ; but, that he might not seem 
altogether forgetful of bim, he created htm archbishop at^ 
Valenza, a benefice which bis holiness bad enjoyed in hin 
younger days. This preferment was by no means accept- 
able to Coesar, yet he affected to be content, since the 
pope, he found, was determined to confer the best of hi« * 
secuhuT' dignities on his eldest sou Francis, who at that time 

* PipU Hist.— SftxU OuomastiooQ. 

• M > • 


BORGIA. lit 

Wks made duke of Gandia' by Ferdmand king of Castile 
W)d Arragon. 

Alexander VI. had five childten by his mistress Vanoz- 
2a; Francis and Caesar,- already mentioned, tvfro other sons^ 
and a daughter named Lucretia. Francis was a gentleman 
of good disposition and probity, and in every respect op- 
posite to his brother Csesar ; but Ceesar seems to Intve pos- 
sessed abilities superior to those of Francis : which made a 
certain historian say, *' that Ceesar was great among the 
wicked, and Francis good among the great.'* Caesar how* 
e?er was the mother^s favourite, as having a temper anxl 
principles more conformable to hers : for which reason, at 
the time when Alexander was undetermined on which of 
these brothers he should bestow the cardinal's cap, Va- 
fil)zfhi declared herself in favour of Caesar, who was accord«> 
ingly made a cardinal in the second year of Alexander's 
pontificate. From this time he acted in concert with his 
father, and was an useful instrument in executing all th6 
schemes of that wicked pope, as he had no scruples of 
honour or humanjity, nor was there any thing too atrocious 
for him to perpetrate, to promote his insatiable ambition. 
This is said to have even incited him to the murder of his 
elder brother Francis, duke of ;Gtindia. All the secular 
dignities, which then were much more coveted than the 
ecclesiastical, were heaped upon Francis, which obstructed 
Ca&sar's projects so entirely, that he was resolved at all ad- 
ventures to remove him. The story is, th^t in 1497, hir- 
ing assassins, he caused him to be murdered, and throwit 
into the Tiber ; where his body was found ^spme days after, 
full of wounds and extremely mangled. The pope was 
afflicted to the last degree ; for though he made use of 
Csesar as the ablier, he loved Francis as the better man. He 
caused therefore strict inquiry to be made after the mur- 
derers; upon which Vanozza, who for that and other reasonji 
was justly suspected to be privy to the affair, went privately 
to the pope, and used all the arguments she could, to dis- 
suade him from searching any furthen Some say, that she 
went so far as to assure his holiness, that if he did not desist, 
the same person who took away his son's life would not spare 
his own. The whole of this story, however, appears doubtful ; 
nor, indeed, is there any positive proof that Borgia was'eveu' 
prjyy to his brother's death, Gordon, only, has asserted 
it with accompanying proofs, but the latter appear to b^' 
historic? fictions. Jt cannpt be necessary to add to Cwsar'* 

114 B O R G I A, 

either to his errors or his crimes. If, however, he haiJ 
been too indiscriminately condemned by one historian, he 
has in another met with as zealous and as powerful an en- 
eomiast, and the maxims of the politician are only the 
faithful record of the transactions of his hero. On the 
principles of Machiavelli, Borgia was the greatest man of 
the age. Nor was he, iu fact, without qualities which in 
some degree compensated for his demerits. Courageous^ 
magnificent, eloquent, and accomplished in all the exer- 
cises of arts and arms, he raised an admiration of his eti« 
dowments which kept pace with and counter-balanced the 
abhorrence excited by his crimes. That evefli these crimes 
have been exaggerated, is highly probable. His enemies 
were numerous, and the certainty of his guilt in some in- 
stances gave credibility to every imputation that could be 
devised against him. That he retained, even after he had 
survived his prosperity, no inconsiderable share of public 
estimation, is evident from the fidelity and attachment 
shewn to him on many occasions. After his death, his 
memory and achievements were celebrated by (Strozza) 
one of the most elegant Latin poets that Italy has pro- 
duced. The language of poetry is not indeed always that 
of truth; but we may at least give credit to the accoune 
of the personal accomplishments and warlike talents of 
JBorgia, although we may indignantly reject the spurious 
praise, which places him among the heroes of antiquity, 
and at the summit of fame." 

The evidence of a poet is certainly inconclusive, and 
although the *^ personal accomplishments and warlike ta- 
lents" may be proved, and have not been lessened, yet 
.they weigh little against those crimes which stand uncon- 
tradicted, and form one of the vilest characters in history. * 

BORGIA (Stephen), a learned Roman cardinal, was 
J[>orn of a noble family at Velletri, in IT^i ; and as the se- 
cond son of the family, was from his birth destined for the 
clerical dignities. In youth he appears to have been stu-^ 
dious,. and particularly attentive to historic and diplomatic 
science, and modern and ancient languages. In 1770, he 
was appointed secretary to the congregation of Propa- 
ganda, the purposes of which are to furnish missionaries to 
propagate Christianity, on popish principles ; and into this 

1 Gen. Diet — Gordon's Lives of Alexander VI. and his son, 1728-9, fol.-^ 
Roscoe's Leo,— Seward's Anecdotes, &c. 

BORGIA. 11.5 

college children are admitted from Asia and Africa, ia 
order to be instructed in religion, and. to diffuse it, oik 
their return, through their native countries, A more fit 
person could not be selected than Borgi^, as be bad both 
zeal and learning. In 1771, the abb6 Amaduzzi, director 
of the printing-house of the college, procured the casting 
of the Malabar types, and published some works in that 
language, as well as in those of the Indians of Ava and of 
Pegu. By the care of this new secretary also, an Etruscan 
alphabet was published, which soon proved of the highest 
benefit to Passeri : for, by its means, this celebrated anti- 
quary, in the latter part of his life, could better explain 
than he had ever done some Etruscan monuments of the 
highest interest. ^ About this time he began to lay the 
foundation of the family museum at Vellecri, which, be- 
fore 1780, exhibited no less than eighty ancient Egyptian 
statues in bronze or marble, many Etruscan and Greek 
idols, numerous coins, inscriptions, &c. To form some 
idea of the total of this museum, it may be observed that 
only a small part of it, relative to Arabic antiquity, was the 
subject of the description which, in 1782, was published 
under the title of " Musaeum Cusicum." He had long 
before this published " Monumento di Giovanni XVL 
summo Pontifice illustrato," Rome, 1750, 8vo. " Breve 
Istoria delP antica citta di Tadino nell' Umbria, &c." ibid. 
1751, 8vo. " Dissertatione sopra un' antica Iscrizione 
rinuentaneir Isoladi Malta nell' anno 1749,"Fermo, 1751, 
and ^< Dissertatione Filologica sopra un' antica gemma in- 

About 1782; he gave a new proof of his attention to the 
interests^ of learning and religion, on the following occa- 
sion. An island, near Venice, is inhabited by Armenian 
monks ; and those fathers make no use of any language 
but their own, printing rituals and d|bvotional books in 
Armenian, and carrying on a considerable commerce in 
such books through the East, No one, however, had 
thought of going to pass some time among these fathers, 
with a view of learning their language, until Borgia, fore- 
seeing the advantages that might result from it, sent one 
Gabriele, a Capuchin, to spend some time with these 
monks in learning the Armenian ; and afterwards engaged 
him to go on a mission to Astracan, to preach in Arme- 
nian, and to avail himself of that opportunity to compiler 
an Italian- Armenian, and Armenian-Italian Dictionary. 

- I 2 

116 BORGIA. 

Father Gabriele fulfilled these injunctions, and, on his re* 
turn, he delivered the Dictionary into the hands of the 
librarian of the Propaganda. 

In 1788 he published his " Vindication of the rights of 
the Holy See on the kingdom of Naples," 4to, a work now 
of little importance, and relating to a dispute which will 
probably never be revived. On the 30th of March, 1789^ 
he was promoted to the rank of cardinal, and about the 
game time was appointed prefect of the congregation of 
the Index ; and, what was more analogous to his pursuits, 
he held the same office in the Propaganda, and in the 
congregation for the correction of the books of the oriental 
churches. After these promotions, he continued to be the 
liberal patron of all who had any connection either with 
his offices or with his literary pursuits, until Italy was in« 
Taded by the French, when, like the greater part of his 
X colleagues, he was involved in losses and dangers, both 
with respect to his fortune and to his pursuits. He for- 
feited all his benefices, and was near witnessing the de- 
struction of all the establishments committed to his care, 
especially the Propaganda. He was soon, however, extri- 
cated from his personal difficulties; and, by his timely 
measures, the invaluable literary treasures of the Propa- 
ganda were also saved. He was allowed a liberal pension 
irom the court of Denmark, and he soon obtained the re- 
moval of the establishment of the Propaganda to Padua, a 
city which, being then under the dominion of the emperor 
of Germany, was thought to be sheltered from robbery. 
Here he remained till the death of pope Pius VI. after 
which he repaired, with his colleagues, to Venice, to at- 
tend the conclave ; and, a new pope being elected, he 
returned to Rome. When the coronation of the emperor 
of France was ordered, cardinal Borgia was one of those 
individuals who were selected by the pope as the compa- 
nions of his intended journey to Paris, but having caught 
a violent cold on his way, he died dt Lyons, Nov. 23, 1804. 
Cardinal Stephen Borgia was not much favoured by na- 
ture with respect to person. He was so clumsy, add his 
motions so much embarmssed, as to have little of the ap« 
pearance of a person of birth and rank. He was far, also, 
from being nice in his bouse or equipage. These little 
defects, however, were compensated by the superior qua- 
lities of his mind. From the time of Alexander Albani, 
mo Roman cardinal had so many distinguished connections 

BORGIA. 117 

mud correspondents in every part of Europe : and a great 
similarity (elegance of manners excepted) was remarked 
between the character of tliat illustrious prelate and bis 
own. The Borgian MS. so called by Michaelis, i^. a frag- 
ment of a Coptic-Greek manuscript, brought by a monk 
from Egypt, consisting of about twelve leaves, and sent to 
cardinal Borgia. The whole of it is printed jn "Georgii 
Fragmentum Graeco-Copto-Thebaicum," Rome, 1789, 
4to. * 

BORGIANNI (Horatio), a painter and engraver, was 
born at Rome, in 1630, and learned design from Giulio 
Borgian ni his brother ; but improved himself by studying 
the capital performances of the ancient and modern artists, 
which he was enabled to contemplate every day in bis na« 
tive city. Having had an offer from a nobleman, of travel- 
ling with him in a tour through Europe, he willingly ac«- 
cepted it, .from a desire of being acquainted with the dif- 
ferent customs and manners of different nations.* But his 
pi:ogress was stopped by his falling in love with a young 
woman in Spain, to whom be was afterwards married ; and 
finding his circumstances reduced to a narrow compass, he 
applied himself to his profession with double diligence, to 
procure a comfortable support. His endeavours were soon 
successful ; and he was happy enough to find many friends, 
admirers, and employers, and was accounted one of the 
best painters in Spain. After the death of his wife, hav- 
ing then no attachment to that country, he returned to 
Rome, and painted some historical subjects larger than 
life; but the figures being above his accustomed size, 
shewed a want of correctness in several of the members, 
which made his pictures not quite acceptable to. the re- 
fined taste of the Roman school. He was, however, en- 
gaged in some great works for the chapels and convents, 
and s^lso to paint portraits, by which he acquired honour, 
and lived in affluence. He died in 1681, of a broken 
heart, in consequence of the ill treatment be received, 
through the envy and villainy of one Celio, a painter, who 
proved a most malicious competitor, and to whom he had 
been often preferred, by the best judges of painting at 
Rome ; but he died lamented and pitied by every worthy 
man of his profession. 

' AtheoaBuni) vol. V.«-Saxii Oaomaaticon.— Rees's Cyclopedia, art. Borgian 

118 B O R G I A N N I. 

As an engraver, he is probably best known to many of 
our readers, for his engravings of the Bible histories, 
which were painted by Raphael in the Vatican, commonly 
called " Raphael's Bible," small plates, length-ways, 
dated 1615, wfeich are very slight, and seem to be the 
hasty productions of his point. Mr. Strutt says, that his 
most finished etching is ^* a dead Christ," a small square 
plate, the figure greatly foreshortened, and behind ap- 
pear the two Mary's and St. John, who is kissing Qne of 
the hands of our Saviour. His etchings are, in general, 
in a bold, free manner, and more finished than usual, wheii 
considered as the works of a painter, but in some the 
drawing is not correct.* 

BORLACE (Dr. Edmund), son of sir John Borlace, 
master of the ordnance, and one of the lords justices of 
Ireland, was born in the seventeenth century, and educated 
at the university of Dublin. Then he travelled to Leyden, 
where he commenced doctor of physic in 1650, and was 
afterwards admitted to the same degree at Oxford. At 
last he settled at Chester, where he practised physic with 
great reputation and success; and where he died in 1683. 
Among several books which he wrote and published, are, 
1. " Latham Spaw in Lancashire : with some remarkable 
cases and cures effected by it,'* Lond. 1670, 8vo, dedi- 
cated to Charles earl of Derby. 2.^^ The Reduction of 
Ireland to the Crown of England : with the governors 
since the conquest by king Henry II. anno 1 172, and some 
passages in their government, A brief account of the re- 
bellion, ann. Dom. 1641. Also the original of the univer- 
sity of Dublin, and the college of physicians," Lond. 1675, 
a large octavo. 3. " The History of the execrable Irish 
Rebellion, traced from many preceding acts to the grand 
eruption, Oct. 23, 1641 ; and thence pursued to the act of 
settlement, 1672," Lond. 1680, folio. Wood tells us, that 
much of this book is taken from another, entitled " The 
Irish Rebellion; or, The History of the beginnings and 
first progress of the general rebellion raised within the 
kingdom of Ireland, Oct. 23, 1641,'' Lond. 1646, 4to, 
written by sir John Temple, master of the rolls, one of his 
majesty'^ privy council in Ireland, and father of the cele- 
brated sir William Temple, 4. " Brief Reflections on the 
^rl of Castlebaven's Memoirs of his engagement and c|^r- 

1 Pilkington and Strutt. 

B O R L A C E. 


tiage in the War of Ireland. By which the government of 
that time, and the justice of the crown since, are vindi- 
cated from aspersions cast upon both," Lond. 1682, 8vo. * 

BORLASE (William), a learned English antiquary, 
was b6rn at Pendeen, in the parish of St. Just, Gornwall, 
February 2, 1695-6. The family of that name, from which 
he was descended, had been settled at the place from 
whence they derived it (Borlase), from the time of king 
William Rufus. Our author was the second son of John 
Borlase, esq. of Pendeen, in the parish before mentioned, 
byLydia, the youngest daughter of Christopher Harris, 
esq. of Hs^yne in the county of Devon ; and was put early 
to school at Penzance, from which he was removed, iii 
1 709, to the care of the rev. Mr. Bedford, then a learned 
school-master at Plymouth. Having completed his gram* 
matical education, he was entered of Exeter college, Ox- 
ford, in March 1712-13; where, on the 1st of June 1719, 
he took the degree of master of arts; In the same year, 
Mr. Borlase was admitted to deacon^s orders, and ordained 
priest in 1720. On the 22d of April, 1722^ he was in- 
stituted, by Dr. Weston, bishop of Exeter, to the rectory 
of Ludgvan in Cornwall, to which he had been presented 
by Charldis Duke of Bolton *. On the 28th of July, 1724, 
he was married in the church of lUuggan^ by his dder 
brother. Dr. Borlase of Castlehorneck, to Anne, eldest 
surviving daughter and coheir of William Smith, ]yi. A* 
rector of the parishes of C^mborn and Illuggan. In 1732, 
the lord chancellor King, by the recommendation of sir 
William Morice, hart, presented Mr. Borlase to the vicar* 
age of St. Just, his native parish, and where his father 
had a considerable property. This viqarage and the rec- 
tory of Ludgvan were the only preferments he ever re- 

When Mr. Borlase was fixed at Ludgvan, which was a 
retired, but delightful situation, he soon recommended 

* This was not precisely the case. 
His father purchased for him, of the 
rev. Mr. Ct)arles Wrougbton, then pro* 
prietor of the next turn, as well as in- 
cumbeot, the next presentation to the 
rectory of Ludgvan; but the then 
grantor, Charles duke of Bolton, ori- 
ginal proprietor of the church of Ludg- 
van, dying before the grantee, the pur* 
t^se was void, Mr. Wroughton died 

soon after (viz. Mar. 172 1)» and^by 
the application of his father, then de- 
puty recorder of St. Ives, strengthened 
by a recommendation of sir John Ho« 
bart, bart afterwards earl of Bucking- 
faam, added to that of the corporation 
of St. Ives, W. B. was presented by 
Charles, the subsequent duke of Bol- 
ton, to the rectory of Ludgvan.-*M^ 
account by Dr. Borlase. 

& Wood's Ath. ypl. II. Fasti* 

120 B R L A S C: 

• • • 

binaself as a pastor, a gentleman, and a man of learning. 

The duties of his profession he discharged with the most 
rigid punctuality and exemplary dignity. He was esteemed 
and respected by the principal gentry of Cornwall, and 
lived on the most friendly and social terms with those of 
his neighbourhood. In the pursuit of general knowledge 
he was active and vigorous ; and his mind being of an in- 
quisitive turn, he could not survey with inattention or 
indifference the peculiar objects which his situation pointed 
to his view. There were in the parish of Ludgvan rich 
copper works, belonging to the late earl of Godolphin. 
These abounded with mineral and metallic fossils, which 
Mr« Borlase collected from time to, time; and his collec- 
tion increasing by degrees, he was encouraged to study 
at large the natural history of his native county. While 
be was engaged in this design, he could not avoid being 
struck with the numerous monuments of remote aqtiquity 
that are to be met with in several parts of Cornwall; and 
which had hitherto been passed over with far less examina- 
tion than they deserved. Enlarging, therefore, his plan^ 
he determined to gain as accurate an acquaintance as pos- 
sible with the Druid learning, and with the religion and 
customs of the ancient Britons, before their conversion to 
Christianity. To this undertaking he was encouraged by 
several gentlemen of his neighbourhood, who were men of 
literature and lovers of British antiquities ; and particu- 
larly by sir John St. Aubyn, ancestor of the present ba- 
ronet of that family, and the late rev. Edward Collins^ 
vicar of St. Earth. In the year 1748, Mr. Borlase, hap- 
pening to attend the ordination of his eldest son at Exeter, 
commenced an acquaintance with the Rev. Dr. Charles 
Lyttelton, late bishop of Carlisle, then come to be in- 
stalled into the deanry, and the Rev. Dr. Milles, the late 
dean, two eminent antiquaries, who, in succession, hav^e 
so ably presided over the society of antiquaries in London. 
Our author's correspondence with these gentlemen was a 
gr^at encouragement to tiie prosecution of his studies ; and 
he has acknowledged his obligations to them, in several 
psMTts of his works. In 1750, being at London, he was 
admitted a fellow of the royal society, into which he had 
been. chosen the year before, after having communicated 
an ingenious Essay on the Cornish Crystals. Mr. Borlase 
having completed, in 1753, his manuscript of the Anti- 
quities of Cornwaiiy^arried it to Oxford, where he finished 

B O R L A S E. 181 

the whole impression, in folio, in the February following. 
A second edition of it, in the same form, was published 
at London, in 1769. Our author^s next publication was, 
*^ Observations on the ancient and present slate of the 
Islands of Scilijr, and their importance to the trade of 
Great Britain, in a letter to the reverend Charles LytteU 
ton, LL. D. dean of Exeter, and F. R. S,'* This work, 
which was printed likewise at Oxford, and appeared in 
1756, in quarto, was an extension of a papeV that had 
been read before the royal society, on the 8th of February 
1753, entitled, '^ An Account of the great Alterations 
which the Islands of Scilly have undergone, since the time 
of the ancients, who mention them, as to their number, 
extent, and position.^' It was at the request of Dr. Lyt* 
telton, that this account was enlarged into a distinct 
treatise. In 1757, Mr. Borlase again employed the Ox* 
ford press, in printing his " Natural History of Corn- 
wall,** for which he had been many years making coUec-^ 
tions, and which was published in April 1758. After this, 
be sent a variety of fossils, and remains of antiquity, which 
he had described in his works, to be placed in the Ash- 
molean museum ; and to the same repository he continued 
to send every thing curious which fell into his hands* 
For these benefactions he received the thanks of the uni« 
versity, in a letter from the Vice-chancellor, dated Novem- 
ber 18, 1758 ; and in March, 1766, that learned^body con* 
ferred on him the degree of doctor of laws, by diploma^ 
the highest academical honour. 

. Though Dr. Borlase, when h6 had completed his three 
principal works, was become more than sixty years of age, 
he continued to exert his usual diligence and vigour in 
quiet attention to his pastoral duty, and the study of the 
Scriptures. In the course of this study, he drew up para- 
phrases on the books of Job, and the books of Solomon, 
and wrote some other pieces of a religious kind, rather, how- 
ever, for his private improvement, than with a view to pub- 
lication* His amusements abroad were, to superintend the 
care of his parish, and particularly the forming and re- 
forming of its roads, which were more numerous than in 
any parish of Cornwall. His amusements at home were the 
belles lettres, and especially painting ; and the correction 
and enlargement of his " Antiquities of Cornwall," for a 
second edition, engaged some part of his time ; and when 
this business was completed, he applied bis attention to a 

122 B O R L A S E. 

minute revision of his " Natural History." After thi», he 
prepared for the press a treatise he bad composed some 
years before, concerning the Creation and Deluge. • But a 
. violent illness, in January 1771, and the apprehensions of 
entangling himself in so long and close an attention as the 
correcting of the sheets, solely, and at such a distance from 
London, would require, induced him to drop bis design, 
and to recal the manuscript from bis bookseller, when only 
a few pages of it had been printed From the time of his 
illness, he began sensibly to decline^ the infirmities of old 
age came fast upon him ; and it was visible to all his friends 
that his dissolution was approaching. This expected event 
happened on the 31st of August, 1772, in the 77th year of 
bis age, when he was lamented as a kind father, an affec-* 
tionate brother, a sincere friend, an instructive pastor, and 
a man of erudition. He was buried within the communion 
rails in Ludgvan church, by the side of Mrs. Borlase, who 
had been dead above three years. 

The Doctor had by his lady six sons, two of whom alone 
survived him, the rev. Mr. John Borlase, and the rev. Mr. 
George Borlase, who was Casuistical Professor and Regis- 
trar of the university of Cambridge, and died in 1809. 

Besides Dr. Borlase's literary connections with Dr. Lyt- 
telton and Dr. Milles, before mentioned, he corresponded 
with most of the ingenious meA of his time. He had a par- 
ticular intercourse of this kind with Mr. Pope ; and there is 
still existing a large collection of letters, written by that 
celebrated poet to our author. He furnished Mr. Pope 
with the greatest part of the materials for forming his grotto 
at Twickenham, consisting of such curious fossils as the 
county of Cornwall abounds with : and there might have 
been seen, before the destruction of that curiosity. Dr. 
Borlase's name in capitals, composed of crystals, in the 
grotto. On this occasion a very handsome letter was written 
to the Doctor by Mr. Pope, in which he says, " 1 am much 
obliged to you for your valuable collection of Cornish dia- 
monds. I have placed them where they may best represent 
yourself, in a shad^e^ but shining ;'*'* alluding to the obscurity 
of Dr. Borlase's situation, and the brillianpy of his talents. 
— The papers which he communicated at different times 
to the iloyal Society are numeroi^s and curious. ^ 

1 Biog. Brit, corrected by a MS. account written by himself and inserted inNU 
«l^ols's B«wyer, vol. V. aud Gent. Ma|;. 1803. — Son's deatb, ibid. 1809. 

BORN. 123 • 

• BORN (Ignatius), Baron^ an eminent mineralogist, was 
born of a noble family at Carlsburg, in Transylvania, Dec. 
26, 1742, He came early in life to Vienna, and studied 
under the Jesuits, who, perceiving his abilities, prevailed 
on him to enter into their society, but he remained a mem- 
ber only about a year and a half. He then went* to Prague, 
where, as it is the custom in Germany, he studied law, and 
having cQmpleted his course, made a tour through a part 
of Germany, Holland, the Netherlands, and Francte, and 
returning to Prague, he engaged in- the studies of natural 
history, mining, and their connected branches, and in 
1770, he was received into the department of the mines 
and mint at Prague. Tlie same year he visited the princi- 
pal mines of Hungary aftd Transylvania, and during this 
tour kept up a correspondence with the celebrated Ferber, 
who, in 1774, published his letters. It was in this town 
also that he so nearly lost his life, and where he was struck 
with the disease which embittered the rest of his days. It 
appears from his eighteenth letter to Mr. Ferber that, when 
at Felso-Banya, he descended into a mine, where fire was 
used to detach the ore, to observe the efficacy of this means, 
but too soon after the Bre had been extinguished, and while 
the mine was full of arsenical vapours raised by the heat. 
How greatly he suffered in his health by this accident ap-* 
pears from his letter, in which he complained that he could 
hardly bear the motion of his carriage. After this he was 
appointed at Prague counsellor of the mines. In 1771, he 
published a small work of the Jesuit Poda, on the machinery 
used about mines, and the next year his " Lithophylacium 
Borueanum,'' a catalogue of that collection of fossils, which 
be afterward disposed of to the hon. Mr. Greville. This 
work drew on him the attention of mineralogists, and 
brought him into correspondence with the first men in that 
study. He was now made a member of the royal societies 
of Stockholm, Sienna, and Padua; and in 1774, the same 
honour was conferred, on him by the royal society of 


During his residence in Bohemia, his active disposition 
induced him to seek for opportunities of extending know- 
ledge, and of being useful to. the world. He took a part 
jn the work, entitled ^' Portraits of the learned men and 
artists of Bohemia and Moravia." He was likewise con- 
cerned in the "Literary transactions, or Acta Litteraria, of 
^phemia find Mor^'Via," and the editor of the latter puhr 

12* B O R N. 

iicly acknowledges in the preface, how much Bohemian li- 
terature is indebted to him. Prague and Vienna were 
both without a public cabinet for the use of the students : 
it was at bis instigation that government was induced to 
form one, which he assisted by his contributions and hig 
labours. In 1775» he laid the foundation of a literary so- 
ciety, which published several volumes under the title of 
^ Memoirs of a private Society in Bohemia." His fame 
reaching the empress Mary Theresa^ in 1776, she called 
him to Vienna to arrange and describe the Imperial collec- 
tion, and about two years after, he published the splendid 
work containing tlie Conchology : in the execution of 
which he had some assistance. The empress defrayed the 
e^^pences for a certain number of copies. On the death of 
this patron the work was discontinued, her successor, the 
emperor Joseph, not* favouring the undertaking. He had 
likewise the honour of instructing the arch-duchess Maria 
Anna in natural history, who was partial to this entertain- 
ing study ; and he formed and arranged for her a neat mu« 
seum. In 1779, he was raised to the office of actual coun- 
sellor of the court-chamber, in the department of the 
mines and mint. This office detained him constantly in 
Vienna, and engaged the chief part of his time. 

The consequences of his misfortune at Felso-Banya be- 
gan now to be felt in the severest manner ; he was attacked 
with the most excruciating cholics, which often threatened 
a speedy termination of his life and miseries. In this depth 
of torment, he had recourse to opium, and a large portion 
of this being placed by his side, which he wa3 ordered 
only to take in small doses^ oti one occasion, through the 
intensity of his pain, he swallowed the whole, which 
brQught on a lethargy, of four and twenty hours ; but when 
he awoke he was free of his pains. The disorder now at- 
tacked his legs and feet, particularly his right leg, and in 
this he was lame for the rest of his life, and sometimes the 
lameness was accompanied by pain. £iut his feet by de- 
grees withered, and he was obliged to sit, or lie, or lean 
upon a sopha ; though sometimes he was so well as to be 
able to sit upon a stool, but not to move from one room to 
the other without assistance. 

His free and active genius led him to interest himself in 
all the occurrences of the times, and to take an active 
part in all the institutions and plans which professed to 
enlighten and reform mankind. With these benevolent 

BORN. 125 

intentions he formed connexions with the free-masons^ 
whose views in this part of the world occasioned the laws 
and regulations made against masoniy by the emperor Jo- 
seph. Under Theresa, this order was obliged to keep it- 
self very secret in Austria ; but Joseph, on his coming to 
th^ throne, tolerated it, and the baron founded in the 
Austrian metropolis, a lodge called the " True Concord,'* 
a society of learned men, whose lodge was a place of ren- 
dezvous for the literati of the capital. The obstacles these 
gentlemen found, to the progress of science and use- 
ful knowledge, had the tendency to draw their attention 
to political subjects; and subjects were really discussed 
here which the church had forbidden to be spoken of, and 
to which the government was equally averse. At their 
meetings, dissertations on some subject of history, ethics^ 
or moral philosophy, were read by the members; and 
commonly something on the history of ancient and modern 
mysteries and secret societies. These were afterward pub- 
lished in the Diary for Free-masons, for the use of the ini- 
tiated, and not for public sale. — In the' winter they met 
occasionally, and held more public discourses, to which 
the members of the other lodges were allowed access. A^ 
most of the learned of Vienna belonged to this lodge, it 
was very natural to suppose, that many of the dissertations 
read here, were not quite within the limits of the original 
plan of the society. It was these dissertations which gave 
rise to another periodical work, which was continued for 
some time by the baron, and his brother masons. He wsus 
likewise active in extirpating what he reckoned supersti- 
tions of various kinds, which had crept into the other 
lodges, and equally zealous in giving to these societies 
such an organization, as might render them useful to the 

The baron, and many others of his lodge, belonged to 
the society of the illuminated. This, says his biographer, 
was no dishonour to him : the views of this order, at least 
at first, seem to have been commendable ; they were 
the improvement of mankind, not the destruction of so- 
ciety. Such institutions are only useful or dangerous, and 
to be approved of or condemned, according to the state pf 
society ; and this was before the French revolution, and 
in a country less enlightened than almost any other part of 
Germany. But this was before the French revolution as a 
cause is before its effect^ and there can be no doubt ths^t 

126 born: 

much of the misery inflicted on Europe is to be traced to 
these societies. So zeabus, however, was the baron in 
favour of the illuminati, that when the elector of Bavaria 
ordered all those in his service to quit this order, he was so 
displeased that he returned the academy of Munich the 
diploma they had sent him on their receiving him among 
them, pubhcly avowed his attachment to the order, and 
thought it proper to break off all further connexion with 
Bavaria, as a member of its literary society. The free- 
masons did not long retain the patronage of their sove- 
reign : the emperor Joseph soon became jealous of their 
influence, and put them under such restrictions, and clog- 
ged them with such incumbrances, as to amount almost to 
a prohibition ; and the society found it necessary to dis- 
solve. • 

What raised the baron more justly high in the public 
opinion, was his knowledge of mineralogy, and his success- 
ful experiments in metallurgy, and principally in the pro- 
gress of amalgamatiop. The use of quick-silver in extract- 
ing the noble metals from their ores, was not a discovery 
of the baron's, nor of the century in which he lived ; yet 
he extended so far its application in metallurgy as to form 
a brilliant epoch in this most important art. After he had 
at great expence made many private experiments, and was 
convinced of the utility of his method, he laid before the 
emperor an account of his discovery, who gave orders that 
a decisive experiment on a large quantity of ore should be 
made at Schemnitz, in Hungary, in the presence of Char- 
pentier from Saxony, Ferber from Russia, Elhujar from 
Spain, Poda, and other celebrated chemists, which met 
with universal approbation, and established the utility of 
his discovery. In 1786, Born published, at the desire of 
the emperor, his treatise on Amalgamation ; and in the fol- 
lowing year, a farther account of it was published by his 
friend Ferber. As a considerable saving in wood, time,, ] 

and labour, attended his process, the emperor gave orders 
that it should be employed in the Hungarian mines ; and 
as a recompence to the inventor, a third of the sum that 
should be saved by adopting his method was granted to 
him for ten years, and for ten years more the interest of 
that sum. Such, however, was* the hospitality of Born, 
and his readiness to admit and entertain all travellers, and 
to patronize distressed talents of every kind, that his ex- 
peuces exceeded his income, and he was at last reduced to 

BORN. 127 

^'Bt^te of insolvency. Amidst all his bodily infirmities and 
pecuniary, embarrassments, and notwithstanding the variety 
of his official avocations, he was indefatigable in his literary . 
pursuits; and in 1790, he published in two volumes^a 
•' Catalogue methodique raisonn6," of Miss Raab^s collec- 
tion of fossils, which is regarded as a classical work on that 
subject. He employed himself also in bleaching wax by a 
new chemical process,, and in boiling salt with half the 
(irood <?ommonly used for that purpose. Whilst he was en- 
gaged in writing the " Fasti Leopoldini," or a history of 
the reign of Leopold II. in classical Latin, and a work on 
Mineralogy, his disease rapidly advanced, and being at- 
tended with violent spasms, terminated his life on the 28th 
of August, 179 L His treatise on Amalgamation was trans- 
lated into English, and published by K. £. Raspe, Lond. 
1791, 4 to, and his travels through the Bannat of Temeswar^ 
&c. were published in 1787.* 


BORRI (Joseph Francis), a famous chemist, quack, 
and heretic, was a Milanese, and born in the beginning of 
the seventeenth century. He finished his studies in the se^^ 
miaary at Rome, where the Jesuits admired him as a pro-* 
digy for his parts and memory. He iapplied himself to 
chemistry, and made some discoveries ; but, plunging him-* 
self into the most extravagant debaucheries, wa» obliged 
at last, in 1654, to take refuge in. a church. He then set 
up for a pietist; and, affecting an appearance of great 
zeal, lamented the corruption of manners which prevailed 
at Rome, saying, that the distemper was come to the 
height, and that the time pf recovery drew near : a happy 
time, wherein there would be but one sheepfold on the 
earth, whereof the pope was to be the only shepherd. 
*^ Whosoever shall refuse, said he, to enter into that sheep- 
fold, shall be destroyed by the pope's armies. God has 
predestinated me to be the general of those armies : I am 
sure, that they shall want nothing. I shall quickly finish 
my chemical labours by the hap^y production of the phi- 
losopher's stone ; and by that means I shall have as much 
gold as is necessary for the business. I am sure of the 
;assistauce of the angeb, and particularly of that of Michael' 
the archangel. When I began to walk in the spiritual life, 
I bad a vision in the night, attended with an angelical 

* Townson*s Travels in Hungary, 1797. 4to. 

128 B O R R L 

Toice, which assured me, that I should become a prophet. 
The sign that was given me for it was a palm, that seemed 
to me surrounded with the light of paradise.^' 

He communicated to his confidants, in this manner, the 
revelations which he boasted to have received : but after 
the death of Innocent X. finding that the new pope Alex- 
ander XII. renewed the tribunsils, he despaired of succeed- 
ing, left Rome, and returned to Milan. There too he 
acted the devotee, and gained credit with several people, 
wh6m he caused to perform certain exerc'ses, which car- 
ried a wonderful appearance of piety. He engaged the 
members of his new congregation, to take an oath of se- 
crecy to him ; and when he found them confirmed in the 
belief of his extraordinary mission, he prescribed to them 
certain vows, one. of which was that of poverty; for the 
performance of which he very ingeniously caused alf the 
money that every one had to be consigned to himself. The 
design of this crafty impostor was, in case he could get a 
s;ufficien| number of followers, to appear in the great 
square of Milan ; there to represent the abuses of the 
eccleiiiastical and secular government ; to encourage the 
people to liberty ; and then, possessing himself of the city 
and country of Milan, to pursue his conquests. But hi» 
design miscarried, in consequence of the imprisonment of 
some of his disciples ;. and as soon as he saw that first step of 
the inquisition, he fled, on which they proceeded against him 
for contumacy in 1659 and 1660; and he was condemned 
as an heretic, and burnt in effigy, with his writings, in the 
field of Flora at Rome, on the 3d of January 1661. He 
is reported to have said, that he. never was so cold in his 
life as on the day that he was burnt at Rome : a piece of 
wit, however, which has been ascribed to several others. 
He had dictated a treatise on his system to his followers : 
but took it from them as soon as he perceived the motions 
of the inquisition, and hid all his papers in a nunnery, 
from which they fell into the hands of the inquisition, and 
were found to contain doctrines very absurd and very im-*. 

Borri staid some time in the city of Strasbnrgh, to which 
he had fled ; and where he found some assistance and 
support, as well because he was persecuted by the inqui- 
sition, as because he was reputed a great chemist But 
this was not a theatre large enough for Borri : he went 
therefore to Amsterdam^ where he appeared in a stateljr 

B O R R K 121^ 

Ahd splendid equipage, and took.tipoti him the title of 
Excellency : people flocked to him, as to the physiciah 
who could cure all diseases ; and proposals were concerted 
for marrying him to great fortunes, &c* But his reputa- 
tion began to sink, as his impostures became better under- 
stood, and he fled in the night from Amsterdam, with a 
•great many jewels and sums of money, 'which he had pil- 
fered. He then went to Hamburgh, -whefe queen Chris- 
tina was, and put himself tinder her* protection : persuad-^* 
ing her to venture a great sum of money, in. order to find 
out the philosopher's stone. Afterwards he w&tit to Co^i 
penhagen, and inspired his Danish majesty^- to' search fo^ 
the same secret ; by which means he acquired that prince's 
favour so far, as to become very odious to all the great 
persons of the kingdom. Immediately after the death of 
the king, whom he IkuI cheated out of lai*ge sums of money^ 
he left Denmark for fear of being imprisoned, and resolved 
tm go into Turkey. Being come to ^e frontiers at a time 
when the conspiracy of Nadasti, Serini, and Frangipatii, 
jivas discovered, he was secured, and his name sent to his 
Imperial majesty, to see if he was one of the conspirators^ 
The pope's nuncio, who happened to be present, as soon as 
be heard Borri mentioned, demanded, in the pope's uame^ 
that the prisoner should be delivered to him. The em- 
peror consented to it, and ordered that Borri should b^ 
sent to Vienna; and afterwards, having first obtained from 
the pope a promise that he should not be put to death, he 
seat him to Rome ; where he was tried, and condemned 
to perpetual confinement in the prison of the inquisition* 
He made abjuration of hi$ errors in the month of October^ 
J 672. Some years after he obtained leave to. attend the 
duke d'£str6e, whom all the physicians h^d given over ; 
and the unexpected cure he wrought upon him occasioned 
it to be said, that an arch-heretic had done a great miracle 
in Rome. It is said also, that the queen of Sweden sent 
for him sometimes in a coach ; but that, after the death of 
that princess, he went no more abroad, and that none 
could speak with him without special leave from the pope. 
The Utrecht gazette, as Mr. Bayle relates, of the dth of 
September, 1695, informed the public, that Borri was 
lately dead in the castle of St. Angelo, being 79 years of 
age. It seems that the duke d'E^tr^e, as a recompence 
for recovering him, had procured Borri' s prison to be 

Vol. VI. K 

ISO B O B R t 

cfaanged, from tihat of the inqubition to the castte of St 

Some pieces were printed at Geneva in 1681, which are 
ascribed to him ; as, 1. ^* Letters concerning Chemistry ;*' 
and 2. *^ Political reflections." Hie first of these works is 
entitled, ^' La chiave del gabinetto ;" th^ second, *^ Istm- 
zioni politichi/' We learn from the life of Born, that when 
he was at Strasburg, be publii^ed a letter, which went aU 
over the world. Two other of his letters are said to have 
been printed at Cop^hagen in 1699, and inscribed to Bar- 
tholinus ; one of them, ^^ De ortu cerebri, et usu medico;" 
the other^ ^^.De artificio oculorum humores restituendi." 
The Journal des Savans, of the 2d of September, 1 669, 
speaks fully of these two letters. Konig ascribes also ano^ 
ther piece to him, entitled, ^^ Notitia gentis Burrhonun." 
Sorbiere saw.Borri at Amsterdam^ and has lefft us^a de^ 
scription and character of him. He says, that '^ he was a 
tall black man, well shaped, who wore good clotheis, and 
spent a good deal of money : that he did not want partly 
and had some learning, was without doubt somewhat skilled 
in chemical preparations, had sotne knowledge in metais, 
some methods of imitating pearls or jewels, and some pur- 
gative and stomachic remedies : but that he was a quack, 
an artful impostor,, who practised upon the credulity of 
those whom he stood most in need of ; of merchants, as 
well as princes, whom he deluded out of great sums of 
money, under a pretence of discovering the pUlosppher'n 
atone, and other secrets of equal importance : and that, 
the better to carry on this scheme of knavery, he had as* 
aumed the mask of religion." ^ 

BORRICHIUS, or BORCH, a very learned physician, 
son of a Lutheran minister in Denmark, was born 1626, and 
setit to the university of Copenhagen in 1 644, where he 
remained six years, during which time he applied himself 
chiefly to physic. He taught publicly in his college, and 
acquired the character of a man indefatigable in labour, 
and of excellent morals. He gained the esteem of Caspar 
Brochman, bishop of Zealand, and of the chancellor of 
the kingdom, by the recommendation of whom he obtained 
the canonry of Lunden. He was offered the rectorship of 
the famous school of Heslow, but refused it, having formed 
a design of travelling and perfecting his studies in physici 

1 Geo. Diet — Mosheim's EccJ. Hist. — Sorbiere^ Relation d*iin Voyage ed 
ADgleterre, p. 155, * 

B O R R I C H I U S. 131 

He began to practise as a physician duritig a most terrible 
plague in Denmark, and the contagion being ceased, he 
pr*epared for travelling as he intended ;^ but was obliged to 
•defer it for some time^ Mr, Gerstorf, the first minister of 
state, having insisted on his residing in bis house In the 
fluality of tuto]^ to his ^children. He continued in this ca- 

^ai;rity five years, and then set out Upon his travels ; but 
ifiifore bis departure, he was appointed professor in poetry, 
cnemistry, and botany. He left Copenhagen in Novem- 
ber 16j60, «nd, after having visited several eminent physi- 
cians at Hamburgh, went to Holland, the Low Countries, 
to England, and to Paris, where he remained two years. 
He visited also several other cities of France, and at An- 
^ars bad a doctor? s degree in physic conferred upon him. 
He afterwards passed the Alps, and arrived at Rome ia 
October 1665, where he remained till March 1666, when 
he was obliged to set out for Denmark, where he arrived 
in Octobear 1666. The advantages which Borrichius reaped 
in his travels were very considerable, for he had made him- 
self acquainted with all the learned men in the different 
cities through which he passed. At his return to Denmark 
b» resumed his professorship, in the discharge of which he 
acquired great reputation for his assiduity and universal 
learning. He was made counsellor in the supreme council 
of justice in 1686, and counsellor of the royal chancery in 
1689. This same year he had a severe attack of the stone, 
and the pain every day increasing, he was obliged to be 
cut for it ; the operation however did not succeed, the 
atone being so big that it could not be extracted. He 
bore this affliction with great constancy and resolution till 
hk death, which happened in October 1 690. 

Borrichius died rich, and made a most liberal use of bis mo« 
ney. After satisfying his relations (who were all collateral, as 
he bad no family) with bequests to the amount of fifty thou- 
sand crowns, he left twenty-six thousand crowns to found 
a college for poor students, consisting of a house, com« 
pletely furnished for sixteen students, with library, che^* 
mical laboratory, garden, &c. to be called the Mediceaa 
college. His principal medical productions consist of ob- 
servations published in the Acta Flaffniensia, and other 
similar collections, and of the letters sent by him while on 
his travels, to F. Bartholine, under whom he had been 
educated. The letters are the most valuable of those pub- 
lished by Bar^ioline in bis '' Epistolae Medicae }" but the 


,W2 B O R R I C H I U S. 

wojks by whi^h he acquired his principal celebrity, viete 
." De ortu et.progr^ssu Chemiae," published in 1668, 4ta^ 
,and ki^ ^^ H^rot^tis iEgyptiorum et Ghemicorutii sapietitia> 
ab H. ConrAngio vindicata," 1674. In this very learned 
and elaborate work) the author defends the character of the 
.ancient Egyptians againat the. strictures of Conringius: at- 
trit)uting to tbem fii^- inyention and perfection of che- 
mi&try^ ^and even, of, alchemy ; persuading himself that 
.among their secrets they possessed the art of transmuting 
metals. Bq.t eithei; from infaluatbn, or a desire of victory, 
be cite$ several p^nps^ripts, since .known to be spurious, 
^s genviiji^,;a|>d.s<;xme written since the time of our Saviour, 
,as of ipuqh highejr antiquity.. . He shews, however, from 
undoubted i^^thpr.ity, that the Egyptians were eariy ac- 
^aioted with the medical properties of several of their. 
;p]sii)Jts3 that they, usod saline, .and e^en .mineral pr&para^ 
tiot^Sj some of them prepared, by chemistry ; that incnba- 
;tionj or the miel^od pf hatching eggs by artificial heat, was 
first used by them ; in. fine, that the art of medicine, in- 
vented by .((leip, passed from them to the Grecians. Bor<>* 
richius was .also author of ^^ Conspectus prssstantioruin 
.scripto^um lingua Latins;" 16SIB, 4to; " Cogitationes de 
variis linguapi {^atiQ;8& aetatibus," 1675, 4to; ^* Analecta 
philolqgiciay ,et judicium de lexicis Latinis Graecisque," 
1682, 4to; a^id various other philological works.' 

BORROMEO (Charles), an eminent Romish saint and 
cardinal, was born the 2d of .October 1538, of a good fa* 
mily, in, the castle of Ajrona, upon lake Major in the MUa^* 
n€sse. He addicted himself at an early period to retirement 
and study. His maternal uncle, Pius lY. sent for hij» to 
the court of Rome, made him cardinal in 1 560, and afters- 
wards archbishop of Milan. Charles was then but 22 
years of age, but conducted the affairs of the church with 
disinterested zeal and prudence. The Romans were at 
that time ignorant and lazy : he therefore formed an aca«^ 
demy composed of ecclesiastics and seculars, whom, by his 
.example and his liberality, . he animated to study and to 
virtue. Each of them was to. write upon some chosen sub^ 
ject, either in prose or verse, and to communicate to each 
other in frequent conferences the fruits of their studies. 
The works produced by this society have been published in 

1 Gen. Diet — ^Borricbius de Vita sua, io vol. II. of Delicie Poetarum Dano- 
tvim, Leydeii, 1693,'-Haller and Manget. — Saxii Onomast — Reee's Cyclopsdia. 

B O R R O M £ O. Hi 


Hiany volumes, undex the title of ^^Noctes Vaticanee, 
their assemblies being held in tbe Vatican, and at night, 
after the business of the day was over. About the same 
time he also founded the jcollege at Pavia, which was dedi- 
cated to Si;.. JufitiivsL. 

In tbe mean while, hjoweyer, the young cardinal, in the 
midst of a brilliant court, went along with the torrent, fitted- 
up grand apartments, furnished them magjnificently, and kept 
splendid equipages. His t^ble was sumptuously served ; his^ 
house was never empty of nobles and scholars. His uncle, 
delighted with'' this magnificence, gave him ample reve- 
Bues to support it. In a very short time he was at once 
grand penitentiary of Rome, archpriest of St. Maiy Major;' 
protector of several crowns, and of various orders, religioua^ 
and military ; legate of Bologna, of Romania, and of -the 
marcbe of Ancona. It was at that time that the famous 
council of Trent was held^ Much was said about the re- 
formation of the clergy, and Charles, after having advised 
it to others, gave an example of it in his own conduct. He 
suddenly discharged no less than eighty liveiy servants,' 
left off wearing silk, and imposed on himself. a weekly fast* 
OB bread atnd water, . From this beginning he soon pro-* 
ceeded greater lengths. He held councils for confirming 
the decrees of that. of Trent, terminated partly by his 
means. He made his house into a seminary of bishops ; he 
established schools, colleges, communities; re-modelled' 
his clergy and the monasteries; made institutions for the' 
poor and orphans, and for girls exposed to ruin, who were* 
desirous to return to a regular life. His zeal was the ad"** 
miration of good men, but was far from acceptable to the« 
corrupt clergy. The order of tbe Humiliati, which he 
attempted to reform, elicited against him a friar, Fatioa, a 
sbooking member of that society, who fired a gun at the 
good man while he was at. evening prayer with his domes* 
tics. The ball having only grazed his skin, Charles peti- 
tioned for the pardon of his assassin, who was punished with 
death, notwithstaudiog his solicitations, and his order was 
suppressed. These conlxadictions did not abate the ardour 
of the good archbishop- He visited the desolate extremi-^: 
ties of his province, abolished the excesses of the carnival,! 
preached to his people; and shewed himielf every where as 
their pastor and father. During tbe ravages of a cruel - 
pestilenpe, he assisted tbe poor in their spiritual concerns 
by his ecclesiastics and bis personal attentions, sold the fur* 


mture of bfs house to relieve tfae sick, put up prdiyers and 
made processions, in wkich he walked barefoot, and with a 
rope round his neck. His heroic charity was repaid with- 
ingratitude. The governor of Milan prevailed on the ma- 
gistrates of that city to prefer complaints against Charl^^ 
whom they painted in the blackest colours. ** They ac- 
cused him (says Baillet) of having exceeded the limits of 
his authority during the time of the plague ; of having in- 
troduced dangerous innovations ; of having abolished the 
public games, the stage-plays, and dances; of having 
revived the abstinence on the first Sunday in Lent, in vio-' 
lation of the privilege granted to that town of including th&t 
day in the carnival." They published an injurious and in- 
sulting manifesto against him : but, contented with the tes- 
timony of his own conscience, he resigned the care of his 
justification to the Almighty. At length, worn oi^t by the 
labours of an active piety, he finished his course the 3d of 
November 1 594, being only in his 47th year. He was ca- 
nonized in 1610. He wrote a very great number of works^ 
on doctrinal and moral subjects, which were printed 1747 
at Milan, in 5 vols, folio, and the library of St. Sepulchre 
in that city is in possession of thirty-one vols, of his manu- 
script letters. The clergy of France reprinted at their ex- 
pence the Institutions he composed for the use of confes- 
sors. Among his works are manyjiomilies and sermons^ 
as he thought it incumbent on him to preach the word oiF 
God himself to his people, notwithstanding the various bu- 
siness and government of so large a diocese. The edition 
of ^'Acta EcclesisB Mediolanensis," Milan, 1599, fol. is 
much valued. 

Upon the whole. St. Charles Borromeo appears entitled 
to the praises bestowed on him. His piety, however mis^ 
taken in some points, was sincere, and he practised with 
perfect disinterestedness and true consistency what he re- 
commended to others. His life was written by Austin Va- 
lerio, bishop of Verona, Boscape, bishop of Novara, and by 
Giussano, a Milanese priest ; but the best life of him, and 
the most free from superstitious narrative^ is that of the 
abb^ Touron, <*La Vie et Tesprit de St. Charles Borromeo,'* 
Paris, 1761, Svols. 12mo.^ 

BORROMEO (Frederic), cousin german to the pre- 
ceding, and also a cardinal and archbishop of Milan^ was 

1 Diet. Hist. — Butler's Lives of the Saints.— Touron abridged, Gent Mag. 
1 769.—- Moreri.— Frobwi Tlwatruin. 

B R R O M E O. n$ 

^TBt educated under St. Charles^ who aftervrards placed 
bim in his Dewly-founded college at Favia. In ISST, pope 
Pius V. made bim a cardinal, and in 1595, Clement VIII. 
promoted him to the archbishopric of Milan. He died ii| 
1632, leaving various pious works, written in Italian, the 
principal of which is '< Sacri Ragionamenti,'' Milan, 1632 
— 1 C4€, 4 vols, folio, and " Ragionamenti Spirituali,'* 
ibid. 1673 — 1676 ; ** De Piacire della mente Christiatia,*^ 
ibid. 1625. All his works are said to be scarce, but litera- 
ture was most indebted to him as the founder of the cele- 
brated Ambrosian library at Milan, which was enriched in 
his time with ten thousand manuscripts collected by An-' 
tony Oggiati, whom he made librarian, and by a large 
collection of books from the Pinelli library. ^ 

BORROMINI (Francis), an eminent French architect, 
was born at Bissona in the diocese of C6mo in 1599, and 
acquired great reputation at Rome, where he was more 
employed than any architect of his time. A great num- 
ber of his works are seen in that city, but the major part 
are by no means models for young artists. They abound 
in deviations irom the received rules, and other singulari- 
ties ; but, at the s&me time, we cannot fail of perceiving 
in thera talents of a superior order, and strong marks of 
genius. It was in bis violent efforts to outdo Bernini, whose 
&me he envied, that he departed from that simplicity 
which is the true basis of the beautiful, in order to give ex« 
travagant ornaments in that taste; which have induced some 
4:o compare his style in ^trchitecture to the literary style of 
Seneca or MarinL With bis talents, had he studied the great 
masters in their greatest perfections, he would have been 
the fint architect of his time, merely by following their 
track ; but he unfortunately deviated into the absurdities of 
singularity, and has left us only to guess from the college 
of the Propaganda, and a few other buildings at Rome^ 
what he might have been. Even in his own time, his false 
taste was decried, and it is supposed that the mortifications 
he met with brought on a derangement of mind, in one of 
the fits of which he put an end to his life in 1667. From a 
vain opinion of his superiority, he is said to have destroyed 
all bis designs, before his death, lest any other architect 
should adopt them. There was published, however, in 
1725, at Rome, in Italian and Latin, his ** Description of 

^ Moreri. — Le GaUois TraU4,des plus belles Bibliotheques de PEurope, 1685, 
12ffio.— Morboff Polybist.— Saxii Ooonusticoo.— Freberi Tbeatrum. 

ISA B ..p n R X> M I N I. 

* ^ i 

the church .pf VaUicela,'' which ' he b^iilt, with the plaiii 
and desigifs^jand 9. piaa of the church of Sapienza, at 
Rome. ' 


I 1^0 S (j£ROM£)y an artist of singular taste, was bom a^ 
Bois-le'Duc. - lie seemed to have a peculiar pleasure iu. 
paip ting spectres, devils^ and enchantments : and although 
he possessed considerable powers as a painter, both in free- 
dom of touch and strength of colouring, his pictures camber 
excite a horror mixed with admiration than any degree of 
real delight. Among the singular objects which he chose, 
there is, one which represents the Saviour delivering the Pa* 
triarchs from hell. The fire and flames are painted* with 
great truth. Judas in the atteippt of slyly escaping with the^ 
Saints, is seized in the neck by the devils, who are going 
to hang him up in the air. A most remarkable painting of' 
this master's hand, among several others in the Escurial, is 
an allegory of the pleasures of the flesh: in which he. repre- 
sents the principal figure in a carriage drawn by monstrous^ 
imaginary forms, pieceded by demons, and followed by 
death. As to his manner, it was. less stiff. than that of most 
of the pointers of his time ; and his draperies were in a bet<« 
ter taste, tnore simple, and with less sameness, than any 
of his contemporaries. He painted on a white ground, 
which he so managed as to give a degree of transparent^ 
to his colours, and the appearance of more warmth. He 
laid on his colours lightly, and so placed them, even a.t the 
first touch of bis pencil, as to give them their proper ef-; 
feet, without disturbing them : and hi« touch was full of. 
spirit. Bos was also an engraver, and, as Strutt thinks, 
the first artist who attempted to engrave in the grotesque 
style. His engra^vings have that stiffness which so strongly 
characterises the works of the early German masters, and 
prove that he possessed a great fertility of invention, thougl^ 
perhaps but little judgment. He died in 1500,* 
; BOS (Lambert), a learned philologist, was^ boirn at 
Worcum in Friesland, Nov. 23, 1670. His father who 
was rector or principal regent of the schools,, and accusr 
tomed to mark the early appearance of talents, soon dis- 
covered his son's aptitude for lei^rning, land taught him 
Greek and Latin. His mother, a woman of ahiht^es^iand. 
aunt to yitringa, when she saw the l£^tter,. tfien ft very^ 

» Di«t. Histi-rD'Argenvillc. 2 Pilkington aad Strutt. 


BOS. m 

young many advanced to the professorship of Oriental Ian* 
guages, exclaimed with maternal fondness that she hoped 
to see her son promoted to a similar rank. In this, how-< 
ever, she was not gratified, as she died before he had 
fiDished his studies. When he had gone through tlie ordi* 
nary course of the classes in his father^ s school, he conti- 
nued adding to his knowledge by an attentive perusal of the 
Greek and Latin authors, and had many opportunities for 
this while he lived with a man of rank, as private tutor to 
bis children. Cicero, above all, was his favourite Latin 
author, whom he read again and again. In 1694 he went 
to the university of Franeker, where his relation, Vitringa, 
encouraged him to pursue the Greek and Latin studies^ to 
which he seemed so much attached. In October 1696 he 
waS' permitted to teach Greek in the university, and in Fe-. 
bruary of the following year, the curators honoured him, 
with the title of prelector in that language. In 1 704, when. 
the Qreek professorship became vacant by the death of 
Blancard, Mr. Bos was appointed his successor, and on 
taking the chair, read a dissertation on the propagation of 
Greek learning by their colonies, ^^ de eruditione GraBCO* 
»im per Colonias eorum propagata." About the end of 
1716 he was attacked with a malignant fever, ending in a 
consumption, a disorder he inherited from his mother, 
which termipated his life Jan. 6, 1717. Bos was a man of 
extensive classical learning, a solid judgment, and strong 
memory.. In his personal character he was candid, amia- 
ble, and pious ; in his studies so indefatigable that he re-, 
gretted every moment that was not employed in them. 
About five years before his death he married the widow of 
a clergyman, by whom he left two sons. 

I}43 published, 1 . ^^ Exercitationes Philologicas, in quibus 
Kovi Foederis nonnuUa loca e profanis maxim^ auctoribus 
Graecis illustrantur," Franeker, 1700, 8vo; and in 1713. 
much enlarged, particularly with an ingenious etymplogi** 
cal dissertation, on which,- as well as on the work itself, Le 
Clerc bestows high praise in his " Bibliotheque Choisie,'* 
vol. XV. and his " Bibl. Anc. et Moderne," vol. II. 2. " Mys- 
terii ElUpsios Graecai expositi Specimen," ibid, 1702, 
12mo. There have been many editions of this useful work 
to Greek students. 3. ^^ Observationes Miscellanea^ ad 
Ipcaqusdam cum Novi Foederis, turn externonim Scripto- 
rum GraBCorum," ibid. 1707, 8 vo. 4. An edition of the 
Septuagint/*^ 1709, 2- vols. 4to, with Prolegomena, &c. 


118 BOS. 

which Breitingcr, who published another edition in 1730— 
1732, has criticised with considerable severity in the "Jour* 
Hal Litteraire/' vol. XVIII. which the reader may compare 
with what is said of Breitinger^s edition in vol. XI. of the 
** Bibliotheque Raisonn6e." 5. •* Antiquitatum GraBcamm, 
prsecipue Atticarum, brevis Description' Franeker, 1713, 
]2mo. Of this there have been several editions, as it be- 
came a school book. That of Leisner, at Paris, 1769, was 
in 1772 translated into English by our countryman, the late 
rev. Percival Stockdale, and published in octavo, in hopes 
that it might supply young scholars with a manual more 
useful than Pottef s Antiquities, but it did not answer the 
translator's expectations in this respect. 6. ** Animadver- 
siones ad Scriptores quosdam Grsccos. Accedit specimen 
animadversionum Latinarum," Franeker, 1715, 8vo. The 
same year he published a new edition of Weller's Greek 
Grammar, adding two chapters on accentuation and syn- 
tax, shorter and more methodical than those of Weller. 
F. H. Schoefer published a variorum edition of his ** Ellip- 
ses," in 1809, Leipsic. Saxius only, of all his biogra- 
phers, notices a work by Bos which appears to have been 
his first, " Thomae Magistri Dictionum Atticarum Ecloga,** 
Franeker, 1698, 8vo.* 

BOS (Lewis Janssen, or John Lewis), an artist, was 
bom at Bois-le-Duc, and having been carefiilly instructed 
in the art of painting by the artists of his native city, he 
apphed himself entirely to study after nature, and ren- 
dered himself very eminent for truth of colouring and 
neatness of handling. His favourite subjects were flowers 
and curious plants, which he usually represented as 
grouped in glasses, or vases of chrystal, half filled with 
water, and gave them so lively a look of nature, that it 
seemed scarcely possible to express them with greater 
truth or delicacy. In representing the drops of dew on 
the leaves of his subjects, he executed them with uncom- 
mon tninsparence, and embellished his subjects with but- 
terflies, bees^ wasps, and other insects, which, Sandrart 
says, were superior to any thing 6f that kind performed ^^by 
his contemporary artists. He likewise painted portraits 
with very great success. • 

BOSC (Claude du), an engraver, was a native of 
France, and being invited to England by Nicholas Do- 

' Chaufepie Noaveau Diet, vol. IL<— Fabric. Bibl. Ci3»c,— ^SaxiiOoomast. 
P PilkiD^ton. ^ 

I • 

B O S C. 19^ 

ngny, assisted bim for some time in engraving tbe car* 
tooas of Raphael ; ^nd afterwards separating from Dorigny, 
he undertook to engrave the cartoons for tbe printseliers. 
He also engraved the duke of Marlborough's battles^ for 
which be received 80/. per plate ; and, assisted first by 
Du Guernier, and afterwards by Beauvais and Barofi, he 
completed them within two years, in 1717. He then be- 
ca^ne a printseller, and published, by subscription, the 
translation of Picart's Religious Ceremonies. As an en- 
graver, he possessed no great merit: his style is coarse 
and heavy, and the drawing of the naked parts of the 
figure in his plates is very defective. The ** Continence 
of Scipio,^' from a picture of Nicholas Poussin, in the 
Houghton collection, is one of his plates. He flourished 
in 1714.* 

BOSC (P£TER DU), a French minister, and the greatest 
preacher in his time among the protest ants, was son of 
William du Bosc, advocate to the parliament of Roan, and 
born at Bayeux, February 21, 1623. He made such pro- 
gress, after having studied divinity eighteen months at 
Montauban, and three years at Saumur, that although he 
i^as but in his three and twentieth year, he was qualified to 
serve the church of Caen, to which he was presented Nor. 
15, 1645, and received the imposition of hands Dec. 17^ 
the same year. The merit of his colleagues, and above all 
that of Mr. Bochart, did not hinder Mr. du Bosc from ac* 
quiring speedily the reputation of one of the first* men of 
his function ; and his eloquence became so famous 
throughout tbe whole kingdom, that the church of Cha- 
reofton would have him for their minister, and sent to de* 
sine him of his churchy in the beginning of 1656.. The 
strongest solicitations were made use of; but neither the 
eloquence of the deputies of Paris, uor the letters of per* 
sons of the greatest eminence in France amongst t^e pro- 
testants, could engage the church of Caen to part with 
him, nor him to quit his flock. It was impossible that such 
talents and fame should not give umbrage to the enemies 
of the protestant religion, which tbey shewed in 1664, by 
procuring a Uttre de cachet, which banished him from Cha- 
lons till a new order, for having spoke disrespectfully of 
auricular confession. Mr. du Bosc, as he passed through 
Paris to go to the place of his banishment, eKplained to 

} Strutt — Walpole's EngraTen* 

140 BOS C. 

Mr. le Tellier his opinion on confession, and in wnat 
ner be liad spoken of it, with which Le Telii^r was satis^* 
fied, and told him that he had never doubted of the false* 
Bess of the accusation. Mr. du fiosc recovered the liberty 
of returning to his church October 15, 1664, and the joy 
which was at Caen among the brethren^ when he caoae 
there, November 8, was excessive. A great many honbur**' 
able persons of the other party congratulated him ; and' 
there was a catholic gentleman who celebrated the event 
in a velry singular manner, as thus related by Du Bosc^s 
biographer. ^* A gentleman of the Roman religion, of 
distinction in the province, whose life was not very regu<* 
lar, but who made open profession of loving the pastors* 
who bad particular talents, and seemed particularly ena- 
moured with the merit of Mr. du Bosc, having a mind to- 
solemnize the feast with a debauch, took two Cordeliers 
whom he knew to be honest fellows, and made them drink 
so much, that one of them died on the spot. He went to 
see Mr* du Bosc the next day, and told him that he thoug^ht 
himself obliged to sacrifice a monk to the public joy ; that 
the sacrifice would have been more reasonable, if it had 
been a Jesuit; but that his o6fering ought not to displease' 
him, though it was but of a Cordelier. This tragical ac- 
cident, of which he was only the innocent occasion, did 
not fail to disturb the joy which he had upon seeing him« 
self again in his family and amongst his flock." During 
the prosecutions of the protestant churches in 1665, he 
defended that of Caen, and many others of the province^ 
against the measures of the bishop of Bayeux, The king 
having published in 1666 a severe proclamation against 
the prQtc: tants, all the churches sent deputies to Paris to 
make humble remonstrances to his majesty. The churches 
of Normandy deputed Mr. du Bosc, who departed from 
Caen July 3, 16bS, As soon as he was arrived at Pari«^ 
the other deputies chose him to draw up several menK>Irs«- 
It being reported that the king would suppress some cham- 
bers of the edict, all tije deputies ran to Mr. de Ruvigrni, 
the deputy general, to speak with him about so important 
an atfa;r, m hopes of procuring leave to throw themselves 
at his majesty's leei ; but Mr. du Bosc only was admitted 
to the audience. He harangued the king, who was alone 
in his clo.SLt, November 27, 1668 ; and after having ended 
his discourse, he had the courage to represent several 
things, and succeeded so well as to make all the court 

3 O S C. 141 

speak of bis eloquence and prudence. After several con« 
fereoces with Mr. le Tellier, and many evasions and delays, 
in April 1669, he obtained some relaxation of the declara- 
tion of 166'6. After that time Mr. du Bosc went several 
journies about the churches' affairs^ and supported them 
before the ministers of state and the iutendants, with 
great force and ability, until he was commanded himself^ 
by aix act of the parliament of Normandy Jane 6, 1685, 
•not , to exercise his ministry any more in the kingdom* It 
was, however, universally acknowledged, that if it had 
beeii possible to preserve the reformed church of' France 
by the means of negotiation, he was more likely to suc- 
ceed than any one that could bei employed. He retired 
into Holland after his: interdiction, and was minister of 
the church of Rotterdam, until his death, which happened 
January 2, 1692, He published some volumes of ser- 
mons ; and after hi^ dc^th, P. Le Gendre, his soh-^in4aw,' 
published his " Life, . Letters, Poems, Orations, IHsser- 
tatjions,*' and qtbier cprious documents respecting the his- 
tory of the reforipoed churches iu; his time, Rotterdam, 
1694, 8vo, dedicated to lord viscount Galloway.^. 

BOSCAN(JoHN Almogaver), a Spanish poet, of a 
noble family, was born at Barcelona, about the end of the 
fifteenth century, and is supposed to have died about 1543« 
He was bred to arms, and, having served with distinction, 
was afterwards a great traveller. From the few accounts 
we have of him, as well as from what appears in bis work$, 
he seems to have been a very good classical scholar ; and 
be is said to have bee^n highly successful in the education 
of Ferdinand, the great duke of Alba, whose singular qua- 
lities were probably the fruit of our poet's attention to himr 
He married Donna Anna Giron di JleboUedo, an amiable 
woman, of a noble family, by, whom he had a very nume- 
rous offsprii^g. Garcilaso was his coadjutor in his poetical 
labours, and their works were published together, under 
the title ^^Obras de Boscan y Garcilaso," Medina, 1544, 
4to, and at Venice, 1553, 12mo. The principal debt 
which Spanish poetry owes to Boscan, is the introduction 
of the bendecasyllable verse, to which it owes its true 
grace and elevation. His works are divided into' three 
books, the first of which contains his poetry in the redon- 
^iglia metre, and the other two his hendecasyllables. In 

1 Qtn. Diet— Le Qendre'a Life, at supra. 

Ut B O S C A N. 

these he seems to have made the Italian poet^ his inodeId> 
imitating Petrarch in bis sonnets and canzoni ; Dante and 
Petrarch in his terzine ; Politian, Ariosto, and Bembo, in 
bis ottaye rime ; and Bernardo Tasso, tHe father of Tor- 
quato, in his versi sciotti. It is said be also translated a 
play of Euripides, which is lost ; but he has left us a prose 
iranslation, no less admirable than his poetry, of the fa* 
mous II Gortegiano, or the Courtier of Castiglione. M. 
Conti, in his "« Collecion de Poesias, &c." or collection of 
Spanish poems translated into Italian verse, has grren as 
specimens of Boscan, tvro canzoni, six sonnets, and a 
iamiliar epistle, to Don Hurtado de Mendoza. * 

BOSCAWEN (Right Hon. Edward), a brave English 
admiral, the second son of Hugh, lord viscount Falmouth, 
was born in 1711, and having early embraced the naval 
service^ arose, through the usual gradations, to be captain 
of the Shoreham of 20 gtins^ in 1740, and distinguished 
himself as a volunteer under admiral Vernon, in Novem- 
ber, at the taking and destroying the fortifications of Porto 
Bello. At the siege of Carthagena in March 1741, he 
had the command of a party of seamen, who resolutely 
attacked and took a fascine battery of fifteen twenty-four 
pounders, though exposed to the fire of another fort of 
five guns, which they knew nothing of. Lord Aubrey 
Beauclerk bei/ig kiiled[ March 24, at the attack of Boca- 
chica, capt. Boscawen succeeded him in the command of 
the Prince Frederic of 70 guns ; and on thte surrender of 
that qastle, was entrusted with the care of its demolition. 

In December following, after his return home^ he mar- 
ried Frances, daughter of William Glanville, esq. of St. 
Clere in Kent ; and the same year was elected member of 
parliament for Truro in Cornwall. In 1744, he was made 
captain of the Dreadnought of sixty guns, and on the 29th 
of April, soon after war had been declared against France, 
he took the Medea, a French man of war of 2 6* guns and 
240 men, commanded by M. Hoquart, being the first 
king^s ship taken that war. In January 1745, he was one 
of the court-t martial appointed to inquire into the conduct 
of capt. Mostyn : and, during the rebellion, an invasion 
being apprehended, he commanded as commodore on 
board the Royal Sovereign at the Nore, whence he sent ^ 

> Antotuo Bibl. flisp,— BaiUet Jugemens des Savans.-^Maty^s Reylew, vol. 
V. ^. I, *^ 

3 O S C A W E N. 14S 

away several of the nevr^pressed men that were brought to 
hitOy in company with some e^cpeiienced seameiiy ia fri<- 
gates and small vi^ssels, to the* mouths of many of the 
creeks and rivers oh the coasts, of. Kent and Sussex, to 
guard in those partsu 

In November 1746, being, then captain of. the Namur^ 
of seventy-four guns, he chased into admiral A nson^$ fleet 
the Mercury^ formerly a French ship of war, of fifty-eight 
gnns^ bat then serving as an hospital ship to M. d'AnviUe's 
«^uadron. On May 3, 1747, he signalized himself under 
jthe admirals Anson audWarcen, in An engagement with a 
French fleet off Cape Finisterre, aud was wounded in the 
shoalder by a musquet^ball. Here M. Qoquart, jthen com- 
mandiug the Diamant of flfty-six guns, again became his 
prisoner, and all the French ships of war^ ten in number, 
were taken. In July of the same year^ he was appointed 
rear-admiral of the blue, and commander in x;bief of the 
land and sea-forces employed on an ; expedition to the 
East Indies. Nov. 4,. he sailed from St« Heleu's, with six 
ahips of the line,< five frigates, and two thousand soldiers: 
and though the wind soon proved contrary, .the admiral 
was so anxious of clearing the channel, jtfaat he rather 
chose to tmrn to the wmdward than put back. After re^^ 
freshing his men some weeks at the Cape of Good 
Hope, where he arrived March 29,. 1748, he made the 
island of Mauritius, belonging to the French, on June 2S. 
Biit on reconnoitering the landiiig .place, and finding it 
impracticable, without great loss, it was determined by a 
council of war, to proceed on the voyage, that not being 
the principal design of the expedition. July 29, he ar- 
rived at Fort St David's, where the siege of Pondicherry 
being ijonunediately resolved on, the admiral took the com«- 
mand of the army, and marched with them, August 8th, 
and on the 27th opened trenches before the town : but the 
men growing sickly, the monsoons being expected, the 
chief engineer killed, and the enemy being stronger ia 
garrison than the besiegers,^ the siege was raised Oct 6th, 
and in two days the army reached for St. David's, Mr* 
Boscawen shewing himself, in the retreat as much the ge«* 
neral as the admiral. Soon after the peace was concluded, 
and Madras delivered up to him by the French. 

«In April 1749, he lost in a violent storm his own ship 
the Namur, and two more^ but was himself providentially 
op shore. In April 1750 he arrived at St Helen's, in the 

144 B O S C A W E N. 

Exeter^ having, in his absence, been appointed reair^ad* 
miral of the white. In June 1751, he was appointed one 
of the lords commissioners of the admiralty, and in July 
was chosen an elder brother of the Trinity-house. In May 
1754, he was re-elected for the borough of Truro. 

In February 1755 he was appointed vice-admiral of the 
blue, and on April 19, he sailed from Spithead with a 
strong fleet, in order to intercept the French squadroik 
bound to North America. June lOtb, he fell in, off New- 
foundland, with the Alcide and Lys, of sixty-four guns 
^each, which were both taken by the Dunkirk and Defiance, 
being the first action of that war. On thh occasion, it was 
very extraordinary,, that M. Hoquart became a third time 
his prisoner. In November, the admiral arrived at Spit* 
.head with his prizes, and fifteen hundred prisoners. In 
1756 he commanded the squadron in the Bay; and in 
December was appointed vice-admiral of the white. In 
' 1757 he again commanded in the Bay; and in 1758 was 
appointed admiral of the blue, and commander in chief of 
the expedition to Cape Breton. ^ Feb. 1 5, he sailed from 
St. Helen's, and in conjunction with general (afterwards 
lord) Amherst, took the important fortress of Louisburgb> 
July 27th, with die islands of Cape Breton and St. John. 
.On Nov. 1st. the admiial arrived at St. Helen's with four 
ships, having fallen in, off Scilly, with six French ships 
from Quebec, which escaped him in the night; but in 
chacing one of them, tliB Belliqueux of sixty-four guns, 
having carried away her fore top-mast, was forced up 
Bristol Channel, where she was taken by the Antelope. 
December 1 2th, on his coming to the house of commons, 
the thanks of that august assembly, the greatest honour 
that can be conferred on any subject, were given him by 
the speaker. 

In some French memoirs, admiral Boscawen is repre- 
sented as havings at the siege of Louisburgfa, wholly gives 
himself up to the direction of a particular captain in that 
arduous and enterprising business. This, however, was 
not the case. Whoever knew Mr. Boscawen's knowledge 
in his profession, with his powers of resource upon every 
occasion, his intrepidity of mind, his manliness and inde- 
pendence of conduct and of character, can never give the 
least degree of credit to such an assertion. The admiral, 
however, upon other occasions, and in other circumstancest 
deferred to the opinions of those with whom be was pror 

B O S C A W E N. 14$ 

fessioDally connected. When once sent to intercept n 
St. Domingo fleet of merchantmen, and while waiting near 
the track which it was supposed tjhey would take, one of 
his seamen came to tell him that the fleet was now in sight 
The admiral took his glass, and from his superior power of 
eye, or perhaps from previous information, said, that the 
sailpr was mistaken, and that what he saw was the grand 
French fleet. The seaman, however, persisted. The ad* 
miral desired some others of his crew to look through the 
glass ; who all, with their hrains heated with the prospect 
of a prize, declared, that what they saw was the St. Do« 
mingo fleet. He nobly replied, " Gentlemen, you sliall 
never say that I have stood in the way of your enriching 
yourselves : I submit to you ; but, remember, when you 
find your mistake, you must stand by me.'' The mistake 
was soon discovered ; and the admiral, by such an exertioa 
of manoeuvres as the service has not often seen, saved his 

In 1759, being appointed to conmiand in the Mediter* 
ranean, he sailed from St. Helen's April 14th. TheTou* 
lon fleet, under M. de la Clue, having passed the Streights, 
with an intent to join that at Brest, the admiral, then at 
Gibraltar, being informed*of it by his frigates, immediately 
got under sail, and on Aug. 13th, discovered, pursued^ 
and engaged the enemy, His ship, the Namur, of ninety 
guns, having lost her mainmast, he instantly shifted his 
flag to the Newark, and, after a sharp engagement, took 
three large ships, and burnt two, in Lagos-bay. On Sept» 
15th he arrived at Spithead with his prizes, and two thou-r 
sand prisoners. In December of the following year, he was 
appointed general of the marines, widi a salary of 3000^ 
per annum, and was also sworn of his majesty's most ho- 
pourable privy-council. In the same year he commanded 
in the Bay, till relieved by admiral Hawke : and, returning 
home, died at his seat at Hatchland park, near Guildford^ 
of a bilious fever, Jan. 10, 1761. A monument was after* 
wards erected to him in the church of St. Michael Pett-» 
kevel in Cornwall, where he was buried,, with an elegai;it 
inscription said to have been written by his widow. 

This excellent officer was so anxious for the honour of 
the sea-service, and his own, that when lord Anson, tbea 
first lord of the admiralty, refused to confirm his promo- 
tion of two naval officers to the rank of post-captains, in 
consequence of their having distinguished themselves at 
Voi. VI. L 

^4« B O S C A W E N. 

4he siege of Louisburgh (Laforey and Balfour, if we itiis- 
take not), be threatened to give up his seat at the board of 
admiralty, and lord Anson, rather than lose the advice 
and experience of this great seaman, thought fit to retract 
liis opposition. Admiral Boscawen was so little infected 
with the spirit of party, that when, on his return from one 
of his expeditions, he found his friends out of place, and 
another administration appointed, and was asked whether 
he would continue as a lord of the admiralty with them, 
he replied, " the country has a right to the services of its 
professional men : should I be seqt again upon any expe- 
dition, my situation at the admiralty wilt facilitate the 
equipment of the fleet I am to command." He probably 
thought, with his great predecessor, Blake, " It is not for 
us to miud state affairs, but to prevent foreigners from 
fooling us." No stronger .testimony of the merit of ad- 
miral Boscawen can be given, than that afforded by the late 
lord Chatham, when prime minister : " When I apply,** 
fiaid he, '^ to other officers respecting any expedition I 
may chance to project, they always raise difficulties ; you 
always find expedients." * 

: BOSCAWEN (William), an English miscellaneous 
writer, and poet of considerable merit, was nephew to the 
preceding, bfeing the younger son of general George Bos- 
cawen, third son of lord Falmouth* He was born August 
28, 1752, and was sent to Eton school before he was seven 
years old, where he obtained the particular notice and 
favour of the celebrated Dr. Barnard. From school he was 
removed to Oxford, where he became a gentleman com- 
moner of Exeter ^college, but l^ft it, as is not unusual with 
gentlemen intended for the law, without taking a degree. 
He then studied the law, as a member of the Middle Tern* 
pie, and the practice of special pleading under Mr. (after* 
wards judge) Buller : was called to the bar, and for a time 
went the Western circuit. Nor were his legal studies un- 
fruitful, as he published an excellent work under the title 
of " A Treatise of Convictions on Penal Statutes ; with 
approved precedents of convictions before justices of the 
peace, in a variety of cases ; particularly under the Game 
Laws, the Revenue Laws, and the Statutes respecting Ma* 
amfactures, &c." 1792, 8vo, He was also appointed one 

. * Gent.. Mag. vol. XXXL— Sewanrs ABecdotes« toI. U.^^-SmoUctt's Histor|w 
i-AMiaal Register, to!. L IL III. IV, 

B S C A W £ N. 14T 

^ the comniissioners of bankrupts, which situation he held 
till his death. On Dec. 19, 1785, he was appointed by- 
patent to the situation of a commissioner of the victualling 
office, in consequence of which, and of his marriage in 
April 1786, he soon after quitted the bar. He married 
Charlotte, second daughter of James Ibbetson, D. D.' arch- 
deacon of St. Alban's, and rector of Bushey. By Mrs. 
Boscawen, who died about seven years before him, he had 
a. numeroiu family, five of whom, daughters, survived both 

Being an excellent classical scholar, and warmly at* 
tached to literary pursuits, he publtsheil, in 1793, the 
first volume of a new translation of Horace, containing the 
'' Odes, Epodes, and Carmen Seculare." This being much 
approved, was followed, in 1798, by his translation of the 
^^ Satires, Epistles, and Art of Poetry," thus completing 
a work, which, though Francis's translation still holds its 
popularity, is, in the judgment of all classical men, very 
greatly superior to it, in many essential points of merit. 
In 1801 he published a small volume of original poems^ 
in which, if he does not take a lead among his contem-^ 
poraries, he at least discovers an elegant taste, a poetical 
mind, and a correct versification. He was for several years 
before his death a constant and able assistant in the ^^ British 
CriMt." He is also the supposed writer of** The Progress 
of Satice, an essay, in verse, with notes, containing re- 
marks on * The Pursuits of LiteratureV 1798, and "A 
Supplement to the same," 1799, two pamphlets occa-^ 
stoned by some freedontts taken with eminent characters in 
the " Pursuits." 

Mr. Boscawen's constitution was delicate, and probably 
not improved by close confinement to the duties of his 
commissionership. He had, consequently, for several years 
suffered much by asthmatic affections of the lungs, which 
gradually exhausted the powers of life, aud in the begin* 
iring of May, 1811, from an accidental accession of cold, 

Koved fatal on the sixth of that month. The character of 
r. Boscawen, says a writer, whom we know to have 
been one of his intimate friends, could it be truly drawn^ 
would exhibit a consummate picture of every thing that is 
,2ttniable and estimable in human , nature, improved by 
knowledge and exalted by religion. lu every possible re- 
Jation of life, whatever was kind, whatever was affectionate, 
whatever was benevolent, might with certainty be expected 

L 2 

148 B O S C A W E N. 

from him. That excellent institution, the Literary Futfd^ 
he considered almost as his child ; and his affection to it 
was testified, not only by contributions, but by annual 
verses in its praise, and assiduous attendance on its meet- 
ings. Within five days of his death he wrote a copy of 
Terses for its anniversary, and even contemplated the de- 
sign of attending it. A new edition of his Horace, much 
improved by his long continued attention, is intended to 
be brought forward, accompanied by the original, and by 
many additional notes. * 

BOSCH (Balthasar Vandin), an artist, was hotn at 
Antwerp, in 1675, and was placed under the care of one 
Thomas, whose subjects were apartments with figures, in 
the manner of Teniers; and be decorated the insides of 
those apartments with bustos, vases, pictures, and other 
curiosities, which sort of subjects were at that time in great 
request. Bosch studied the same manner of painting, and 
with great success ; but the connoisseurs and his friend^ 
advised him to employ his pencil on subjects of a more 
elegant and elevated kind ; because it seemed a little ab- 
surd, to see apartments designed with so much magni- 
ficence, and so richly ornamented, occupied by persons so 
mean and vulgar in their appearance as the figures gene>- 
rally represented. Bosch profited by the advice, and soon 
acquired a different style of design and elegance in bis 
composition, which afforded more pleasure to the eye, 
and more value to his productions. He also painted por- 
traits with a great deal of reputation, particularly a portrait 
of the duke of Marlborough on horseback, which gained 
him all the applause that he could possibly desire. The 
horse was painted by Van Bloemen. His paintings rose to 
a most extravagant price, and were at that time more dear 
than those of Teniers or Ostade. Some of his works have 
true merit, being very good in the composition and design, 
and also in respect of the colouring; and the forms of his 
figures were more elegant than most of his contemporaries. 
His subjects were judiciously chosen, and for the most 
part they were sculptors or painters, surrounded with pic- 
tures or bustos of marble, brass, or piaster, to which he 
gave abundance of variety, and a great degree of truth. 
His pencil is light, his touch spirited, and his figures are 

» Gent Mag. 1811.--NeTr Cat. of Living Authors^ toI, L 1799.— Brit. Crit. 
toU XXXVII. p. 468. 

BOSCH. 14f 

diressed in the mode of the time. However, notwithstand- 
ing he possessed so much merit, as is generally and justly 
ascribed to hiqn, his works cannot enter into competition 
with those of Ostade or Teniers ; nor is be now esteemed 
as he formerly had been^ even by his own countrymen. 
He died of excess, in 1715.^ 

BOSCOLI (Andr£a), an historical painter, was born at 
Florence, in 1553, and educated under Santi di Titi. He 
was the first person who had a just notion of the cbiaro 
scuro, and used it successfully in the Florentine school ; 
where, though it had been happily practised by Giorgione, 
at Venice, and also by Titian, it was not well understood 
before bis time. He possessed great freedom of hand, and 
gave a surprising force of colour; and both in design and 
composition the grandeur of his style resembled that ofhis 
master. He studied after nature ; and in his travels hd 
drew sketches of any particular objects that struck him ; 
but pursuing this practice at Loretto, with regard to the 
fortifications of the city, he was seized by the officers of 
justice, and condemned to be hanged ; but he happily es^ 
caped, within a few hours of execution, by the interposition 
of signior Bandini, who explained to the chief magistrate 
his innocent intention. He was also an engraver; but the 
subjects ofhis plates are not specified either by Marollesor 
Florent le Comte. He died in 1606.* 

BOSCOVICH (Roger Joseph), one of the most emi- 
nent mathematicians and philosophers of the last century, 
was born May II, 1711, in the city of Ragusa, and studied 
Latin grammar in the schools of the Jesuits in his native 
city, where it soon appeared that he was endued with su- 
perior talents for the acquisition of learning. In the begin- 
ning of his fifteenth year^ he had already gone through the 
grammar classes with applause, and had studied rhetoric 
for some months, and as it now became necessary to deter- 
mine on his course of life, having an ardent desire for learn- 
ing, he thought he could not have a better opportunity of' 
gratifying it, than by entering the society of the Jesuits ; 
and, with the consent of his parents, he petitioned to be 
received among them. . It was a maxim with the Jesuits 
to place their most eminent subjects at Rome, as it was of 
importance for them to make a good figure on that theatre; 
and as they had formed great expectations from their new 
pupil^ they procured his being called to that city in 172^ 

* Pilkington. — Descamps, vol. IV, . « Pilkington and Strutt. 


B O S C O V I C H. 

where he entered his noviciate with great alacrity. After 
this noviciate (a space of two years) had passed in the ttsnal 
prdbationary exercises, he studied in the schools of rheto- 
ric, became well acquainted with all the classical author:*', 
and cultivated Latin poetry with some taste and zeal. 

After this he removed from tiie noviciate to the Roman 
college, in order to study philosophy, which he did for 
three years, and as geometry made part of that course, he 
soon discovered that his mind was particularly turned to 
this science, which he cultivated with such rapid success, as 
to excel all his condisciples, and had already begun to give 
private lessons in mathematics. According to the ordmary 
course followed by the Jesuits, their yoiing men, after stu- 
dying philosophy, were employed in teaching Latin and 
the belles lettres for the space of five years, as a step to 
the study of theology and the priesthood at a riper age ; 
but as Boscovich had discovered extraordinary talents for 
geometrical studies, his stiperiors dispensed with the teach- 
ing of the schools *, and commanded him to commence the 
study of divinity, which he did for four years, bat without 
neglecting geometry and physics, and before that space 
was ended, he was appointed professor of mathematics, an 
office to which he brought ardent zeal and first-rate talents. 
Besides having seen all the best modern productions on ma-^ 
thematical subjects, he studied diligently the antient geo- 
metricians, and from them learned that exact method of 
reasoning which is to be observed in all his works. Al- 
though he himself easily perceived the concatenation of ma- 
thematical truths, and could follow them into their most ab- 
struse recesses, yet he accommodated himself with a fa^ 
therly condescension to the weaker capacities of his scho- 
lars, and made every demonstration clearly intelligible to 
them. When he perceived that any of his disciples were 
capable of advancing faster than the rest, he himself would 
propose his giving them private lessons, that so they might 
not lose their time ; or he would propose to them proper 
books, with directions how to study by themselves, being 
always ready to solve difficulties that might occur to them. 
He composed also new elements of arithmetic, algebra. 

* Our account of Boscovich ii taken 
from^ TariouB authorities, as will be 
specified, but we have fo«ind it some- 
what difficult to reconcile their diffe* 
rences.. The above fact, with respect 
to the dispensation from teacbiog thu 
schools, 18 taken from a life c^ Bosco* 

▼ieh, written by a dignified clergyman 
of the church of Rome for Dr. Gleig^a 
Supplement j but every other account 
we have teen, particularly that by Faf 
broni, expresaly asserts that he did 
taach thete inihools« «t kaat tlur«» 

B O S C O V I C H. isi' 

jrfam and solid geometry, &c. and although these subjects 
had been well treated by a great many authors, yet Bosco- 
vich^s work will always be esteemed by good judges as a, 
masterly performance, well adapted to the purpose for which 
it was intended. To this he afterwards added a new expo^ 
sition of Conic Sections, the only part of his works which 
has appeared in English. It was within these few years 
translated, abridged, and somewhat altered, by the rev. Mr. 
Newton of Cambridge. 

According to the custom of the scbopls, every class in- 
the Roman college, towards the end of the scholastic year, 
gave public specimens of their proficiency. With this view 
Boscovich published yearly a dissertation on some interest- 
ing physico-mathematical subject, the doctrine of which 
Was publicly defended by some of his scholars, assisted by: 
their master, and in the presence of a concourse of the 
most learned men of Rome. His new opinions in philosophy 
were here rigorously examined and warmly controverted by 
persons well versed in physical studies : but he proposed 
nothing without solid grounds : he had foreseen all their 
objections, answered them victoriously, and always came 
off with great applause and increase of reputation. Ha 
published likewise dissertations on other occasions: and 
these works, though small in size, are very valuable both 
for. matter and manner. It was in some of them that he firstr 
divulged his sentiments concerning the nature of body,^ 
which he afterwards digested into a regul|ir theory, and 
which is justly become so famous among the learned. 

Father Noceti, another Jesuit, and one of his early.pre-* 
ceptors, had composed two excellent poems on the rainbow 
and the aurora borealis, which were published in 17479 
with learned annotations by Boscovich. His countryman^ 
Benedict Stay, after haviug published the philosophy of 
Descartes in Latin verse, attempted the same with regard 
to the more modern and more true philosophy, and has ex- 
ecuted it with wonderful success. The first two volumes of 
this elegant and accurate work were published in 1755, and 
1760, with annotations and supplements by Bosjcovich^ 
These supplements are short dissertations on the most im- 
portant parts of physics and mathematics. In these he af- 
fords a solution of the problem of the centre of oscillation, 
to which Huygens had come by a wrong method ; confutes 
Euler, who bad imagined that tEe vis inertia was aecessary 

153 B O S C O V I C H.. 

in matter ; and refutes the ingenious efforts of Riccati on 
the Leibnitzian opinion of the forces called living. 

Benedict XIV. who was a great encourager of learning, 
and a beneficent patron of learned men, gave Boscovich 
many proofs of the esteem he bad for him ; and both he 
and his enlightened minister, cardinal Valenti, consulted 
Boscovich oh various important objects of public economy, 
the clearing of harbours, and the constructing of roads and 
canals. On one occasion, he was joined in a commissioa 
with other mathematicians and architects, invited from dif- 
ferent parts of Italy, to inspect the cupola of l^t. Peter^s, 
in which a crack had been discovered. They were divided 
in opiniori ; but the sentiments of Boscovich, and of the 
marquis Poleni, prevailed. In stating, however, the re- 
sult of the consultation, which was to apply a circle of 
iron round the building, Poleni forgot to refer the idea to 
its real author, and this omission grievously offended Bos- 
covich, who was tenacious of fame, and somewhat irritable 
in temper. About the same time other incidents had con- 
curred to mortify his pride ; and he became at last dis- 
gusted with his situation, and only looked for a convenient 
opportunity of quitting Rome. , While in this temper of 
mind, an application was made by the court of Portugal to 
the general of the Jesuits, for ten mathematicians of the 
society to go out to Brazil, for the purpose of surveying 
that settlement, and ascertaining the boundaries which di- 
vide it from the Spanish dominions in America. Wishing 
to combine with that object the mensuration of a degree of 
latitude, Boscovich offered to embark in the expedition, 
and his proposition was readily accepted. But cardinal 
Valenti, unwilling to lose his services, commanded him, 
in the name of the pope, to dismiss the project, and per- 
suaded him to undertake the same service at home in the 
Papal territory. In this fatiguing, and often perilous ope- 
ration, he was assisted by the English Jesuit, Mayer, an 
excellent mathematician, and was amply provided with the 
requisite instruments and attendants. They began the 
work about the close of the year 1750, in the neighbour- 
hood of Rome, and extended the meridian line northwards, 
across the chain of the Appennines as far'as Rimini. Two 
whole years were spent in completing the various measure- 
ments, which were performed with the most scrupulous 
accuracy. The whole is elaborately described by Bosco- 
vich in a quarto volume^ full of illustration and minute 

B O S C O V I C H. 13a 

details, and with several opuscules, or detax^hed essaysp 
which display great ingenuity, conjoi&ed with the finest 
geometric taste. We may instance^ in particular, the dis« 
course on the rectification of instruments, the elegant syn- 
thetical investigation of the figure of the earth, deduced 
both from the law of attraction, and from the actual mea- 
surement of degrees,. and the nice remarks concerning the 
curve and the conditions of permanent stability. This last 
tract gave occasion, however, to some strictures from 
D'Alembert, to which Boscovich replied, in a note an- 
nexed to the French edition of his works. The arduous 
service which Boscovich had now performed was but poorly 
rewarded. From the pope he received only a hundred se- 
quins, or about forty-five pounds sterling, a gold box, and 
^' abundance of praise." He now resumed the charge of 
the mathematical school, and besides discharged faithfully 
the public duties of religion, which are enjoined by bis order* 
A trifling circumstance will mark the warmth of his tem- 
per, and his love of precedence. He had recourse to the 
authority of cardinal Valenti, to obtain admission into the 
oratory of Caravita, from which his absence excluded him, 
and which, yet afforded only the benefit of a free, but fru- 
gal supper. In presiding. at that social repast, the philo- 
sopher relaxed from the severity of his studies, and shone 
by his varied, his lively, and fluent conversation. 
• At this time a dispute arose between the little republic 
of Lucca, and the government of Tuscany, on the subject 
of draining a lake. A congress of mathematicians was 
palled, and Boscovich repaired to the scene of content-ion^ 
in order to defend the rights of the petty state. Having 
waited three months in vain, expecting the commissioners^ 
and amused with repeated hollow promises, he thought it 
better for the interest of his constituents, to proceed at 
once to the court of Vienna, which then directed the affairs 
of Italy. The flames of war had been recently kindled on 
the continent of Europe, and Boscovich took occasion to 
celebrate the first successes of the Austrian ai*ms, in a 
poem, of which the first book was presented to the em- 
press Theresa ; but the military genius of Frederic the 
Great of Prussia soon turned the scale of fortune, and our 
poet was reduced to silence. More honourably did he 
employ some leisure in the composition of his immortal 
work, *' Theoria philosophicB naturalis reducta ad unicam 
legend virium in natur^ e:pst^ntium/' printed at Vienna in 


B O S C O V I C a 

1758^. This he drew up, it is alledged, in the very short 
space of thirty days, having collected the naterials a con* 
siderable time before ; yet we must regret the ai^earance 
of haste and disorder, which deforms a production of such 
rare and intrinsic excellence. ' 

After a successful suit of eleven months at Vienna, Bos* 
covich returned to Rome, and received from the senate of 
Lucca, for his zealous services, the handsome present of 
a thousand sequins, or about 450/. Thus provided witbv 
the means of gratifying his curiosity, he desired and obw 
tained leave to travel. At Paris he spent six months, ia 
the society of the eminent men who then adorned the 
French capital ; and, during his stay in London, he waa 
elected, in 1760, a fellow of the Royal Society, and h« 
dedicated to that learned body his poem on eclipses, which 
contains a neat compendium of astronomy ^, and was pub- 
lished at London the same year. The expectation of the 
scientific world was then turned to the transit of Venus, 
calculated to happen in the following year. Boscovicb, 
eager to observe it, returned through Holland and Flan- 
iiers to Italy,, and joined his illustrious friend, Correr, at 
Venice, from whence they sailed to Constantinople, hav« 
ing on their way, visited the famous plain of Troy. In 
Turkey, he scarcely enjoyed one day qf good health, and 
his life was repeatedly despaired of by the physicians. 
After spending half a year in this miserable state, he re- 
turned in the train of sir James Porter, our ambassador at 
the Porte ; and having traversed Bulgaria Moldavia, and 
pait of Poland, his intention was to penetrate into Russia^ 
if the agitation which there prevailed, on the death of the 
emperor Peter, had not deterred him from executing the 
project. The diary of his journey, which he published in 
Italian and French, is inferior to any of his works^ and 
contains many trifling and insipid remarks. The truth was. 

* The occasion of bis coming to 
London is thus related in his life in Dr. 
Qleig's Supplement: The British niniis- 
Iry had been informed, that ships of 
war, for the French, had been built 
and fitted oyt in the sea-p6rt8 of Ra- ' 
guia, and had signified their displea- 
sure ou that account. This occasioned 
uneasiness to the senate of Ragusa, as 
their subjects ave very sea-faring, and 
much employed ia the carrying trade i 
and therefore it would have been in- 
ttonveoient for tbam to have caused 

any disgust against them, in the prin* 
cipal maritime power. Their country, 
man Boscoricb was desired to go to 
London, in order to satisfy that court 
on the above-mentioned head ; and 
with this desire he complied cheerftilly 
on many accounts. His success at 
London was equal to that at Vienna, 
He pleaded the cause of his country- 
sen effectually there, and that without 
giving offence to the French, with 
whom Ra^fusa soon after entered iot# 
a treaty of cemneree. 


feoscovich began his travels at too late a period of life ta 
profit much by tliem. 

At Rome his arrival was welcomed, and he was agaiti 
consulted on various plans of public improvement. But in 
the spring. of 1764, he was called by the Austrian gover- 
nor of Milan, to fill the mathematical chair in the utiiver* 
sity of Pavia. The honours which he received provoked 
ibe jealousy of the other professors, who intrigued to un- 
dermine his fame. He took the most effectual mode, how* 
ever, to silence them, by publishing his dissertations oa 
o]^tics, which exhibit an elegant synthesis and well-devised 
set of experiments. These essays excited the more atten- 
tion, as, at this time, the ingenuity of men of science wai 
particularly attracted to the subject, by Dollond's valuable 
discovery of achromatic glasses. 

The expulsion of the Jesuits from the dominions of 
Spain prevented Boscovich from going to California, to 
observe the second transit of Venus, in 1769, and which 
expedition the royal society of London had strongly so- 
licited him to undertake. And as his rivals began now to 
stir themselves again, he sought to dispel the chagrin, by 
a second journey into France and the Netherlands. At 
Brussels he met with a peasant, famous for curing the 
gout, and from whose singular skill he received most es- 
sential benefit. On his return to Italy in 1770, he was 
transferred from the university of Pavia to the Palatine 
schools at Milan, and resided with those of his order, at 
the college of Brera, where he furnished, mostly at his 
own expence, an observatory, of which he got the direc- 
tion. But he was still doomed to experience mortification. 
Some young Jesuits, who acted as his assistants, formed a 
conspiracy, and, by their artful representations, prevailed 
with the government to exclude his favourite pupil and 
friend from holding a charge of trust. This intelligence 
was communicated to him at the baths of Albano, and filled 
him with grief and indignation. He complained to princo 
Kaunitz, but implored his protection in vain. To the go« 
vernor of Milan he wrote, that he would not return, un- 
less things were restored to their former footing. He re** 
tired to Venice, where, having staid ten months in fruitless 
expectation of obtaining redress, he meditated spending 
the remainder of his days in honourable retirement at hi9 
native city of Ragusa. But while he waited for the oppor- 
tunity of a vessel to convey him thither, he received the 


afflicting news of the suppression of bis order in Italy. He 
now renounced his scheme, and seemed quite uncertain 
what step he should take. Having come into the Tuscan 
territory, he listened .to the counsels and solicitation oi 
Fabroniy who held forth the prospect of a handsome ap« 
pointment in the I^yceum of Pisa. In the mean time he 
accepted the invitation of La Bord^ chamberlain to Louis 
]^V. accompanied him to Paris in 1773, and through his 
influence obtained the most liberal patronage from the 
French monarch ; he was naturalized, received two pen- 
sions, amounting to 8000 livres, or 333/. and had an office 
expressly created for him, with the title of " Director of 
optics for the marine.'* Boscovich might now appear, to 
have attained the pinnacle of fortune and glory ; but Paris 
was no longer for hiin the theatre of applause, and his ar* 
dent temper became soured by the malign breath of jea- 
lousy and neglect. Such extraordinary favour bestowed 
on a foreigner could not fail to excite the envy of the 
sgavansy who considered him as rewarded greatly beyond 
biB true merit. The freedom of his language gave offence, 
his perpetual egotism became disgusting, and his repetition 
of barbarous Latin epigrams was most grating to Parisian 
ears. Besides, the name of a priest and a Jesuit did not 
now command respect ; and the sentiments of austere de- 
votion, which he publicly professed, had grown unfashion- 
ahle, and were regarded as scarcely befitting the charp,cter 
of a philosopher. 

But, notwithstanding these discouragements, Boscovich 
applied assiduously to the improvement of astronomy and 
optics ; revised and extended his former ideas, and struck 
out n^w paths of discovery. His solution of the problem 
,to determine the orbit of a comet from three observations, 
is remarkable for its elegant simplicity; being derived 
from the mere elementary principles of trigonometry. 
Not less beautiful are his memoirs on the micrometer, and 
on achromatic telescopes. But his situation becoming 
more, irksome, in 1783, he desired and obtained leave of 
absence. Two years he spent at Bassdno, in the Venetian 
state, where he published his opuscules, in five volumes, 
4to, composed in Latin, Italian, and French, and contain- 
ing a variety of elegant and ingenious disquisitions con- 
fiected with astronomical and optical science. During tjbat 
time he lived with his editor Remondini, and occupied 
himself in superintending the press. After finishing hi^ 

B O S C O V I C H. US'? 


tast, he came to Tuscany, and passed some months at the 
convent of Valombrosa. Thence he went to Milan, and 
issued a Latin prospectus, in which he proposed to reprint 
the remaining two voluhies of the philosophical poem of 
Stay, enriched with his annotations, and extended to ten 
books. But very few subscribers appeared ; his opusculeis 
experienced a slow sale ; and the Imperial minister neither 
consulted nor employed him in some mathematical operas 
tions which were carrying on ; all symptoms that he was no 
more a favourite of the Italian public. These mortifica- 
tions preyed upon his spirits, and made the deeper im- 
pression, as his health was much disordered by an inflam- 
mation of the lungs. He sunk into a stupid^ listless me- 
lancholy, and after brooding many days, he emerged int6 
insanity, but not without lucid intervals, during which re- 
ligion suggested topics of consolation, and he regretted 
having spent his time in curious speculation, and con- 
sidered the calamity with which he was visited as a kind of 
chastisement of heaven for neglecting the spiritual duties 
of his profession. In this temper of resignation, he ex- 
pired on the* 13th of February, 1787. He was interred 
decently, but without pomp, in the parochial church of 
S. Maria Pedone. ** Such was the exit," says Fabroni, 
** of this sublime genius, whom Rome honoured as her 
master, whom all Italy regarded as her ornament, and to 
whom Greece would have erected a statue, had she fot 
want of space been obliged even to throw down some of 
her heroes." 

Boscovich was tall in stature, of a robust constitution, 
but pale complexion. His countenance, which was rather 
long, was expressive of cheerfulness and good humour. 
He was open, sincere, communicative, and benevolent 
We have already noticed that with all these qualities, he 
was too irritable, and too sensible of what he thought a 
neglect, which gave him unnecessary uneasiness. He was 
a man of strict piety, according to his views of religion. 
His great knowledge of the works of nature made him en- 
tertain the highest admiration of the power and wisdom of 
the Creator. He saw the necessity and advantages of a 
divine revelation, and was sincerely attached to the Chris- 
tian religion, having a sovereign contempt for the pre- 
sumption and foolish pride of infidels. 

Zamagna, his countryman, and also a Jesuit, published 
a panegyric on him in elegant Latiu;^ and a short encomima 

B O S C O V I C H. 

of him is to be found in the ^' Estratto delia Litteratuni 
£aropa ;^* and another, in the form of a letter, was di<* 
rected by Lalande to the Parisian journalists. A more full 
life and eulogium is in Fabroni^s collection ; another is in 
the Journal of Modena ; a third was published at Milan by 
the abbate Ricca ; and a fourth at Naples by Dr. Julius 
Bajamonte. Fabroni has given the most complete cata- 
logue of his works* ^ 

fiOSIUS (James), a native of Milan, and servitor of the 
order of Malta, lived about the end of the sixteenth cen<- 
tury, when he was appointed agent for the religion of 
Malta at Rome, and discharged the duties of this office 
with fidelity. The knowledge he found it necessary to ac>« 
quire, appears to have suggested the design of writing a 
history of that celebrated order, which was published under 
the title ^^ Historia delP ordine di S. Giovanni Gieroso- 
limitano,^* in three parts or volumes, the vfirst two at 
Rome, 1594, and the third in 1602, a work in which he is 
said to have been assisted by two monks, and which coii'^ 
tains many curious facts, that have been highly servicer 
able to the subsequent historians of Malta. It happened 
that Bosius resided with Petrochini at Rome, and when be 
was made cardinal by Sixtus V. Bosius attached himself 
to him, in hopes of being 4>romoted to the same honoajp, 
when Petrochini should be pope ; Lut the latter being 
overlooked at the next election for the papal chair, Bosius 
went home and passed the remainder of his days, how 
many we are not told, in exercises of devotion. He appears 
to have had much of the superstition of his order, and of the 
age in which he lived, a:^ he wrote a history of the sacred 
cross on which our Saviour suffered, from its discovery in 
the reign of Constantino the great; and decorated the 
church of St. Blaise with this choice morsel of authentic 
.history. His nephew, 

BOSIUS f Anthony), and the inheritor of his property^ 
was educatea by him, studied law, and by his uncle's in- 
terest was appointed agent to the order of Malta. He 
was a very little man, of a dark countenance, resembling 
that of his mother, who had been an African slave, whom 
his father married. In bis youth he was very wild, but re- 
formed, lest his uncle should disinherit him, and addicted 
himself to the study of antiquities, producing the ^^ Romja 

1 Fabroni Vitae Ilalorum, vol. XIV.— >Dr. Glei|^*s Supplement to the Encyclop^ 
Brii. — Dr, Rees't Cydop«dia. 

B O S I U S. «5f 

Sotteraneii/' Rome, 1632, foL a description of the tombi 
and the epkapbs of the early Chrii^tians which are found in 
the catacombs at Rome. For this purpose be investigated 
them with great care, often remaining five or six dayi 
together under ground, but he did not lire to put the fi« 
nishing hand to the work, which was published by John 
Severani, a priest of the oratory. Father Aringhi, another 
of the oratory, translated and published it in Latin^ 165 1, 
l>^ols. fol, an edition in more request than the original, and 
more full and correct. * 

BOSIUS ^OHN Andrew), an eminent pbilologer and 
historian, was born at Leipsic, June 17, 1626^ and suc- 
ceeded so rapidly m his first studies, that he was admitted 
to his bachelor's degree in the college of his native city 
when he had scarcely attained his fifteenth year ; and af« 
terwards wrote and defended some theses, as is the custom 
at Leipsic. In 1643 he went to study at Wittemherg, 
lodg^ing first with Balthasar Cellarius, and afterwards with 
J. C. Seldius, two learned men, by whose assistance he 
was enabled to improve what he heard from the public 
lecturers* In 1645 he returned to Leipsic, and again at- 
tended some of the able professors under whom he was 
first educated, particularly Muiler and Rivinus ; and the 
following year, after a public disputation, in which he ac** 
quifbted himself with great applause, he was admitted t^ 
his master's degiee. In 1647 he went to Strasburgh, and 
studied divinity and ecclesiastical history, and the modern 
languages, until he was recalled to Leipsic, where, after 
two disputations on the solar spots, he was, in 1655, ad* 
mitted assessor of philosophy. The following year he was 
invited to be professor of history at Jena, and acquired 
the greatest reputation as a teacher, while he employed 
his leisure hours in composing his. own works, or editing 
some of those of the ancients, making considerable pro- 
gress in an edition of Josephus^ and spme of the Byzantine 
historians. For five years, he was dean, and, in 1661, rec- 
tor of the college, and in 1672 he founded the society of 
ioquirers, ^* Societas dlsquirentium," at Jena. He died of 
zepeated attacks of the gout, which had undermined his 
constitution, on April 29, 1674. Bosius was the particular 
iriend of Heinsius and Grsevius, both of whom speak highly 
pf bis talents. Among his works may be enumerated, 1. 

> Moreri.'—ErythTaii Piiiacotbtca. 

1€0 B O S I U & 

<' Dissertiatio de Teterum adoratioQe,'V Leipsic, 1646, 4tOL 
^ His edition of ^^ Cornelius Nepos,'' 1657, and again at 
Jena, 1675, 8vo, which gave such general satisfaction to 
the learned men of his day, that few subsequent editors 
ventured to depart from his text. 3. ^< Dissertado de Pon^ 
tificatu Maximo Imperatorum.praecipue Christianorum,'' 
Jena, 1657, 4to^ reprinted by Graevius in the fifth vol. of 
his Thesaurus. 4.'*^ De ara ignoti.Dei ad Act 17," Jena^ 
J659, 4t6. 5. "De Tiberio," ibid. 1661. 6. " Exerci* 
tatio historica de Clinicis Ecclesiae veteris," ibid. 1664j 
4to. 7. An edition of Tacitus, *^ De Vita Agricolae, Jena, 
1664, 8vo. 8. " Schediasma de comparanda notitia Scrip*- 
torum Ecclesiasticorum," ibid, 1673, 4to, reprinted by 
Crenius in his " Tractatus de eruditione eomparanda,'* 
Leyden, 1699, 4to, and by J. G. Walch, Jena, 1723, sVo. 
After his death were published, 9. " Introductio in noti- 
tiam rerum publicarum,'' with his Essay on the state of 
Europe, Jena, 1676, 4to. 10. " Dissertatio Isagogica de 
eomparanda prudentia civili, deque scriptoribus et librk 
ad earn rem maxime aptis," ibid. 1679, 4to, and reprinted 
by Crenius. 1 1. " Ejusdem et Reinesii Epistolae .mutti®,'* 
ibid. 1700, 12mo. 12.^^Petronii Satyriconpuritatedonauiat 
cum fragmento Traguriensi et AlbsB Grseca;, &c." ibid. 
1701, 8vo. 13. '^ HispanisB, Ducatus Mediolanensi^, et 
itegni Neapolitan! Notitia," Helmstadt, 1702, 4to.^ t 

BOSQ.UET (Francis), bishop of Lodeve, and after- 
wards of Montpellier, was one of the most learned French 
prelates in the seventeenth century. He was born at Nar^ 
bonne. May 28, 1605, and studied atThoulouse* He was 
afterwards appointed judge royal of Narbonne, intendant 
of Guienne and Languedoc, solicitor general to the par* 
liament of Normandy, and counsellor of state in ordinary^ 
For his services in this last pffice he was promoted to the 
bishopric of Lodeve, Jan. 1650. When the a£&ir of the 
five propositions was agitated at Rome, Bosquet was ap- 
pointed deputy on the part of the king and clergy of 
France, and while there, the cardinal Este appointed him 
bishop of Montpellier. He was exemplary for, piety, dis*- 
interestedness, and charity, and, like the best of his bre- 
thren at that time,, practised rigorous austerities. He as'>' 
sisted at the general assembly of the clergy held at Paris 

1 Freheri Theatnim»— Baillet Jugemens des Sayans.— Saxii Onomast— nDib« 
clia's Classics. 


tn 1670, and was distinguished for hi« learning and elo- 
quence. An apoplexy carried him off July 24, 1676,' and 
he was interred in the cathedral, with an epitaph cele- 
brating bis many virtues. The first w<)rk he published 
waff " PselU Synopsis Legum^'* 1632^ apiece never be- 
fore printed, and written in Greek '^e««se by Psellus fat 
the use of bis pupil IMicbael Ducas, in the eleventh century. 
Bosquet translated it into Latin, and added notes to it. 
He then published, 2. << EcolesioB Gallicanse Historiarum 
Kber primus," 1636, 4to. 3. " Pontificum Romanorumi 

. qui e Gallia oriundi in ea sederunt, historia, ab anno 1315 
ad ann. 1394 ex MSS. edita," Paris, 1632. The second 
edition of his history of the Gallican Chunch, the one 
above mentioned in 1636, was much enlarged, but some 
passages were omitted that had appeared in the first octavo 
edition^ which archbishop Usher has transcribed i By 
Ihese it appears that Bosquet was of opinion that the 
anistaken zeal of the monks was the chief cause of those 
fabulous traditions which have destroyed all con^dence in 
the' early history of the Gallican churchy and while he 
makes some apology for the credulous believers of those 
aiAories, he makes none for lliose who originally invented 
ihem, a concession of great liberality from a prelate of the 
Romish church. * 

BOSSE (Abraham), a French engraver, was bora at 
Tours, and gave the first lessons of perspective in the 
academy of painting at PjUris. He had great judgement iix 
that brsnch as well as in architecture. He left, 1. Three? 
good tracts, on the manner of drawing the orders of ar- 
chitecture, 1684, folio; on the art of engraving, 1645, 
8vo ; on perspective, 1682, 8vo. 2. Representation of di- 
vers human figures, with their measures, taken from the 
antiques at Rome, Paris, 1656; a pocket volume all en- 
graved* His plates in aqua fortis, but in a peculiar me<^ 
thod, are agreeable. The work of Bosse on the art of 
engraving was re-published some years ago, with the re* 
marks and augmentations of M. Cochin the younger. Bosse 
died in his own country about the year 1660, according to 
Jombert. Bosse was a turbulent character, and created 

, many enemies, particularly owing to his having published 
some pieces of Desargues on perspective, and having 
adopted the opinions of this writer, which were adverse 

1 Gen. Diet.— Moreri.<U(;tferitts ia Pref.Biit, Eocles* Anti^.-*-«Saxii Otiom»st. 

Vol.. VI. M 

I6t B O 9 S £. 

to ^hose of Le Brun and the ablest academiciansv TUm 
produced a controversy, in which he so displeased the 
academicians that they expelled him from their society* ' 

BOSSO (Matthew), an Italian scholar and writer of 
considerable eminence, was bom at Verona in 1427, and 
in 1451 entered the congregation of the regular canons of 
St. John of Lateran, where he bore several employments, 
as visitor of the order, procorator-general, and abbot of 
Fiesole in Tuscany. Cosmo de Medici, who had a high 
respect for him, spent seventy thousand crowns in the 
repairs of that monastery, and it was in the church be^ 
longing to it that j6osso delivered* the ensigns of the car- 
dinalsbip to John de Medici, afterwards pope Leo X. Six«» 
tus VI. also employed him in many important affairs, parn 
ticularly in reforming the religious houses of Genoa, and 
other neighbouring districts, and he thrice oSered hixn .a 
valuable bishopric, which he refused. He vigorously op>^ 
posed the decree of pope Innocent VIII. which .ordered 
all sorts of monks to pay part of their yearly revenues to 
the clerks of the apostolic chamber. Hermolaus Barbaras 
was his pupil and guest at Fiesole, and Picusof Miraadula^ 
his friend. He died at Padua in 1502. Mr. Roscoe says 
he was a profound scholar, a close reasoner, and a cou#^ 
vincing orator ; and to these united a candid mind, an ip^ 
flexible integrity, and an interesting simplicity of life and 
manners. His literary productions were, l.'^De Insti«>< 
tuendo Sapientia animo/' Bologna^ 1495» 2. '^ De veris, 
et saiutaribus animi gaudiis,*' Florence, 149^^1. 3. << £pis- 
tolar. Lib.' tres," or rather three volumes, printed 1493^ 
1498, 1502. — Some orations of his are in the .collection- 
entitled ^' Recuperationes FsesulansB,'* a rare and beauti-. 
ful book, said to have been printed in 14S3. His whole 
works were published by P. Ambrosini, at Bologna, 1627^ 
with the exception of the third book, orvolume, of letters^ 
which, on account of its extreme rarity, was at that time 
unknown to the editor. His moral writings were very 
highly esteemed ; and one of his pieces on female dress, 
** de vanis mulierum ornameiuis,*' excited a considerable 
interest. The editor of Fabricius throws some doubts on 
the date of the *^ Recuperationes," and if there be lettera 
in it dated 1492 and 1493, it is more probable that it is a 
typographical error for 1493. * 

» Diet. Hist.— StmU. 

« Moreri.— MafftJi degli Scittori Veronesi.— Roscoe*s Loreozo ^nd L%9, ,m 
Fabricii BibU Xcd. et Inf. Utin.— GrsMwelPi Politian.— -Saxii Oaonust. 

3 O S S U. 168 

' BOSSU (Rene LE), a distinguished French fcrittc, was 
born at Paris, March 16, 1631. He began his studies at 
Nainterre, where he discovered an early taste for polite 
literature, and soon made surprising progress in all the 
valuable parts of learning. In 1649 he left Nanterre, was 
admitted a canon regular in the abbey of St, Genevieve, 
and after a year's probation took the habit in this abbey. 
Here he applied to philosophy and divinity, in which he 
made great proficiency, and took upon him priest^s orders 
ill 1657} but, either from inclination, or in obedience to 
bis superiors, he resumed the belles letters, and taught 
polite literature in several religious houses. After twelve 
years, being tired of the fatigue of such an employment, 
he gave it up, with a resolution to lead a quiet and retired 
life. Here be published his ** Parallel, or comparison 
betwi:Kt the principles of Aristotle's natural philosophy, and 
those of Des Cartes," Paris, 1674. His intention in this, 
piece was liot to shew the opposition betwixt these two 
philoisophers, but to prove that they do not differ so much> 
as is generally thought ; y^t this production of his was 
but indifferently received, either because these two phi- 
Ibsopbers differ too widely to be reconciled, or because 
Bossu bad not made himself sufficiently acquainted with ^ 
their opiqions, and it is of little consequence now, since 
both hav6 given way to a more sound system. The next 
treatise be published was that on " epic poetry," which 
gained him great reputation : Boileau says it is one of the 
best compositions on this subject that ever appeared in the 
French language. Bossu having met with a piece wrote 
by St. Sorlin against this poet, be wr6te a confutation of 
iV for which favour Boileau was extremely grateful; and 
if produced an intimate friendship betwixt them, which 
continued till our author's death, March 14, 1680. He 
led a vast number of manuscript volumes, which are Jcept 
in the abbey of St. John de Chartres. 

. Bossu's treatise on the epic was long thought ^ stan- . 
dard book, even in this country, being translated into. 
EhgUsb in 1719, 2 vols. 8vo, and there are, undoubtedly, 
m^ny just remarks in it, but he is too visionary and fan*, 
tastiq' for the present more refined state of public taste. 
His notion that Homer fixed on some moral truth or axiom, ; 
and then added a fable or story, in which it was of little 
consequence whether ^raen or beasts were the heroes and 
ipeakers, has been acutely exposed by Drs. Blair and. 

M 2 

164 BOSS U. 

'Wartoii. The first edition of this ^ Trait^ de poemc 
^pique^Vwas published at Paris in 1675, and it went through 
fievj^ttl other editions. There was one printed at the Hague 
inlYT4, which F. Le Courayer had the care of, and to which 
he p'^efeed a discourse to the abb6 de Morsan, containing* 
an account of the treatise, and some encomiums upon it^ 
and ^me memoirs concerning Bossu's life. ' 

BOSSUET (James), bishop of Meaux,an eminent Fretttjh 
writer and preacher, was born at Dijon, 27tb of Septem- 
' ber 1627. He received the first rudiments of his education 
' there, and in 1642 was sent to Paris to finish bis studies at 
the college of Navarre. In 1652 he took hi^s degreefs in 
divinity, and soon after went to Metz, where be was made 
a canon. Whilst he resided here, he applied himself 
<^iefiy to the study of the scriptures, add liie reading of 
the fathers, especially St. Augustine. In a Kttlfe time he 
became a celebrated preacher, and was invited to Paris^ 
where he had for his hearers many of the most Itarned men 
of his time, and several persons of the first rank at cOurt* 
In 1669 he was created bishop of Condom, and the same 
month was appointed preceptor to the dauphin ;' upon 
which occasion, and the applause he gained in the dis- 
charge of so delicate an office, pope IniJoc^nt XI. con- 
gratulated him in a very polite letter. When he had al- 
most finished the education of this prince, he addressed 
to him his "Discours surTHistoire Universelle," i^hieh waft 
published in 1681, and is by far the best of his perform- 
ances. About a year after he was made preceptor he gav« 
up his bishopric, because be could not reside in his dlo- 
cese> on account of his engagement at court. lit 1680 the 
king appointed him first almoner to the dauphiness, and 
the year after gave him the bishopric of Meaux. In 1697 
he was made counsellor of state, and the year foHowing 
first almoner to the duchess of Burgundy. Nor did the 
learned world honour him tess than the coui^t ; for he had 
been admitted a member of the French academy ; andf in 
1695, at the desire of the royal college of Navarre, of 
which he was a member, the kipg constituted him th^^ir 

The writings of Bossuet gained him no less fame tHan 
bis sermons. From the year 1655 he had entered the lists 

I Moreri — ^Dict. Hist— -Blair's Lectur09.--'Bo«les?f SdUk of Fo^^t WnkkM^r^, 
6ea. pict— BaiUet J^puflM. 

B O S S U E T. 16S 

• * 

ag^ost the pixHeatants ; and the mo^t famous piece he > 
wrote against them was his '^ Refutation du catechisme 4^ 
Paul Ferri." In 1671 be wrote another, intituled **L'ex- 
fiosition de la doctrine de T^glise catholique sur le^pigjREi^' 
tieres de controverse.'' This had the approbation^.ofr^ifae 
bishops of France, as well as of the prelates and ciardinals 
of Rome. Innocent XL wrote bim two letters on the sub«' 
jecty and the work was translated into most of the Euro* 
pean Iftoguages : M. Pabb^ Montague, a relation of the 
Sandwich family, was the author of the English translation. 
He is said to have brought back several to the Romish 
church who had embraced the protestant religion ; and it 
was for the benefit of such that in 1682 he published his 
^' Traite de la communion sous les deux especes," and his 
^^ Lettre pastorale aux nouveaux catholiques.*' In 1686 hie 
published his ^' Histoire des ^glises protestantes/' for 
wtiich, as well .as several other of his writings, he was sue- 
<^S9fully attacked by Mess. Jurieu, Burnet, Basnage, and 
several pther protestant ministers. He always distinguished 
himself jas a zealous advocate for t;h^ catholic religion ; and 
so great was his desire to bring about a re-.union of the pro- 
itestants with the church of Roo^, that for this purpose h(e 
voluntarily offered to travel into foreign countries. Ha 
foraged, several* schemes for this purpose, which were ap« 
|>roved of by the churohof Rome, but. the succeeding .war:S 
prevented his putting them in execution. His writings in 
.controversy with the protestants, and against quietism, the 
jreligioQ of Madame Guion, Fenelon, and many pf the pious 
FrencJ), make several volumes. 

There ^e still extant several of his very celebrated fu.- 
neral orations, particularly those on the queen-mother qf 
f r^nce in 1667, on the queen of Englalid 1669, on the 
fdauphiness 1670, on the queen of France 1683, on the 
princess Palatine 1685, on chancellor le Tellier 1686, ou 
(the prince de Cond6, Louis de Bourbon 1687. These are 
printed in the '^ Recueil de Diverses Oraisons Funebres,V 
3 vols. 1712, a neglected book, but containing the bei^: 
specimens of French oratory. Nor, amidst all the great af- 
fairs in which he was eqiployed, did he neglect the duty of 
his diocese. The '* Statuts Synodaux,*' which he published 
in .162^1, and several ocher of his pieces, shew bow attentive 
he was to maintain regularity of discipline. After having 
Vf&BkX, a UHe io the service of the church, he died at Paris, 
April 12| 1704^ and was buried .^t Mea^xj where, his far 


166 B O S S U E T. 

nefal was honoured with the presence of m&ny prelates his 

friends, and an oration pronounced in his praise by fsitfaer 

de la Rue the Jesuit. The same honour was likewise paid 

to his memory at Paris, in the college of Navarre, where 

cardinal Noailles performed the pontifical ceremonies^ and 

the funeral oration was spoken by a doctor of the house. 

"Nor was Rome silent in his praise ; for an eulogium was 

spqken to his niemory ; and, what was unusual, was deli** 

▼ered in the Italian tongue, at the college De propaganda, 

by the chevalier MafFei, in presence of several cardinats^ 

prelates, and other persons of the first rank. It was after* 

wards printed, and dedicated to his illustrioilis pupil the 

dauphin. ' 

In estimating the character of this celebrated prelate^ we 

must not be guided by d'Alembert's desultory and artful 

Eloge, who, however, struggles in vain to conceal the 

truth, that Bossuet was, with all his taste and talents, a f u« 

rious bigot in favour of the Catholic religion, and while be 

affected to dislike persecution, either submitted to the ex^ 

ercise of it, or promoted it by the asperity of his writings* 

We shall come nearer the truth by adopting Bossuet's cha^ 

racter as contrasted with that of Fenelon by the writer of 

the ^* Letters concerning Mythology," who represents hind 

as a prelate of vast parts, learned, eloquent, artful, Afid 

aspiring. By these quaHties he rose to the first dignities in 

the Galilean church : while another of finer fency and 

better Heart (Fenelon), humble, holy, and sincere, «va9 

censured at Rome, and disgraced at the French court; 

Both were intrusted with the education of princes, and ac*^ 

quitted themselves of those duties in a very different man^^ 

ner. The one endeavoured to make his royal pupil noble, 

virtuous, and just, a father to his people, and a friend to 

mankind, by the maxims of his inimitable Telemaqne. The 

other in bis disco \^rses upon universal history, is perpetually 

turning bis princess eyes from mankind to tlie church, as 

the sacred object of his care, from whosd everlasting stem 

whoever separates is lost : and for whose interests, in the 

extirpation of heresy, and aggrandizement of her ministers, 

he is, like his father Lewis XIV. to exert all the power be 

has received from God. 

His celebrated ^^ Exposition of the Roman Gathoiic 
Faith,** ipentioned above, was designed to show • the pro« 
-testants, that their reasons against returning to the Romi«h 
ph^rch ipi^ht be easily removed^ if they would v|ew't|i^. 

B O S S U E T. 1^7 

dot^uies of that church in their true light, «nd not as 
they bad been erroneously represented by protestant 
writers. Nine yean, however, passed before this book 
could obtain the pope's approbation. Clement X. refused 
it positively ; and several catholic priests were rigorously 
treated and severely persecuted, for preaching the doctrine 
contained in the exposition of Bossuec, which was likewise 
formally condemned by the university of Louvain in the 
year 1685, and declared to be scandalous and pernicious. 
All this we should have thought a proof of the merit of the 
work, if it had i)ot been at length licensed and held up as 
unanswerable by the prot<;stants. The artifice, however, 
employed in the composition of it, and the tricks that were 
used in the suppression and alteration of the first edition, 
bsive been detected with great sagacity by archbishop Wake 
in the introduction to bis ** Exposition of the Doctrine of 
the Church of England,'* and in his two '^ Defences" of 
that Exposition, in which the perfidious sophistry of Bos- 
suet is unmasked and refuted in the most satisfactory man- 
ner. There was also an excellent answer to Bossuet's book 
fay M. de la Bastide, one of the most eminent protestant 
ministers in France. 'Of this answer the French prei^ate 
(took no notice during eight years : at the end of which he 
|>Qhlished an advertisement, in a new edition of his ^' £x- 
pos}tk>n,'* which was designed to remove the objections of 
La Bastide. The latter replied in such a demonstrative 
maoner, that the learned bishop, liotwitbstanding all his 
eloquence and art, was obliged to quit the field of contro* 
versy. There is a very interesting account of this insidi- 
otts work of Bos8uet,and the controversies it occasioned, in 
the '^ BibUotheque des Sciences," published at the Hague, 
vol. XVIIL This account, which is curious, ample, kccu* 
rate, and learned, was given partly on occasion of a new 
edition of the ^^ Exposition" printed at Paris in 1761, and 
accompanied with a Latin translation by Fleury, and partly 
on occasion of Burigny's ^^ Life of Bossuet," published the 
same year at Paris. 

Had the French press, however, remained open, the 
controversy between the catholics and protestants might 
have soon been brought to a conclusion : but other mea* 
«ire0 were to be adopted, more cliaracteristic of the genius 
of popery^ Bossuet has been praised by must French 
writers for his laudable attempts to promote an union be< 
tweep tb^ catholic and refocmed churches of France. Thf 

I6S B O S S U ^ T. 

I ■ 

basis of tbb union was not very promisiDg. The reformeli 
were to give up every thing, the catholics nothing, and the 
subsequent practice was worse tb»n this principle. In th^ 
*^ Memoirs pour servir ^ Thistoire des Refugies Franigois 4aas 
}es etats ^xi Koi," or Memoirs of the French refugees in 
the dominions of the king of Prussia, by Messrs. Erman 
9indReclam, published at Berlin in 1782, we have a curious 
developement of the plan of union, as detected by the 
celebrated Claude. The reformed church of Paris, which 
was a considerable edifice, was to be surrounded with 
troops; the archbishop of Paris aud the bishop of Meaux 
(Bossuet) accompanied with a train of priests 'and the Ueu*v 
tenant of the police, were to march thither in procession^ 
during divine service : one of these prelates was to mount 
the pulpit and summon the congregation to submit to the. 
mother church and re-unite; a number of Roman Catholic^ 
posted for the purpose in different parts of the church, as 
if they belonged to it, were to answer the prelate's . sum* 
mons, by crying out ^^re-uniouP' after which the other 
prelate was to give the congregation a public absolution 
from the charge of heresy, and to receive the new pre** 
tended converts into the bosom o£ the church ; and this 
scandalous farce was to be imposed upon the would for aift 
actual re-union. This plan affords a tolerable specimen of 
Bossuet as a prelate, and a man of candour ; and it is wor- 
thy of notice, that his associate in this ex^pedition, was the 
libertine Harlai, archbishop of Paris, whose life and death 
were ^o scandalous, that not a single curate could be founds 
among the most unprincipled part of the Romish clergy, 
who would undertake to preach his funeral sermon, 

Bpssuet's works were published in 1 743, in 20 vols,- ^tq, 
and some of them have been often reprinted in variou« 
forms. His controversial works are no longer read, but his 
Essay oh universal history, and his Sermons, particularly 
the funeral orations above-mentioned, still preserve their re«<* 
putation. In 1800 Mr. Jemingbam translated and pub^ 
Jished some *^ Select Sermons," and very recently the^x^ 
pectations of the French public were raised by the publi-r 
cation of some inedited pieces by Bossuet, which, howeveiv 
ere, thought to be spurious. ^ 

BOSTON (John), a monk of St. Edmund's bury in the 
fourteenth century, and who is thought to have died in 

» J)ict Hist.— Moreri.— D'Aletobert'6 Eulogy.— Month. Rev. vol. XXVllW 
atui LXVnL-^Moslieim's Eccl. Hi»t,— life by BarisDy.-*SaxU Onomait 


14 1 a, was one of the first collectors of the lives of English 
writers, and the precursor of Leland, Bale, and Pitts. Ha 
^searched indefatigabiy all the libraries of the kingdocn, and 
wiote a catalogue of the authors, with short opiuions of 
theoi. Archbishop Usher bad the most curious MS qopy of 
this book, which becaaie afterwards Mr. Thomas Gale's pro- 
perty. Wood mentions^ another smaller catalogjue of his 
writing. He wrote also ^^ Speculum ccenobitarum,'' in 
which be gives the origin and progress of monacbism ; 
and a history of bis own monastery. '^ De rebus coenobit 
mi/' which last is lost, but the former was printed at 
Oxford 1722, 8vo, by Hall at the end of " Trivet. Annal." * 
BOSTON (TaoMAS), a popular and learned Scotch di« 
vine, was born in the town of Dunse, March 17, 1676, 
and educated at the grammar school of that place,, where 
he was taught the elements of Latin, Greek, rhetoric, and 
aritfa«aetic. In 1692, be went to the university of Edin- 
burgh, where be went through the usual courses for three 
years, and entered'on the study of divinity. In 1695, he 
returned home with ample testimonials of his diligence and 
good character. Next year he taught school at Glencairn 
for a short time, and then was appointed tutor to a young 
gentleman of family at Edinburgh, where he continued the 
study of divinity, until be accompanied his pupil into the 
country. In 1699, after the usual trials before the presby- 
tery, he was licenced to preach the gospel, as a probationer 
for the ministry, agreeably to the forms of the church .of 
' Scotland, and in September of that year was ordained to the 
living of Simprin, one of the smallest in Scotland. In the 
following year be married Katherine Brown, whom he de- 
scribes as a woman possessed of many valuable qualifica* 
tions. In May 1707, he exchanged the living of Simprin 
for that of Etterick, on which he remained until his death. 
Aboot this tia>e he began to improve his knowledge in the 
Hebrew, having before only read the Psalter, but 1771 
was, according to his own account, ^* the happy year 
wherein he was first jooaater (possessor) of a Hebrew Bible, 
and b^an the study of it *,'' aiul some day, which he for- 
got, in Oct. 1712, was the happiest day in his life, for be 
then borrowed ^* Crosses Taghmical Art.'^ More than half 
his cares and anxieties after this related to the Hebrew ac- 
4^nts« About this time, he was one of the clergy of Scot* 


1 Bale and PitU.-oTsnner.-^FttUti's Worthief . 

170 BO S TO isT. 

lAnd, who refused taking the oath of abjuration, and in 
dread of the penalty, made over his little property to one of 
his sons, and another person, but it does not appear that 
the penalty was ever levied. Returning in 1715 to the 
study of the " Taghmical Art," after incredible pains, he 
found that he could make nothing of it ; but still perse* 
vering, he became persuaded that the accents are the key 
to the true version of the Hebrew text, and the intrinsic 
light which illuminates it. Compared to this, as to him, 
the digging in the mines of Peru was but a trifle. From 
this time he began to write, as leisure j>ermitted, a work 
t)n the accents, accompanying his labours with constant 
prayer, particularly that he might be instructed in the se- 
crets of double accentuation, which he had not been able to 
comprehend. All this zeal and industry at length produced 
an ^' Essay on the Hebrew accentuation,^' which he exhibited 
in manuscript to some learned friends, who gave him various 
degrees of encouragement, but he often met with delays 
and evasions which occasioned great uneasiness to the good 
man. It being supposed that there were few persons in 
Great Britain very much interested in the Hebrew accents, 
he was advised to translate it into Latin that it might circu* 
late among the learned on the continent. Accordingly he 
began bis translation, and as a help to his style, he men- 
tions the following expedient, which perhaps others have 
made use of on similar occasions. ^^ Ais I went on, I read 
something of Cicero, in my leisure hours, for the lan- 
guage, and noted in a book some terms and phrases, taken 
from him and others : particularly out of Calepin's dic- 
tionary, which Providence had in the year 1724 laid to my 
hand, when 1 knew not for what use it was designed, and 
to this collection 1 had frequent recourse, while I wrote 
that book : and found it to be of good use to me. I had 
formerly, upon occasion of appearing in print, done the 
same as to the English tongue : by which means my style, 
that I had been careless of before, was now somewhat re* 
fined.'' This work, which he pursued with uncommon en- 
thusiasm, and which was to prove the antiquity and diviniK 
authority of the Hebrew accents, was occasionally inter- 
rupted by his public services, and the publication of some 
of his practical works, particularly "The Fourfold State," 
in 1 720. Tiiat on the Hebrew accents did not appear until 
1738, when it was published at Amsterdam under the care 
of the learued David Mill, professor of Oriental languages 

.BOSTON. 171 

in the uniirersity of Utrecht, in a quarto irolome entitled 
*^ Thomas Boston ecclesise A^ricensis apod Scotos pastoris^ 
Tractatus Stigmologicus Hebr»o*Biblicus," dedicated to 
sir Richard Ellys, who had been very frigidly to Boston in 
the prosecution of bis studies on this subject. Mr. Boston 
died May 20, 1732. His works in practical divinityi, which 
iHre still well known and popular in Scotland, were collected 
in a large fol. Tolume in 1768, and siace that time others, 
particularly his " Body of Divinity," 3 vols. 8vo. 1773, have 
been published from his MSS. but this last mentioned work 
is eked out by extracts from other authors without acknow* 
ledgment, a disingenuous artifice of which the author never 
would have been guilty. The most remarkable of bis 
posthumous pieces is the ^' Memoirs of his Life, Time, and 
Writings," written by himself, a closely printed octavo 
volume, 1 776. This is in the form of a diary, tedious and 
mmute beyond all precedent, but evincing a wonderful 
aimplicity of heart, ignorance of the world, and a mind 
continually harrassed by conscientious scruples about the 
merest trifles ; much of it, however, may be interesting to 
curious inquirers, as e^^hibiting characteristics of the man- 
ners and sentiments of the Scotch clefgy of the seventeenth 
and part of the eighteenth century. ^ 

BOS WELL (James), the friend and biographer of Dr. 
Johnson, was the eldest son of Alexander Boswell, lord 
Attchinleck, one of the judges in the supreme courts of 
session and justiciary in Scotland. He was born at Edin* 
burgh, Oct 29, 1740, and received the first rudiments of 
education in that city. He afterwards studied civil law in 
the universities of Edinburgh and Glasgow. During his 
residence in these cities, he acquired by the society of the 
English gentlemen who were students in the Scotch col- 
leges, that remarkable predilection for their manners, 
which neither the force of education, or national prejudice^ 
cooid ever eradicate. But his most intimate acquaintance 
at this period was the rev. Mr. Temple, a worthy, learned, 
and pious divine, whose well-^written character of < Gray has 
been adopted both by I>r. Johnson and Mason in the life 
of that poet. Mr. Boswell imbibed early the ambition of 
distinguishing himself by his literary talents, and had the 
good fortune to obtain the patronage of the late lord So*> 
merviUe. This nobleman treated him with the most flat* 

I Mcmoiii ttbi lupra. 

172 B O S W E L L. 

teriog kindness; and -Mr. Bos well ever iremenbered widi 
gratitude tbe friendship he so long enjoyed with this wor* 
tby peer. Haviag always entertained an exalted idea of 
the felicity of Londan, ii> tbe year 1760 he visited that ca^ 
pital ; in the noanners and amusements of which be fouiid 
ao much that was congenial to his own taste ,and feelings^ 
that it became ever after his favourite residence, whither 
he always returned /rotn his estate in Scotland, and from 
his various rambles in different parts of Europe, with ia«> 
creasing eagerness and delight; and we fiad him, nearly^ 
twenty years afterwards, condemning Scotland as too narrow 
a sphere, and wishing to make his chief residence in London, 
which he calls the great scene of. ambition and instruction. 
He was, doubtless, confirmed in this attachment to the me*^ 
tropolis by the strong predilection entertained towards it 
by his friend Dr. Johnson^- Whose sentiments. on tliis sub- 
ject Mr. Boswell details in various parts of his life of that 
great man, and which are corroborated by every one in 
pursuit of literary and intellectual attainments. 

The politeness, af^OE^bility, and insinuating urbanity of 
BKUQuers, which distinguished Mr. Boswell, introduced him 
into tbe company of many eminent and learned men, whose 
acquaintance and friendship he cultivated with the greatest 
assiduity. In truth, the esteem and approbation of learned 
men $eemto have been one chief abject. of bis liteiuryam«< 
bition ; and we find him so* successful in pursuing his end^ 
that be enumerated some of the greatest men in Scotland 
among his friends even before he left it for the first time; 
Notwithstanding Mr. Boswell by his education was intended 
for the bar, yet be was himself earnestly bent at this pe^ 
ciod upon obtaining a commission in the guards, and soli* 
cited ilord Auchinleok's acquiescence ; but returned, how* 
ever, by his desire, iaaito 8cotland, whereherecei^Med avd^ 
gular course of instruction in the law, and passed iiis tnatt 
asta .civilian at Edinburgh. Still, however, ambitious of 
displaying himself 'as one of the ^^ raanly hearts who guard 
^he fair,*' he* visited London a seoond time in 1762 ; and, 
yaKious oocurrenceis delaying the purchase of a commis* 
aion, he was at length persuaded by lord Auchinleck to re* 
linquish his pursuit, and become an advocate at the Scoteh 
bar. In compliance, therefore, with his father's wishes, 
he consented to goto Utrecht the ensuing winter, to hear 
the lectures of an excellent civilian in that university; after 
which he had permission to mak^ his grand tour of Europe; 

B O S W EL L. *7I 

The year i76S leay be cdnftidteved the most ioaportint 
epocha in Mn Bosuveirs life, as he had^ what, be thought ai 
singular felioity^ an iutroduotiou to. Dr. Johnson. Thia 
eyent, so ainspioions for Mr. Boswell^. and eyentually so 
lortijuiate for the poblic, happened on May 16, 1763« 
Having continued one winter at Utrecht, during* which 
time he visited several parts oi the Netherlands, he com^ 
m^iced bis projected travels* Passing from Utrecht into 
Germany, be pursued his ronte through Switzerland to Ge*« 
neva ; whence he crossed the Alps into Italy, having vasitcfd 
on his journey Voltaire at Ferney, and Rousseaia in the 
wilds of NeufchateL Mr. Boswell continued some time m 
Italy, where he met and associated with lord Mouifitstnarti. 
to whom be afterwards dedicated bis Theses Juridicsv 
Having visited the most remarkable cities in Italy, Mr. 
Boswell sailed to Corsica, travelled over every part of tbao. 
island,, and obtained the friendship of the illustrious Pas« 
quale de Paoli, in whose palace he resided during bis stay 
at Corsica. He aft^wards went to Paris, whence he re*- 
turned to Scotland in 1766, and soo(i after became an ad* 
yocate at the Scotch ban The celebrated Dongias cause 
was at that time a subject of general discussion. Mr. Bos-t 
weU published the ^^ Essence of the Douglas cause ;'' a 
pan^phlet which contributed to procure Mr. Douglas the 
popularity which he at that time possessed. In 176d Mr, 
Boswell published his *^ Account of Corsica, with memotra 
of General Paoli." Of this printed performance Dr. Joho-'> 
son thus expresses himself: ^* Your journal is curious and 
daligktftil. I know not whether I could name any narra- 
tiva by which curiosity is better excited or better gratified*'^ 
This book has been translated into the German, Dutch,. 
Italian, and Freacb languages ; and was received with ex- 
traordinary approbation. In the following winter, the. the- 
atre-royal at Edinburgh, hitherto restrained by party-spirit^ 
was opened. On this occasion Mr. Boswell was solicited 
by David Ross, esq; to write a prologue. The effect of 
this prologue upoii the audience was highly flattering to the 
autbor^ and beneficial to the manager ; as it secured to the 
* latter^., by the annihilation of the opposition which' bad 
been tiU .that time too suocessfully exerted against him, 
the uninterrupted possessicm of his patent, which he en- 
joyed till his death, which happened in September 1790. 
Mx. Boswell attended his funeral as chief mourner, and 
p^d the last bonouni to a man with whom be bad spent 
n^any a pleasant hour. 

17* B O S W E L L. 

In 1769, wat celebrated at Stratford on Aron the jubiteif 
in honour of Shakspeare. Mr. Boswell, an enthusiastic ad-^ 
Boirer of the writings of our immortal bard, and ever ready 
to jotii the festive throng, repaired thither, and appeared 
at the masquerade as an armed Corsican chief; a character 
he was eminently qualified to support. This year he mar*- 
ried miss Margaret Montgomery, a lady who, to the ad- 
vantages of a polite education, united admirable good 
sense and a brilliant understanding. She was daughter 4>f 
David Montgomery, esq. related to the illustrious' famiiiy 
of Eglintoone, and representative of the antient peerage 
of Lyle. The death of this amiable woman happened iH 
June 1790. Mr. Boswell has honoured her memory with 
an affectionate tribute. She left him two sons and three^ 
daughters ; who, to use Mr. BoswelPs own words, *^ il 
they inherit her good qualities, will have no reason W 
complain of their lot. Dos magna parentum virtas.'* Ii¥ 
1782 lord Auchinleck died. In 1783, Mr. Boswell piib^ 
lished his celebrated Letter to the People of Scotlaitd;! 
which is thus praised by Johnson in a letter to the authors 
" I am very much of^^your opinion — ^your paper contains 
very considerable knowledge of history and the conistitnw 
tion, very properly produced and applied." Mr: Boswell^ 
communicated the pamphlet to Mr. Pitt, who naturally' 
gave it his approbation. This first letter was followed by^ 
a second, in which Mr. Boswell displayed his usual Energy- 
and political abilities. In 1785, Mr. Boswell publisbeid^ 
^' A journal of a tour to the Hebrides" with Dr. Johnson;- 
'which met a success similar to his entertaining accountof 
Corsica, and to wiiich we owe bis life of that illustrious- 
character. This year Mr. Boswell removed to London, 
and was soon after called to the English bar, but his pm*^ 
fessional business was interrupted by preparing his mtist 
celebrated work, ^* The life of Samuel Johi^son, LL. D. 
which was published in 1790,. and was received by the 
world with extraordinary avidity. It is a faithful history 
of Johnson^s life ; and exhibits a. most interesting picture 
of the character of that illustrious moralist, delineated with 
a masterly hand. The preparation of a secoud edition of 
this work was the last literary performance of Mr. BoswelL 
Mr. Boswell undoubtedly possessed considerable intelleo- 
tual powers;- as he could never have displayed his coUec-* 
tion of the witticisips of his friend in «o lively a manner a:s 
be has done, without Ijiiaving a picturesque imagination; 


B O S W E L L. 175 

fud a turn for peetry as weil as humour. He hi(d a con-* 
siderable share of melancholy in his temperament; and, 
though the general tenor of his life was gay and active, he 
frequently experienced an unaccountable depression of 
spirits. In one of these gloomy moods he wrote a series 
of essays under the title of " The Hypochondriac," which 
appeared in the London Magazine, and end with No. 63 
in 1782. These he had thoughts of collecting into a vo- 
lume, but they would have added little to his reputation, 
being in general very trifling. Soon after his return from 
a visit to Auchinleck, he was seized with a disorder which 
put an end to his life, at his house in Portland-street, on 
the 19th of June 1795, in the 55th year of his age. Of 
his own character he gives the following account in his 
journal of the tour to the Hebrides : " I have given a 
sketch of Dr. Johnson. His readers may wish to know a 
little of his fellow-traveller. Think, then, of a gentleman 
of ancient blood ; the pride of which was his predominant 
passion. He was then in his 33d year, and had been about- 
four years happily married : his inclination was to be a 
%oldier ; but his father, a respectable judge, had pressed 
him into the profession of the law. , He bad^travelied a 
good deal, and seen many varieties of human life. He 
bad thought more than any body supposed, and had a 
pretty good stock of general learning and knowledge. He 
bad ail Dr. Johnson's principles, with some degree of relax- 
ation. He had rather too little than too much prudence ; 
and, bis imagination being lively, he often said things of 
which the effect was very different from the intention. He 
resembled sometimes ' The best good man, with the worst- 
natured muse.' He cannot deny himself the vanity of 
finishing with the encomium of Dr. Johnson, whose friendly 
partiality to the companion of this toiir represents him as 
one * whose acuteness would help my enquiry, and whose 
gaiety of ccmversation, and civility of manners, are suffi- 
cient to counteract the inconveniencies of travel, in coun- 
tries less hospitable than we have passed'.*' 

His character in all its lights and shades is, however, 
best delineated in his life of Dr. Johnson, a work of un- 
common merit and of still increasing popularity. An 
anonymous biographer has justly said of it, that it was. 
" found to exhibit an inimitably faithful picture of the 
mingled genius and weakness, of the virtues and the vices, 
fhe sound sense and the pedantry, the benignity and the 

pa&isioitatd hawhness, of the great and djtcejlent, ahhongli 
• not confsutnittately perfect man, the wairt ot* wfrose life it 
endeavowed'to uiifoM. Icaptieait?* to be filledr with a 
rich store oP hie genuine di^ctates, se eloquent and wise, 
that they need hardly shun comparison with the most ela- 
borate of those works which he hiihself published. John- 
son, was seen in it, not as a solitary figure, but associated 
wiih those groupes of his. distinguished contemporaries , 
with whicb it was his good fortune, in air the latter and 
nore illustriotis years of his life, often to meet and to con- 
verse. It displayed many fine specimcins of that propor- 
tion, in whicb, in the latter part of the eighteenth century^ 
literature and philosophical wisdom were liable to be care- 
lessly intermingled in the ordinary conversation of the best 
company in Britaiii. It preserved a thousand precious 
anecdotical memorials of the state of arts, manners, and 
policy among us during this period, such as must be in- 
valuable to the philosophers and antiquaries of a future 
age. It gave, in the most pleasing mode of institution^ 
and in many different points of view, almost all the ele- 
mentary practical principles both of taste and of moral 
science, k showed, the colloquial tattle of Boswell duly 
chastened by the grave and rounded eloquence of Johnson.* 
It presented a collection of a number of the most elaborate 
of Johnson's smaller occasional compositions, which might 
otherwise perhaps have been entirely lost to future times. 
Shewing Boswell's skill in literary composition, his general 
acquaintance with learning and science, his knowledge of 
the manners, the fortunes, and the actuating principles of 
mankind, to have been greatly extended and improved 
since the time when he wrote his account of Corsica, it 
exalted the character of his talents in the estimation of the 
world ; and was reckoned to be such a master-piece in its 
particular species, as perhaps the literature of no other 
ns^tioiiy ancient or moderh, could boast. It did not indeed 
present its author to the world in another light than as a 
genius of the second class ; yet it seemed to rank him 
nearer to the first than to the third. This estimation of the 
character of Boswell's life of Johnson, formed by the best 
critics soon after its f>ublication, seems to have been sinca 
fully confirmed." * 

} Gentleman*8> European, and Monthly Magazioev pftniiiu 

B O r A L L U S. 177 

BOTALLUS (LEONARD), an eminent physician of Pied- 
mont, who flourished about the middle of the 16th cen- 
tuty, was a disciple of Fallopius, and took' his degree of 
doctor in medicine at Padua.. It appears by his writings, 
that he was a diligent observer, and enjoyed a considera- 
ble share of practice. He was in succession physician and 
aulic counsellor to Charles IX. Henry 'II. of France, and 
to William prince of Orange. He was also skilled in th^ 
practice of surgery^ and published, <' De curandis vulne- 
ribus sclopetorum,^' Venet. 1560, 8vo. This has been 
frequently reprinted, and continued, for a long time, to be, 
esteemed the most useful manual that had been published 
on the subject. He wrote also '^ Commentarioli dtio, alter 
de medici, alter de aegroti, munere," Lion. 1565, 8vo; 
containing rules for the conduct of the physician, the sur- 
geon, and the apothecary, in their attendance upon the 
sick. But the work by which he is most known, and 
which produced an important revolution' in the practice of 
medicine, is his ^' De curatione per sanguinis missione, de 
incidendse venaB, cutis scarificandae, et hirudin^um affigen- 
darum modo," Antw. 1583, 8vo. Though bleeding had. 
always been occasionally used in the cure of diseases, yet 
in his time it was nearly constantly superseded by purging 
medicines, or it was too sparingly used, and seldom re« 
peated. Our author made frequent recourse to it, lyith 
complete success, he says, in .diarrhoea, dysentery, in 
fever, the plague, and during pregnancy ; and flattered 
with success, he became, as he advanced in life, more and 
more bold and free in the use of the lancet, and bleeding 
became a general remedy all over Europe; but in no 
country was it carried to such excess as in f^rance, where 
the professors of medicine, for their^too frequent recur- 
rence to it, were held up to ridicule by Le j$age, in bis 
inimitable novel of Gil Bias. The works of Botallus were 
collected, and published under the title of ^' Opera Om- 
iia,'* in 1660, at Leyden, by I. V. Home.* 

BOTH (John and Andrew}, were two eminent Dutch 
painters and engravers ; John was born at Utrecht, in 1 6 iO, 
and was the disciple of Abraham Bloemart, who at the 
same time instructed Andrew ; but to perfect themselves 
in a good taste of design, they went together to Rome, 
and resided there for^a great many years. The genius of 

> Gen. Diet—- MQreri.-*-HaU^ and Maof et*^IU«s's Cydopsdia. 

Vol. VL N 


178 BOTH. 

John directed him to the study of landscape^ in which he' 
rose almost to the highest perfection, making the style of 
Claude Lorraine his model ; and by many his works are 
mentioned in competition even with those of Claude. The 
warmth of his skies, the judicious and regular receding of 
the objects, . and the sweetness of his distances, afford the 
eye a degree of pleasure, superior to what we feel on 
viewing the works of almost any other artist. John and 
Andrew had very different talents, and each of them were 
admirable in their different way. The former excelled in 
landscape, the latter inserted the figures, which he de- 
signed in the manner of Bamboccio ; and those figure^ are 
always so well adapted, that every picture seemed only the^ 
work of one master. The works of these associate brothers 
are justly admired through all Europe $ they are ^univer- 
sally sought for, and purchased at very large prices. 
Most of his pictures are, for size, between two and five 
feet long ; but in those that are smaller, there is exquisite 
neatness. They generally express the sunny light of the 
morning, breaking out from behind woods, hills, or moun- 
taidis, and diffusing a warm glow over the skies, trees, and 
the whole face of nature ; or else a sun-set, with a lovely 
tinge in the clouds, every object beautifully partaking of 
a proper degree of natural illumination. And it is to :be 
observed, that even the different hours of the day are per- 
ceptible in his landscapes, from the propriety of the tints , 
which ,he uses. By some connoisseurs he is censured for 
having too much of the tawny in his colouring, and that 
the leafings of his trees are too yellow, approaching to 
saffron ; but this is not a general fault in his pictures, 
though some of them, accidentally, may justly be liable 
to that criticism, for he corrected that fault; and many of 
his pictures are no more tinged with tbosc^ colours^ than 
truth and beautiful nature will justify; and his colouring 
obitained for bim the distinction which he still possesses, of 
being called Both of Italy. 

Descaaq)s, in the life of Both, after having said that 
John painted landscapes,, and Andrew figures, in the maa^ 
net of . Bamboccio, asserts that Andrew was drowned in a 
canal at Venice, and John returned to Utrecht.; in which 
account he appears to follow Sandrart ; though other writers- 
agree, that it was the landscape-painter who was drowned, 
and Andrew, returning to his own country, painted con- 
versations and portraits as long as he livedo of which the 

BOTH; 179 

Other was incapable. The two brothers inutoally assisted 
each other till the death of John in 1650; and thed An* 
drew retired from Italy, settled at Utrecht, and continued 
to paint sometimes portraits, sometimes landscapes, in the 
manner of his brother, and also conversations, and players 
at cards, in the manner of Baipboccio. Both of those 
masters had extraordinary readiness of hand, lind a free, 
light, sweet pencil ; and that they were expeditious, may 
be evident from the great number of pictures which they 
finished. Andrew, during the remainder of his life, had 
as much employment as he could possibly execute; but 
was so affected by the melancholy death of his brother, 
that he survived him only a few years, dying in 1656. 
Strutt mentions a few engravings by both these artists, 
but neither aJrrived at any great perfection in the art. * 

BOTONER (William), or William Worcester, an 
ancient English writer, acquainted with history, antiquities, 
heraldry, physic, and astronomy, was born at Bristol 
about 1415; his father's name was Worcester, and his 
mother^s Botoner, hence he often names himself William 
Wyrcester, alias Botoner; and hence the error in Pits, 
and others, of inaking two distinct persons of the two names. 
He studied at Hart-hall, Oxford, 1434. He had been exer- 
cised in wars above 44 years ; and had so faithfully served 
sir John FastolfF that he left him one of his executors. He 
wrote many books, the first of which, that was printed, was 
his translation from the French, of *^ Cicero de Senec- 
tute," which he a4dressed to William Wainfleet, bishop of 
Winchester. He tells us that he presented it to the bishop 
at Asher [Esher] August 10, 1475, but received no reward 
{'nullum regardum recepide episcopoj. He wrote also *' An- 
tiquities of England ;" " Abbreviations of the Learned ;" 
" Medicinal collections ;'* a book of Astrology ; another 
of Astronomy ; besides a particular treatise, gratefully pre- 
serving the life and deeds of his master, under the title of 
'^ Acta Domini Johannis FastolfF;" " the Acts of John duke 
of Bedford ;'* " Polyandrium Oxoniensium, or mettioirs of 
Oxford Students ;" and other lesserpieces ; of which see 
Tanner Bibl. Brit. p. 115. His "Annals of England'* 
were printed by Hearne at the end of his " Liber Niger 
Scaccarii," p. 424— 451. His " Itinerary'* was published 
from a MS. not improbably the original, in the library at 

^ Pilkington.<— Strutt.'— D'Argeaville.^Descamps, toU II. 

N 2 


Corpus Christi college, Cambridge, by Mr. James Na»- 
mith, fellow of the said college, Cantab. 1778, 8vo. FuU 
ler cites a boot of Botoner's, containing all the ancient 
gentry of the county of Norfolk, lopg preserved in the 
county, but not now extant. He also wrote something in 
poetry, as that humorous ballad in Nasmith's edition of his 
Itinerary, called " Comedia ad M onasterium Hulme," &c. 
and a long cbronographical epitaph in verse, on the lady 
Milicent Fastolf ; in the possession of Richard Foley, esq. 
late prothonotary of the common pleas. He is supposed 
to have died' about 1490. The son of this Worcester, 
among other things, also made a collection of several au- 
thentic instruments relating to the English wars and gb^ 
vemment in France ; which he dedicated to king Edward 
ly. containing a catalogue of the princes, dukes, earls, 
barons, bannerets, knights, and other persons of eminence, 
who were of the regent's court A copy of this collection, 
in quarto,, was some time in the custody of the late Brian 
Fairfax, esq. one of the commissioners of the customs. ^ 

BOTT (John de), an architect, who was born in France 
in 1670, of protestant parents, quitted his country early in 
life, and went into the service of William of Orange, after-* 
wards king of Great Britain. After the death of that 
prince, he attached himself to the elector of Brandenbourg, 
who gave him a post of captain of the guards, which did 
not slacken his industry in architecture. His first edifice 
was the arsenal at Berlin, and he afterwards signalized 
himself by various monuments of his art. Frederic I. being 
dead, Bott conciliated the favour of Frederic William, who 
raised him to the rank of major-general. The fortifica- 
tions of Wesel, of which place he was commandant, were 
constructed under his direction. In 1728 he went into 
the service of the king of Poland, elector of Saxony, in 
quality of lieutenant-general and chief of the engineers. 
In Dresden are several edifices of his erection, where he 
died in 1745, with great reputation for probity, intelli- 
gence, and valour. * 

BOTT (Thomas), an English clergyman of ingenuity 
and learning, was descended from an ancient family in 
Staffordshire, and born at Derby in 1688. His grand- 
father had been a major on the parliament side in the civil 
wars 3 his father had diminished a considerable paternal 
estate by gaming ; but his mother, a woman of great pru* 

> Biog. Brit art. Fastolf, vol. V. p. 706, note^ — ^Arcbeolof i«| irol. IX. p. 957. 
— Tanoer.— Warton'i HisU of Poetry, toI, IL p. 119, 486. i Diet. H»t. 


B O T T. 181 

^Qce,. contrived to give a good education to six childrent 
Thomas the yo\ingest acquired his grammatieal learning as 
Derby; had his education among the dissenters ; and wat 
appointed to preach to a presbyterian congregation a 
Spalding in Lincolnshire. Not liking this mode of life, he 
removed to London at the end of queei;! Anne's reign, with 
a view of preparing himself for physic ; but changing his 
measures again, he took orders in the church of England, 
aoon after the accession of George L and was presented to 
the rectory of Winburg in Norfolk. About 1725 he was 
presented to the benefice of Reymerston; in 1734, to the 
reejtory of Spixwortb; and, in 1747, to the rectory of 
£dgefield ; all in Norfolk. About 1750, his mental powers 
began to decline; and, at Christmas 1752^ he ceased to 
appiear in tl^e pulpit. He died at Norwich, whither he had 
jremoved, in 1753, with his family, Sept. 23, 1754, leav- 
ing a wife, whom he married in 1739 ; and also a son, Ed- 
mund Bott, esq. of Christ church in Hampshire, a fellow 
of the Antiquarian society, who published, in 1771, A col- 
lection of cases relating to the Poor laws. Dr. Kippis, 
who was his nephew by marriage, has given a prolix article 
on hinf/ and a minute character, in which, however, there 
appeans to have been little of the amiable, and in his reli- 
gious opinions he was capricious and unsteady. His works 
were, I. "The peace and happiness of this world, the 
immediate design of Christianity, on Luke ix. 56,'' a pam- 
phlet in 8vo, 1724. 2. A second tract in defence of this, 
1730, 8vo. 3. " The principal and peculiar notion of a 
late book, entitled. The religion of nature delineated, con-, 
.flidered, and refuted,'* 1725. This was against Wollas- 
ton's notion of moral obligation. 4. A visitation sermon, 
preached at Norwich, April 30th, 1730^ 5. A 30th of 
January sermon, preached at Norwich, and printed at 
the request of the mayor, &c. 6. " Remarks upon But- 
ler's 6th chapter of the Analogy of Religion, &c. concern- 
ing Necessity," 1730. 7. Answer to the first volume of 
Warburton's Divine Legation of Moses. 

Among other learned acquaintance of Mr. Bott was Dr. 
Samuel Clarke, of whom he relates, that he was not only 
of a cheerful, but of a playful disposition. Once, when 
Mr. Bott. called upon him, he found him swimming upon 
% table. At another time, when several of them were 
amusing themselves with diverting tricks. Dr. Clarke, look- 
ing out of the window, and seeing a grave blockhead ap- 

182 B O T T. 

proacbingi called out, " Boys, boys, be wise; here comes 
a fool." We have heard the like of Dr, Clarke froQi other 
quarters, and are not sure that the " grave blockhead" 
may not have been the most decorous character. * 

BOTTARI (John), a very learned prelate of the court 
of Rome, was born at Florence, Jan. 15, 1689, and be- 
came early distinguished for the purity of his style, and 
bis intimate knowledge of the Tuscan dialect. He studied 
rhetoric and Latin under Antonio-Maria Biscioni, who was. 
afterwards dictator of the Mediceo-Lorenzian library. (See 
Biscioni). He then studied philosophy, divinity, mathe^ 
matics, and Gree.k, the latter under the learned Salvini, 
His proficiency in these branches of knowledge soon made 
him noticed^ and he was appointed by the academy della 
Crusca, to superintend the new edition of their diction- 
ary, in which labour he was assisted by Andrea Alamaorni 
and Rosso Martini. He had afterwards t^e direction of the 
printing-office belonging to the Grand Duke, from which 
several of his works issued. Clement XH. made him li- 
brarian of the Vatican, in which he arranged a cabinet of 
medals, which that pope wished to be considered as a part 
i)f the library. On his death, Bottari entered the conclave 
Feb. 6, 1740, with the cardinal Neri Corsini. Next year 
was published by P. Marmoreus, the edition of Virgil, 
Rome, 1741, fol. a fac-simile of the famous Codex Vati- 
canus, to which Bottari prefixed a learned preface. He 
was the first who had the curiosity to examine tfbis valuable 
manuscript, which belonged formerly to Pontanus, after* 
wards to Bembus, and lastly to Fulvius Ursinus, who der 
^ posited it in the Vatican, when he became librarian there. 
Benedict XIV. being elected pope, who had long been 
the friend of Bottari, he conferred on him the canonry of 
St. Maria-Transteverini, and that he might reside in his 
palace, appointed him his private almoner. He was ^so 
a me|uber of all the principal academies of Italy; and Fon^ 
tanini, Apostolo Zeno, Gori, and others, have written^his 
eloges, having ail profited, in the publication of their 
works, by his valuable communications. His long and 
studious life terminated June 3, 1775, in his eighty-sixth 
year. Among his works, of which Mazzuchelli has given a 
long list, are, 1. Vita di Francesco Sacchetti,'' Vicenza 
(Naples) 1725, with Sacchetti's " Nov^Ue," 8vo* 2." L'Er: 

> Biog. Brit. 

B O T T A R I. 183 

colano, dialogo di Benedetto Varchi," Florence, 1730, 4to. 
S, *^ Lezione tre sopra il tremuoto/* Rome, 1733 and 1748, 
4to. 4. " Sculture, e Pitture sacre estratte dai cimeteri 
diRoma, 6cc." Rome, 1737, 1747, 1753, 3 vols. fol. 5. 

I " Vocabularia della Crusca," Florence, 1738, 6 vols. 6. 

I The Virgil already noticed. 7. " De Museo CapitoUno,** 

i 1750, 3 vols. fol. 8. " RaccoUa di lettere suUa Pittura, 

Scuhura, ed Architettura," Rome, 1754, 1757, and 1759, 
3 vols. 4to; and again, an enlarged edition ^t Naples^ 
1772. 9. << Dialogbi sopra tre arti del Disegno," Lucca, 
1754, 4to. He also contributed to a new edition bfVa- 

I sari and Passori^s Lives of the Painters. ^ 

BOTTICELLI (Alexander, or Sandro,), an Italian 
painter and engraver, was born at Florence, in 1437 ; and 
being placed as a disciple with Filippo Lippi, he imitated 
that master, as well in his design as colouring. He per- 
formed several considerable works at Florence, and several 
at Rome, by which he gained great reputation ; at the for- 
mer, a Venus rising from the sea, and also a Venus adorned 
by the graces ; and at the latter, he painted sacred sub- 
jects from the New Testament, which at that time were 
very much commended. He obtained great honour by his 
performances in the chapel of Sixtus IV. for which he was 
very amply rewarded; and for the family of the Medici he 
finished some portraits, and many historical compositions. 
It was customary with this master to introduce a great num« 
ber of figures in all the subjects he designed, and he dis- 
posed them with tolerable judgment and propriety; but in 
one of bis designs, representing the Adoration of the Magi, 
the variety and'multitude of his figures are astonishing. He 
received large sums of money for his works, all of which 
he expended, and died in 1 5 1 5 in great distress, and far 
advanced* in years. 

Mr. Strutt has introduced him in chap. Vl.-of his "Ori- 
gih and Progress of Engraving," to which we refer the 
reader. Baldini, according to the general report, com- 
municated to him the secret of engraving, then newly dis- 
covered by their townsman Finiguerra. The curious edi- 
tion of Dante printed at Florence in 1481 (or 1488) and to 
wbieb, according to some authors, Botticelli undertook to 
write notes, was evidently intended to have been orna- 
mented with prints, one for each canto : and these prints 

1 Diet. Hist^Haym Bibl. ltaliaii.*-MazztrcheUi, Vol. II. part III.— Saxii 



(as many of them as were finished) were designed, if not 
engraved, by Botticelli. Mr. Roscoe, however, says, that 
they were designed by Botticelli, and engraved by Baldini. 
It is remarkable, that the tirst two plates only were printed 
upon the leaves of the book, and for want of a blank space 
at the head of the * first caitto, the plate belonging to it is 
placed at the bottom of the page. Blank spaces are lefc 
for all the rest, that as many of them as were finished 
might be pasted on. Mr. Wilbraham possesses the finest 
copy of this book extant in any private library ; and the 
number of prints in it amounts to nineteen, the first 
two, as usual, printed on the leaves, and the rest pasted 
on ; and these, Mr. Strutt thinks, were all that Botticelli 
ever executed. Mr. Roscoe describes another copy as in 
bis possession, formerly in the Pinelli library. ^ 

BOTTONI (Albertino), a physician,, descended of an 
illustrious family of Parma, was born at Padua in the be- 
ginning of the sixteenth century, and in 1555 became pror 
fessor of medicine in that city, where he was esteemed for 
his talents and success as a practitioner. He died in 1596, 
leaving behind him an immense property, an elegant hbuse^ 
&c.. He published, l.^^De Vita conservanda," Padua, 
1582, 4to. 2. ^'De morbis muliebribus,^' ibid. 1585., 
and twice reprinted, beside^ in the collections of Bauhine 
and Spachius. 3. ^^ ConsiUa medica," Francfort, 1605, 
4to« in Lautenbach's collection. 4. '^ De modo discurrendi 
circa morbos eosdem curandi tractatus,'^ ibid. 1607, 12ma. 
with the Pandects of John George Schenck. An edition 
was afterwards published at Francfort in 1695, Syo, with 
the title, ** Methodus medicinales .dute,^' &c. ' 

BOTTONI (Dominic), the son of Nicholas Bottom, a 
celebrated philosopher and physician of Leontini, in Si- 
cily, was born the 6 th of October 1641, and received hi^ 
education under Peter Castello. In 1658, he was admitted 
to the degree of doctor, and was soon aft^r ina«le physician 
to the marquis De Villa Franca, viceroy of Sicily, physi- 
cian to the royal hospital of Messina, and superintendant of 
the physicians there, with a pension of 50 crowns per 
month. He afterwards enjoyed a similar situation under 
the viceroy of Naples, iu 1697, he was made corresipond- 
ing or honorary member of the royal society of London, to 
which he had previously sent his ^^ Idea historico-physica 

^ Pilkington^-Stnitt — Roecoe's Leo. 
•* Diet. Hist. — Moreri.— Ualler and Manget. . - • 

B O T T O N I. 185 

de magno tiitiacriae terrse motu,** which is published in 
their transactions. He was the first Sicilian physician who 
had received that honour. He wrote also ^^Pyrologia to- 
pographica, id est, de igne dissertatio, juxta loica, cum 
eorum descriptione/' Neapoli, 1692, 4to, "Febrisrheu- 
matica^ roahgns, historia medica/* Messina, 1712, 8vo, 
** Preserve salutari contro il contagioso malore/' Messina^ 
1621, 4to. He died about the year 1731. * 

BOUCHARDON (Edmund), a French sculptor, was 
the son of a sculptor and architect, and born at Chaumont 
in Bassigni in 169S. He was drawn by an irresistible pas- 
sion for these two arts, but confined himself at length to 
the former. After having passed some time at Paris under 
the younger Coustou, and obtained the prize at the aca- 
demy in 1722, he was carried to Rome at the king's ex:- 
pence. Upon his return from Italy, where his talents had 
been greatly improved, he adorned Paris with his works : 
a list of tbem may be seen in a life of him, published in 
1762, lj2mo, by the count de Caylus, but some of them no 
longer exist, particularly his fine equestrian statue of Louis 
XV. formerly in the square named after that monarch. In 
1744 he obtained a place in the academy ; and, two years 
after, a professorship. He died July 17, 1762, a loss 
to the arts, and much lamented ; for he is described as a^ 
man of great talent, disinterested spirit, and of mos^ ami- 
able manners. Music was his object in the hours of. recre- 
ation, and his talents in this way were very considerable. 
Count Caylus, in his ^^ Tableaux tir^s de Tlliade et de 
rOdysse.d'Homere,'' mentions Bouchardon, with honour, 
among the tew artists who borrowed their subjects from Ho- 
mer, and relates the following anecdote : ^^ This great ar- 
tist having lately, read Homer in an old' and detestable 
French translation, came one day to me, his eyes sparkling 
with fire, and said, ^ Since I have read this book, men 
seem to be fifteen feet high, and all nature is enlarged in 
my sight*.'^ This anecdote, however, does not give a very 
high idea of the education of a French artist, and a profes- 
sor of the art ' 

BOUCHAUD (Matthew Anthony), a law-writer of 
great reputation in France, was born at Paris, April 16, 
1719, of an honourable family. His father, who was also 
a lawyer, spared no expence in his education. From the 

1 Diet. HifW-rMoreri,— Haller ^nd Manget * Diet. Hist,— ArgenviUe. 

186 B O U C H A U D. 

age of sixteen he studied jurisprudence ^th such persever- 
ance and success as to be admitted to a doctor's degree in 
1747. Being employed to prepare the articles on jurispru- 
dence and canon law for the Encyclopaedia, he wrote those 
on council, decretals, &'. bat, for what reason we are 
j)ot told, they gave offence to the encyclopedists, who be- 
came on that account his enemies, and prevented him for 
some time from attaining the rank of professor, wiiich was 
tbeobjectof his ambition. Bouchaud, however, consoled 
himself by cultivating a taste for modern poetry. He 
translated several of the dramas of Apostolo Zeno into 
French, and published them in 175$, 2 vols. 12mo, and in 
1764 he translated the English novel of '^ Lady Julia Man- 
deville." In the interval between these two, he published 
** Essai sur la poesie rhythmique,'* 1763, which was 
thought a work of great merit. This was followed by the 
first of his more professional labours, " Trait6 de Timpot 
du vingtieme sur les successions, et de Timpot ^ur les mar- 
chandises chez les Romains,'' a very curious history of the 
taxes which the ancient emperors imposed. In 1766, on 
the death of M. Hardron, he was elected into the French 
academy, notwithstanding the opposition of the encyclope- 
dists, whose dislike seems not ill calculated to give us a fa- 
vourable idea of the soundness of his principles. This was 
followed by a law professorship, and some years after he 
•was advanced to the professorship of the law of nature and 
nations in the royal college of France. He was nominated 
to this by the king in 1774, and was the first professor, it 
being then founded. On this he wrote in the memoirs of 
the academy, a curious paper concerning the societies that 
were formed by the Roman publicans for the receipt of the 
taxe&r The body of the publicans was taken from the or^ 
der of knights, and had great influence and credit. They 
were called by Cicero ** the ornament of the capital," and 
the " pillars of the state." The knights, though rich, entered 
into associations, when the taxes of a whole province were 
farmed out by the senate,, because no individual was opulent 
enough to be responsible for such ex^tensive engagements; 
and the nature of these societies or associations, and the 
various conventions, commercial and pecuniary engage-r 
ments, occupations, and offices, to which they gave rise, 
form the subject of this interesting paper, which was fol- 
lowed by various others on topics of the same nature. In 
1777 he published his ^^Theorie des trait6s de commerce 

B O U C H A U D. 187 

eotre les nations,^' the principles of which seem to be 
founded on justice and reciprocal benefits. In 1784 ap- 
peared another curious work on the ancient Roman laws and 
policy, entitled, *^ Recherches historiques sur la Police des 
Romains, concernant les grands chemins, les rues, et les 
marches/' His ^^ Commentaire sur les lois des douze ta* 
hies," first published in 1767, was reprinted in 1803, with 
improvements and additions, at the expense of the French 
government, and he was employed in some treatises in- 
tended for the national institute, when he died, Feb. 1, 
1804,regretted as a profound and enlightened law-writer. It 
is remarkable that in his essay on commercial treaties above- 
mentioned, he tfontends for our Selden's Mare Clgusumj 
as the opinion of every man who is not misled by an immo- 
derate zeal for his own country. * 

BOUCHER (Francis), first painter to Louis XV. was 
born at Paris in 1706, and was educated under Le Moine, 
after which he studied at Rome. On his return to Paris, 
he employed himself on every species of the art, but espe- 
cially in the light and agreeable. His Infant Jesus sleep- 
ing, is finely coloured, and designed with a most flowing 
contoun The Shepherd asleep on the knees of his shep- 
herdess, is a little landscape of singular merit Many of 
his other landscapes are peculiarly happy. His other most 
noted pieces are pastorals for the manufacture of tapestry, 
at Beauvais ; the musses in the king's library ; the four 
seasons, in the figure of infants, for the ceiling of the 
council-room at Fontainbleau ; a hunt of tigers, &c. He 
was usually called the painter of the graces, and the Aha« 
creon of painting ; but his works did not justify these high 
encomiums, and seem to have rather sunk in the estimation 
of his countrymen. He died of premature old age ia 

BOUCHER (Jonathan), a learned English clergyman 
and philologer, was born at Blencogo, in the county of 
Cumberland, March .12, 1738 ; and after receiving his 
education at Wigton, under the rev. Joseph Blaine, went 
in his sixteenth year to North America. At the proper age 
he returned to England to be ordained, previously to 
which, in 1761, the vestry of the parish of Hanover, in the 
county of King George, Virginia, had nominated him to 
:^e rectory of that parish. He afterwards exchanged this 

» Diet. Hist—Month. Rev. vol. LIV. and LXIV.— Grit. iUv. vol. XLIU.-^ 
Saxii Dnoraast. vol. Vlli. ^ Diet. Hist. 


for the parish of St. Mary's in Caroline county, Virginia, 
When the late sir Robert Eden, bart. became governor of 
Maryland, he appointed Mr. Boucher rector of St. Anne^s 
in Annapolis, and afterwards of Queen Anne's in Prince 
George's county, where he faithfully and zealously dis- 
charged the duties of a minister of the church until 1775. 
Of his exemplary conduct in the discharge of his minis- 
terial functions in the western hemisphere, abundant 
proof is furnished by a work published by him in the year 
1797, intituled, "A View of the Causes and Consequences 
lof the American Revolution, in thirteen discourses, 
preached in North America between the years 1763 and 
1775." In the preface to that work, which contains anec- 
dotes and observations respecting the writers and most emi-r 
nent persons concerned in the American Revolution, he 
observes, that, ^^cast as his lot was by Providence, , in 
a situation of difficult duty, in such an hour of dan* 
gei', it would have been highly reproachful to have 
slept on his post. Investigations on the important sub- 
jects of religion and government, when conducted with 
sobriety and decorum, can never be unseasonable; but 
they seem to be particularly called for in times like tho$e 
in which these discourses were written — times when the 
kings of the earth stood up, and the rulers took counsel against 
the Jjord and against his anointed, saying. Let us break their 
bonds asunder, and cast away their cords from us.*^ fie 
adds, in the words of Bishop Wetenhall's preface to his 
Royal Sermons, printed in Ireland in 1695, that his Diis- 
courses in America were preached by him *^ with a sincere 
intention of conscientiously performing his duty, and ap- 
proving himself to God, in his station, by doing what lay in 
him (at a time of exigence) to confirm the wavering, to 
animate the diffident, to confirm, excite, and advance all 
in their loyalty and Hrm adhesion to his gracious majesty, 
our present, alone, rightful liege lord and sovereign/' 
Indeed, these sermons unequivocally demonstrate that 
their pious author was not to be deterred, by the personal 
difficulties in which the schism and faction that then pre-; 
vailed had placed him, from maintaining, with undaunted 
resolution, those doctrines, political and religious, in which 
be had been educated. 

In 1784, long after his return to England, he was pre- 
sented by the rev. John Parkhurst, editor of the Greek and 
Hebrew Lexicons, to the vicarage of Epsom in Surrey ; but 
the same year he had the misfortune to lose bis first wife, 

B O U C H E R. I8f 

who was a native of Marylandi of genteel connections, and 
of the same name and fam^y as the celebrated Josepb Ad- 
dison, whom in many of the great points of his character 
she resembled. — Through life Mr. Boucher enjoyed the 
society and friendship of men of erudition and science ; and 
on various occasions employed his pen, not only in defence 
o( those political principles on which the British monarchy 
is founded, but in critical inquiries, and in theological du* 
ties. Of his discourses from the pulpit in Great Britain, 
two Assize Sermons, preached in 1798, have been printed, 
and fully justify the request of the Grand Juries to whon^ 
We are indebted for their publication. He was also an am- 
ple contributor to Mr. Hutchinson's History of Cumberland, 
The account of the parish of Bromfield, and the very inte- 
resting biographical sketches of eminent Cumberland men, 
Eublished in the same work, and marked ^^Biographia Cum« 
tiensis," were written by him. Mr. Boucher was a patriot 
in the best sense of the word: he was ever anxious to pro- 
mote the happiness of his fellow countrymen ; atid in many 
instances personally contributed, either by pecuniary or 
literary exertions, to meliorate the condition of society. 
In 1792, he published an anonymous pamphlet, subscribed 
*' A Cumberland Man,'' which was reprinted in the Ap- 
J)endix to sir Frederick Morton Eden's " State of the Poor,'* 
published in 1797^ This pamphlet is addressed to the in- 
habitants of Cumberland, and has for its object the im- 
provement of that county in every point which can render 
a country opulent and happy. 

During the last fourteen years of his life, Mr. Boucher's 
literary labours were chiefly dedicated to the compilation of 
a Glossary of Provincial and Archseological words, intended 
as a " Supplement to Dr. Johnson's Dictionary," the pro- 
posals for which he issued in 1802, und^r the title of 
** LingUGB Anglicans Veteris Thesaurus," The printed 
aid which he collected for this work appeacred suffi(:iently 
by the library he left, and which was spld by auction after 
his death. Few collections are more copious in early 
printed literature. A part of this undertaking was pub- 
lished in 1S07, containing words under the letter A. by 
which it appeared that the author's plan, including Scotch 
words, was more extensive than originally intended. The 
encouragement given to this specimen has not been suffi*^ 
cient to induce his relatives to publish more, or to encou- 
rage any gentleman of adequate talents to attempt the com- 


pldtion oJF the work. Mr. Boucher died April 27, 1804, 
leaving eight children by his second wife Mrs« James, wi- 
dow of the rev. Mr. James, rector of Arthuret, &c. in Cum- 
berland, whom he married in 1789.* 


BOUETTE DE BLEMUR (jAcauELiNE), a lady, who 
merits some notice as a specimen of French female piety in 
former days, was born Jan. S, 1618. Her parents, who 
were of noble rank, and distinguished for tiieir piety, gave 
her a suitable education, and from the age of five she was 
brought up with one of her aunts in the abbey royal of the 
Holy Trinity at Caen. When eleven, at her owii earnest re- 
quest, she was^admitted to take the habit, and such was her 
wise conduct, that only four years after, she was appointed 
mistress of the novices. She was sotn after chosen prio- 
ress, and then commenced her great work, the *^ Annte Be- 
nedictine,'* or lives of the saints, the application to which, 
however, did not make her relax from tbe duties of her of- 
fice. One of the consequences of her biographical labours, 
was a more enlarged sense of what, in her opinion, she 
'ought* to do, and to be, after the example of the Saint? 
whose Itves she was writing. She blushed, we are told, to 
praise and to record what she did not practise (not a com- 
mon feeling among biographers), and although she knew 
that the kingdom of heaven was not to be gained by ab- 
stinence from certain meats, yet she firmly believed that in 
order to be the exact imitator of St Benedict, she must 
join that privation to her other rules :' and had. an occasion 
to bring her principles to the test, when the duchess of 
Mecklenburgh formed the design of a new establishment at 
Chatillon of the female Benedictines of the Holy Sacra- 
ment, and requested her to be one of the number. Ma- 
dame Bouette assented, although then sixty years old, and 
from the rank of prioress in the abbey of St. Trinity, con- 
descended to the humble state of a novice in this new es- 
tabli^ment, and afterwards jsreferred the lowest place in it 
to the rank of abbess which was afterwards offered to her. 
In her last dayS, her strength, bodily and mental, decayed: 
she became blind, ^d lame, and lost the use of speech, 
in which state she died March 24, 1696, leaving the fol* 
lowing momuments of her industry: J. '* UAnn6e Bene- 
dictine, ou, Les Vies des Saints de Tordre de St. Benoit,'* 

} Life in Qent Mag. 1804,drtva up by ike late sir Frad. Morton fidao, bart; 

B O U E T T E. X9i 



Paris, 1667, 7 vols. 4to. 2. ^^ Eloges de plusieurs per* 
sonnes illustres en piet6 de Pordre de St. Benoit/* 2 vols. 
4to. 3, "Vie de Fourrier de Matincourt." 4. "Exer- 
cices dela Mort.'* 5. ** Vies des Saintes," 2 vols. fol. 6.- 
" Monologue historique de la Mere de Dieu," Paris, 1682, 
4to. These works are written with some degree of elegance 
of style, but her lives are replete with those pious fables 
which amused the religious houses, and those superstitious 
austerities which regulated their conduct in former tifmes. ^ 
BOUFLERS (Louis Francis, duc de), peer and mar6- 
chal, distinguished in the French history^ was born Jan. 
10, 1644. His dispositions for the art of war having dis- 
played themselves at a very early period, he was chosen 
in 1669 to be colonel of a rc^ment of dragoons, at the 
head of which he demonstrated his bravery under the 
marechal deCrequi, and under Turenne. He received a 
dangerous wound at the bstttle of Voerden ; and another in 
the affair of Entsheim, to the capture whereof he contri- 
buted much, by the cojifession of Turenne. After several 
signal exploits, be gained immortal renown by the defence 
of Lille in 1708. The siege lasted near four months. 
Bouflers said to his officers, *^ Gentlemen, I trust to you ; 
but I aniNrer for myself." Prince Eugene carded on the 
siege With so much vigour that it was obliged to submit. 
^* I am very vfin," said he to Bouflers, " on having taken 
Lille; bilit I had rather still have the glory of having de- 
fended it like you." The king rewarded him for this ser-^' 
vice as if he had gained a battle. He was created a peer 
of France ; had the honours of first gentleman to the king, 
and the reversion of the government of Flanders for his 
eldest son.'- When he entered the parliament for his' first 
reception in it, turning to a croyvd of officers who had 
defended LiHe with him, he said, " It is to you that I am 
indebted for all the favours that are heaped upon me, and 
on you I reflect them ; 1 have nothing to glory in but the 
honour of h'avi^ig been at the head of so many brave nnren.'* 
During the siege, one of his party having proved to him 
that he could easily kill prince Eugene, " Your fortune is 
made," returned Bouflers, " if you can take him prisoner :' 
but you shall be punished with the utmost severity if you. 
make an attempt on his life ; and if I but suspected that 
you bad any such intention, I would have you shut up for 

1 Morcri.— Dict.Jlist. 

I9i BO U F L E ft S. 

the rest of your life." This generosity, which formed t 
part of his character, induced him to ask permission to 
serve under the orders of marechal de ViUars, though he 
was his senbr. At the battle of Malplaquet in 1709, be 
made the retreat in such good order, that he left behind 
him neither cannon nor prisoners. The marquis de Bouflers 
united the virtues of a good citizen with the activity of a 
gi^neral; serving his prince as the ancient Romans served 
their republic ; accounting his life as nothing when the 
safety of his country was in question. The king having 
ordered him to go and succour Lille, and having left to 
himself the choice of his lieutenants ; he set out that in- 
stant, without settling his affairs, or taking leave of his 
family, and chose for his officers a man that had been dis- 
graced, and a prisoner of the Bastille. His magnificence 
was equal to his love for his country and his sovereign. 
When Louis XIV. formed the camp of CompiSgne, to 
serve as a lesson to his grandson the duke of Burgundy, 
and as a spectacle to the court, Bouflers lived there in 
such a splendid style, that the king said to Livri, his 
maitre-d'hotel, " The duke of Burgundy must not keep a 
table ; we cannot outdo the marechal ; the duke of Bur* 
gundy shall dine with him when he goes to the, camp/* 
This patriot general died at Fontainbleau, Aug. 22, 1711, 
aged 68. ^^ In him (writes madame de IVj^ntenon) the 
heart died last.'* We read in the continuation of the 
history of England by Rapin, an anecdote too honourable 
to the memory of this great man to be passed over here in 
silence. King William having taken Namur, in 169S, 
made Bouflers prisoner, in violation of the articles that 
had been agreed on. Surprised at so unjust a pro- 
ceeding, the marechal, fresh from the glorious defence he 
bad made, demanded the reason of this perfidious treat- 
ment. He was answered that it was by w^y of reprisals 
for the garrison of Dixmude and of Deiiise, which the 
French had detained contrary to capitulation. ** If that be 
the case (said Bouflers), then my garrison > ought 
arrested, and not V^ ^^ Sir (he was answered), you are 
valued at more than ten thousand men.'' ' 

BOUGAINVILLE (John Peter de), born at Paris 
Dec* 1, 1722, was educated with gr^at care. His talents 
thus improved procured him celebrity at an early period^ 

* Diet. Hut— Moreri. 


antl obtained for him the places most Battering to literary 
men at Paris. He became pensionary and secretary to 
the royal academy of inscriptions, member of the French 
academy^ and some other foreign societies, censor-royal, 
keeper of the hall of antiquities at the Louvre, and one of 
the secretaries in ordinary to the duke of Orleans. His 
extraordinary industry impaired bis health, and brought 
on premature old age, of which he died at the chateau de 
Loches, June 22, 17^3, at the age of forty-one. His ta- 
lents and personal virtues acquired him zealous patrons 
and affectionate friends. In his writings, as in his man- 
ners, all was laudable, and yet nothing shewed the desire 
of being praised. With the talents that contribute to 
fame, he principally aspired at the honour of being useful. 
Nevertheless, literary ambition, which is not the weakest 
of ambitions, found him not insensible. Accordingly he 
was desirous of being admitted of the French academy ; he 
made vigorous application to Duclos, at that time secre- 
tary ; mentioning, among other thin'gs, that he was af* 
flicted with a disorder that was sapping his constitution,^ 
and that consequently his place would soon be vacant again; 
the secretary, an honest man, but of a bard and rough 
character, replied, with more wit than feeling, that it was 
not the business of the French academy to administer ex- 
treme unction. He wrote, 1. A translation of the Anti- 
Lucretius of the cardinal de Polignac, 2 vols. 8vo, or one 
vol. 12mo, preceded by a very sensible preliminary dis- 
course. 2. Parallel between the expedition of Koiili Khan 
in the Indies, and that of Alexander, a work of great 
learning, abounding* iu ideas, flights of imagination and 
eloquence; but sometimes rather bombastic. He also 
wrote several papers of very superior merit in the Memoirs 
of the French Academy. In his twenty-fifth year he wrote 
a tragedy on the death of Philip, father of Alexander, 
which is said to evince considerable talents for poetry; and 
in the Maga^in Encyclopedique was lately published a 
metrical translation by him ' of the Hymn of Cleanthes, 
which appears to have suggested to Pope his Universal 

BOUGEANT (William Hyacinth), a French Jiistorian 
and miscellaneous writer, was born at Quimper, Nov. 4, 
I690y and entered among th^ Jesuits in 1706. In 1710, 

1 Diet. Hist.— iSaxii QnoniftsticoD, whert t| a ^it 9t hit academical pajj^r^ 

Vot. VI. Q 

194 B O U G E A NT. 

after finishing bis course of philosophy, be taught Latin at 
Caen, and afterwards rhetoric at Nevers. From that time 
be remained principally in the college of Louis le Grand 
at Paris, until his deaths Jan. 7, 1743, employing himself 
in writing. Besides the part which be took for many years 
in the " Memoires de Trevoux," he wrote : 1. " Anacreon 
and Sappho,*' dialogues in Greek verse, Caen, 1712, 8vo. 
2. ^^ Recueil d* observations physiques tiroes des meilleurd 
ecrivains," Paris, 1719, 12mo, to which were added two 
more volumes, 1726 and 1750, by Grozelier. 3. *^ Histoire 
des guerres et des negociations qui precedereqt le trait6 
de Westphalie sous le regne de Louis XIIL &q.'* 1727, 
4to, and 2 vols. 12mo, taken from the Memoirs of count 
d'Avaux, the French ambassador. This history still en- 
joys high reputation in France. 4. ** Exposition de la 
Doctrine Chretienne par demandes et par reponses,'* 1741, 
4to, and some other theological tracts that are now for- 
gotten. 5. " Histoire du traits de Westphalie,'* 2 vols. 4to, 
and 4 vols. 12mo, a superior work to that mentioned before, 
and highly praised by all French historians. It did not 
appear until after his death, in 1744. Besides these be 
wrote several pieces of a lighter kind, as an ingenious 
romance, entitled "Voyage Merveilleux du prince Fan- 
Feredin dans la Romancie, &c." 1735, 12mo ; ** Amuse- 
ment philosophique sur leLangagedes Betes,''1739,12mo, 
which, being censured for its satire, the author was ba- 
nished for sonie time to la Fleche, and endeavoured to de- 
fend himself in a letter to the abb6 Savaletta. He wrote 
also some comedies of very little merit, but his reputation 
chiefly rests on his historical works. * ' 

BOUGEREL (Joseph), a French biographer, descended 
from an honourable family in Provence, was a priest of 
the oratory, and born at Aix in 1680, where he was also 
educated. The love of a retired life induced him to be- 
come a member of the congregation of the oratory, wh^re 
be taught the belles lettres with fame and success, and 
filled the several posts of his profession with great credit. 
Happening to be at Marseilles during the plague in 1719 
and 1720, he risked his life in administering relief to the 
diseased. He appears to have been in that city also in 
1726, but sotoe time after came to Paris, where he passed 
his life in the house belonging to his order, in high esteem 

• - * Mweri.— Diet, Hist. 

> U G E R E L. 195 

tfrith all who knew him. iHe died of a stroke of apoplexy^ 
March 19, 1753. Just before his death he had prepared 
for the press his lives of the illustrious men of Provence, 
which was to have formed four volumes 4to, and was to 
be published by subscription, but we do not find that the 
scheme was carried into execution by his friends. During 
his life he published in the literary journals, various me- 
moirs of eminent men, and, in separate publications, the 
Life of Gassendi, Paris^ 1737, of John Peter Gibert, ibid* 
1737, I2mo; and apart of his great work, under the title 
of " Memoires pour servir a Thistoire des hommes illustres 
de Provence," ibid. 1752, 12mo, containing fourteen lives.* 
BOUGUER (Peter), a celebrated French mathema- 
tician, was born at Croisic, in' Lower Bretagne^ the 10th 
of February 1698. He was the son of John Bouguer, 
professor royal of hydrography, a tolerable good mathe«» 
matician, and author of " A complete Treatise on Naviga-*- 
tion." Young Bouguer was accustomed to learn mathe^' 
matics from his father, from the time he was able to speak, 
and thus became a very early proficient in those sciences. 
He was sent soon after to the Jesuits' college at Vanncs, 
where he had the honour to instruct his regent in the ma« 
tbematics, at eleven years of age. Two years after this he 
had a public contest with a professor of mathematics, upoa 
a proposition which the latter had advanced erroneously; 
and he triumphed over him ; upon which the professor, 
unable to bear the disgrace, left -the country. Two years 
after this, when young Bouguer had not yet finished bis 
studies, he lost his father, whom he was appointed to suc- 
ceed in his office of hydrogra|)her, after a public examina- 
tion of his qualifications, being then only fifteen years of 
age ; an occupation which he discharged with great respect 
and dignity at that early age. 

In 1727, at the age of twenty-nine, he obtained the 
prize proposed by the academy of sciences, for the best 
way of masting of ships. This ftrst success of Bouguer was 
soon after followed by two others of the same kind ; he 
successively gained the prizes of 1729 and 1731 ; the for^^ 
mer, for the best manner of observing at sea the height of 
the stars, and thp latter, for the most advantageous way of 
observing the declination of the magnetic needle, or the 
tariation of the compass. In 1729, he gave an ^* Optical 

A Moreri. 
Q 2 

196 B O U G U.E R. 

Essay upon the Gradation of Light ;'' a subject quite netr^ 
in which he examined the intensity of light, and deter* 
mined its degrees of diminution in passing through dif- 
ferent pellucid mediums, and particularly that of the sun 
in traversing the earth's atmosphere. Mairan gave an ex- 
tract of this first essay in the Journal des Savans, in 173X), 
In this same year, 1730, he was removed from the port 
of Croisic to that of Havre, which brought him into a 
nearer connection with the academy of sciences, in which 
he obtained, in 1731, the place of associate geometrician, 
vacant by the promotion of Maupertuis to that of pen- 
sioner; and in 1735 he was promoted to the office of 
pensioner*astronomer. The same year he was sent on the 
commission to South America, along with messieurs Godin, 
Condamine, and Jeussieu, to determine the measure of 
the degrees of the meridian, and the figure of the earth. 
In this painful and troublesome business, of ten years du* 
ration, chiefly among the lofty CordeFier mountains, our 
author determined many other new circumstances, beside 
the main object of the voyage ; such as the expansion an4 
contraction of metals and other substances, by the sudden 
and alternate changes of heat and cold among those moun- 
tains ; observations on the refraction of the atmosphere 
from the tops of the same, with the singular phenomenon 
of the sudden increase of the refraction, when the star can 
be observed below the line of the level ; the laws of the 
density of the air at different heights, from observations 
made at different points of these enormous mountains ; a 
determination that the mountains have an effect upon a 
plummet, though he did not assign the exact quantity of 
it; a method of estimating the errors committed by navi- 
gators in determining their route; a. new construction of 
th^ log for measuring a ship's way ; with several other 
useful improvements. Other inventions of Bouguer, mad# 
upon different occasions, were as follow : the helibmeter, 
being a telescope with two object-glasses, affording a good 
method of measuring the diameters of the larger planets 
with ease and exactness : his researches on the figure i|i 
which two lines or two long ranges of parallel trees j^p- 
pear : his experiments on the famous reciprocation of the 
pendulum: and those upon the manner of measuring, the 
force of the light : &c. &c. 

The close application which Bpuguer gave jbo study, 
undermined his health, and terminated his life the I5ik of 

B O U G U E R. 197 

August 1758, at 60 years of age.— His chief works, that 
have been published, are, 1^ " The Figure of the Earth, 
determined bv the observations made in South America/' 
1749, in 4to. 2. "Treatise on Navigation and Pilotage," 
Paris, 1752, in 4to. This work was abridged by M. La 
Caille, in 1 vol. 1768, 8vo, and was reprinted in 1769 and 
1781, and in 1792 with th6 notes of Lalande. 3. "Trea- 
tise on Ships, their construction and motions,*' 1756, 4to. 
4. " Optical treatise on the Gradation of Light," first in 
'1729 ; then a new edition in 1760, in 4to. 

His papers that were inserted in the Memoirs of the 
Academy, are very numerous and important. They ap- 
pear in their volumes from 1726 to 1757. 
* In his earlier years, Mr. Bouguer had lived in a state of 
seclusion from general intercourse with the world, and he 
had thus acquired a cast of temper, which marked his cha« 
racter in more advanced life. Although he was universally 
acknowledged to possess superior talents, and to be distin- 
guished by an assiduity and zeal, no less successful than 
indefatigable, in various departments of useful science, he 
' indulged a degree of suspicion and jealousy, with regard 
to his reputation, which disgusted some of those with whom 
he was under a necessity of associating, and which dis- 
quieted his own mind. Fully sensible of the importance 
and utility of his own performances, he was apt to con- 
sider others, who were engaged in similar pursuits, as com- 
petitors with himself, and to grudge them the reputation 
vhich they justly Acquired, from an apprehension that hid 
own credit would be thus diminished. Hence arose his 
disputes with La Condamine, one of the companions of his 
voyage, and associate in his labours in America ; and the 
mortification he experienced from the public sufJPrage that 
seemed to have been bestowed on that academician. His 
character in other respects was distinguished for modesty 
and simplicity. The truths of religion were instilled into - 
him along with the first principles of geometry, and had 
made «uch an impression upon his mind, as to regulate and 
adorn his moral conduct. On his death-bed he cherished 
the same ViCws which had thus guided him through life, 
and he closed his career with philosophical fortitude, and 
with a piety and resignation truly Christian. — In the year 
1784, a very singular book was published at Paris, eii^ 
titled " Relation de la conversion et de mprt de Bou«- 
guer," by P. La Berthonie. His piety naturally offended 

199 B O U G U E R. 


Lalande, who, iu noticing this book, ascribes his piety tn 
fear ; this was a common opinion with the French deists, 
and had very pernicious influence on the minds of theif 
disciples. Lalande, however, if our information- be^ no^ 
incorrect, lived to experience the fear he once ridiculed.* 
BOUHIER (John), president ^ mortier of the parlia- 
jnent of Dijon, and a menyber of the French" academy, was 
born March 16, 1673. He began his studies under the 
direction of his father (who was also president a mortier of 
the same parliament) at the Jesuits' college of Dijon, and 
finished them in 1633 with great approbation. Being as 
y«t too young for the law schools, he studied the elements 
pf that science in private, and perfected himself at the 
same time in the Greek language. He also learned Ita- 
lian, Spanish^ and acquired some knowledge of the He<r 
brew. After two years thus usefully employed^ he went 
through a course of law at Paris and Orleans ; and in 1 692 
be became counsellor of the parliament of Dijon. In J 7^4 
he was appointed president, the duties of which office, he 
executed until 1727, and with an assiduity and ability not 
very common. In this latter year he was elected into the 
^cademy, on the condition th^t he would quit Dijon and 
settle at Paris, to which condition he acceded, but was 
unable to perfprm his promise, for want of health. Though 
remote, however, frcun the capital, he could not remain in 
pbscurity ; but from the variety and extent of his learning, 
}ie was courted and consulted by the lit^r^ti throughout 
Europe : and many learned men, who %ad availed tbeiki«!' 
pelves of his advice, dedicat^ed their works to him. A^ 
length, his constitution being worn out with repeated at? 
tacks of the gout, be died March 17, 1746. A friend ap* 
preaching his bed, within an hour of bis death, found him 
in a seemingly profound meditation. He made a sign tha^ 
be wished not to be disturbed, and with difEculty pro- 
nounced the words J^epie la mort-^^^ 1 am watching death.^' 
Notwithstanding his business and high reputation as a 
lawyer, he contrived to employ much of his time in the 
cultivation of polite literature, and wrot:e many papers ou 
pritical and classical subjjscts in the literary journals. Se^ 
parately be published, 1. A poetical translation, not iur 
Kplegant, but somewhat careless, of Petronius on the CivU 
» ,' 

1 Hutton's Mathematical Diet.— Rees'f Cyclopaidia.— •Brewster^s £diiib«r||1| 
]SncyclopecUa.7-Dict. Hist. 

B O U H I E R. 199 



War between Cse^r and Pompey, with two epistles of 
Ovid, &c. Amst 1737, 4to. Alluding to the negligence 
which sometimes appears in his poetry, his wife, a very 
ingenious lady, used to say, *^ Confine yourself to think- 
ing, and let tne write." 2. " Remarques sur les Tuscu- 
'lanes de Ciceron, avec une dissertation sur Sardanapale, 
dernier roi d'Asyrie," Paris, 1737, 12mo. 3. " Des Let-^ 
tres sur les Therapeutes," 1712. 4. '* Dissertations sur 
Herodote," with memoirs of the life of Bouhier, 1746, Di-» 
jon, 4ta 5. << Dissertation sur le grand pontificat des 
empereurs Romains," 1742, 4to. 6. *^ E^icplications de 
quelqutes marbres antiques," in the collection of M. Le 
Bret, 1733, 4to. 7. ^' Observations sur la Coutume de 
Bourgogne," Dijon, 2 vols. fol. A complete edition of 
his law works was published in 1787, fol. by M. de Bevy» 
He wrote a very learned dissertation on the origin of the 
Greek and Latin letters, which is printed in Montfaucon^d 
Palaeography, Paris, 1708, p. 553 ; and his <* Remarques 
sur Ciceron" were reprinted at Paris in 1746. * 

BOUHOURS (Dominick), a celebrated French critic, 
was born at Paris in 1628 ; and has by some been consi- 
dered as a proper person to succeed Malherbe, who died 
about that time. He entered into the society of Jesuits at 
sixteen, and was appointed to read lectures upon polite 
literature .in the college of Clermont at Paris, where he 
had studied ; but he was so incessantly attacked with the 
faead-acb, that he could not pursue the destined task. He 
{afterwards undertook the education of two sons of the duke 
of Longueville, which he discharged to the entire satisfac- 
tion of the duke, who had such a regard for him, that he 
would need^ die in his arms ; and the ^^ Account of the 
pious and Christian death" of- this great personage was the 
first work which Bouhours gave the public* He was sent 
to Dunkirk to the popish refugees from England ; and, in 
the piidst of his missionary occupations, found time to 
compose and publish many works of reputation. Among 
these were ** Entretiens d'Ariste & d'Eugene," a work of 
a critical nature, which was printed no less than five times 
at Paris, twice at Grenoble, at Lyons, at Brussels, at Am-s ' 
9terdam, at Leyden, &c. and embroiled him with a great 
number of critics, and with Menage in particular ; who,; 
hpwever, lived io. friendship with our author before and 

) Morerk— Diet Hist.— Saxu Onomasticoi).— Hontb. Rer. LXXX. 

«00 B O U H O U R S. 


after. There is a passage in this work which gave great 
offence in Germany, where he makes it a question, 
** Whether it be possible that a German could be a wit ?" 
The fame of it, however/ and the pleasure he took in read- 
ing it, recommended Bouhours so effectually to the cele- 
brated minister Colbert, that he trusted him with the edu- 
cation of his son, the marquis of Segnelai. The Remarks 
and Doubts upon the French language has been reckoned 
one of the most considerable of our author^s works ; and 
may be read with great advantage by those who would per- 
fect themselves in that tongue. Menage, in his Observa- 
tions upon the French language, has given his approbation 
of it in the following passage : " The book of Doubts,** 
says he, ^^ is written with great elegance, and contains 
many fine observations. And, as Aristotle has said, that 
reasonable doubt is the beginning of all real knowledge ; so 
we may say also, that the man who doubts so reasonably 
as the author of this book, is himself very capable of de- 
ciding. For this reason perhaps it is, that, forgetting the 
title of his work, he decides oftener than at first he pro- 
posed." Bojjihours was the author of another work, " The 
art of pleasing in conversation,*' of which M. de la Grose, 
who wrote the eleventh volume of the Bibliotheque Uni- 
verselle, has given an account, which he begins with this 
elogium upon the author: " A very little skill,*' says be, 
** in style and manner, will enable a reader to discover the 
author of this work. He will see at once the nice, the 
ingenious, and delicate turn, the elegance and politeness 
of father Bouhours. Add to this, the manner of writing in 
dialogue, the custom of quoting himself, the collecting 
strokes of wit, the little agreeable relations interspersed, 
and a certain mixture of gallantry and morality which is 
altogether peculiar to this Jesuit. This work is inferior to 
nothing we have seen of father Bouhours. He treats in 
twenty dialogues, with an air of gaiety, of every thing 
which can find a way into conversation ; and, though he 
avoids being systematical, yet he gives his readfer to under^ 
stand, that there is no subject whatever, either of divinity, 
philosophy, law, or phasic, &c. but may be introduced 
into conversation, provided it be done with ease, polite- 
ness, and in a manner free from pedantry and affectation.** 
He died at Paris, in the college of Clermont, upon the 
27th of May 1702; after a life spent, says Moreri, under 
such constant and violent fits of the head-ach, that he bad 

B O U H O U R S. 201 

but few intervals of perfect ease. The following is a list 
of his works with their dates : 1. ** Les Entretiens d^Ariste 
et d'Eugene," 1671, 12mo. 2. " Remarques et Doutes 
Bur ia iangue Fran^iise," S vols. 12mo. 3. ** La Manier 
de bien penser sur les ouvrages d' esprit/' Paris, 1692,, 
12mo. 4. ^' Pens^es ingenieuses ded aii/ciens et des mo- 
dernes," Paris, 1691, 12mo. In. this work he mentions 
Boileau, whom he had omitted in the preceding; but when 
be expected Boileau would acknowledge the favour, he 
coolly replied, *' You have, it is true, introduced me in your 
new work, but in very bad company,'* alluding to the fre- 
quent mention of -some Italian and French versifiers whom 
Boileau despised. 5. " Pens^es ingenieuses des Peres de 
I'Eglise,** Paris, 1700. This he is said to have written as 
an answer to the objection that he employed too much of 
bis time on profane literature. 6. '* Histoire du grand- 
maitre d'Aubusson," 1676, 4to, 1679, and lately in 1780. 
7. The lives of St. Ignatius, Paris,- 1756, l2mo, and of 
St. Francis Xavier, 1682, 4to, or 2 vols. 12mo. Both these 
are written with rather more judgment than the same lives 
by Ribadeneira, but are yet replete with the miraculou3 
and the fabulous. The life of Xavier was translated by 
Dryden, and published at London in 168S, with a dedica- 
tion to king James II.'s queen. Dryden, says Mr. Malone, 
doubtless undertook this task, in consequence of the queen, 
when she solicited a son, having recommended herself to 
Xavier as her patron saint. 8, ** Le Nouveau Testament," 
translated into French from the Vulgate, 2 vols. 1697 — ^ 
1703, .12mo.' 


BOUILLE' (Mauquis de), a French nobleman, and 
officer of bravery and honour, was a native of Auvergne, 
and a relative of the marquis La Fayette. After having 
served in the dragoons, he became colonel of the regiment 
of Vexin infantry. Having attained the rank of major- 
general, the king appointed him governor-general of the 
Windward islands. In 1778 he took possession of Domi- 
nica, St. Eustatia, and soon after St. Christopher's, Nevis, 
and Montserrat. His conduct while in that command wa» 
allowed by the English commanders to be honourable and 
disinterested. On his return, he was made lieutenant- 
general. On the breaking out of the revolution in 1789, 

1 Baill«t Jogemens des SaTaDB.«-Moreri.— iDict. Hist,— Saicii OnoDast. 

SM B O U I L L E; 

finding that he oommanded in the three bishoprics, he 
brought back to its duty the revolted garrison of Metz, and 
on that occasion saved the life of M. He Pont, intendant of 
the province. He afterwards caused Francois de Neuf- 
chateau, and two other electors, arrested by order of the 
king's attorney, to be set at liberty. On the 5th of Sep- 
tember the same year, the national assembly was informed 
by one of its members, Gregoire, that M. de Bouille bad 
^ot administered the civic oath individually, and a decree 
was passed obliging him to do so, la 1790, he was com* 
jyiissioned to bring under subjection the garrison of Nancy, 
which had risen against itd chiefs ; accordingly he advanced 
upon the town with four thousand men, and succeeded in 
this enterprize, in which be shewed much bravery, and 
virhich at first gained him great praises from the natipnal 
assembly, and afterwards as many reproaches. Being 
chosen by the unfortunate Louis XVI. to facilitate his 
escape from Paris in June 1791^ he marched at the head 
of a body of troops to protect the passage of the royal 
family ; but this design failed from reasons now well known, 
^nd which he has faithfully detailed in bis memoirs : and 
the marquis himself had some difficulty in making bis es- 
cape. From Luxembourg he wrote his memorable letter 
to the assembly, threatening, that if a hair of the king's 
bead were touched, he would not leave one stone upon 
another in Paris. This served only to irritate the revolu- 
tionists, who decreed that he should be tried for contumacy; 
but he was fortunately out of their reach. From Vienna 
whither he had at first gone, hQ passed to the court of 
Sweden, where he was favourably received by Gustavus IIL 
but.after his death, M. de Bouille found it necessary to 
retire to England^ where he passed the remainder of his 
days in security, and much esteemed for his fidelity to his 
sovereign. He died in London Nov. 14, 1800. In 1797 
be published in English, *^ Memoirs relating to the French 
Revolution,^' 8vo ; one of those works of which future his^ 
torians may avail themselves in appreciating the characters 
and events connected with that important period of French 
history* ^ 

BOUILLET (John), a French medical writer, was born 
at Servian, in the diocese ofBeziers, May 14, 1690, and 
<;reat^d doctor in medicine, at Montpellier, in 1717. En-. 

< Biog. Mod«riie.«*Dict.<-*Hi8t. botb enoneone in the time of bii dMth« 


joying, during the course of a long life, a considerable por^ 
jtion of reputation, he was, in succession, made professor ia 
inathematics, and secretary to the academy at Beziers^ 
member of the royal society at Montpellier, and corre^ 
sponding member of the academy of 'sciences at Paris. He 
was also author of several ingenious dissertations : ^^ On 
^he properties of Rbnbarb/' published at Beziers,, 1717, 
4to, probably his '' Inaugural Thesis.'^ ** Sur la cause de 
la Pesaateur,^ 1720, 12mo, which obtained for him a prize 
from the academy at Bourdeaux ; ^* Avis et remedes, con- 
tre la Peste,*' Beziers, 1721, dvo. ^^On Asthma and on 
the Gout," in wh^ch complaints he recommends the Venice 
so^ as a powerful auxiliary ; ^^ Sur la maniere de traiter 
]a Petite Verole,'* Beziers, 1736, 4to; and some years 
after, ^' On the best method of preserving the district of 
Beziers from that disease ;" ^^ Recueil des lettres, etautres 
pieces pour servir k Thistoire de Pacademie de Beziers," 
1736, 4to, with several other publications. He died in 
]L770, leaving a son, Henry Nicholas Bouillet, who was 
made doctor in medicine at Montpellier, and member of 
^he academy of Beziers. He published, in 1759, in 4t0) 
^' Observations sur I'anasarque, le hydropesielS^ de poitrine, 
des pericarde, &c." * 

BOULAI (CiESAR Egasse de), the historian of the uni- 
versity of Paris, was born at St. EUier or Helier, and be- 
came professor of rhetoric in the college of Navarre, and 
afterwards register, historiographer, and rector of the uni- 
versity of Paris, where he died Oct. 1 6, 1678. Of all his 
works, his history of the university of Paris, ^* Historia 
Universitatis Parisiensis,^' 6 vols. 1665-«-1673, foL contri- 
buted most to his fame. The publication of this vast un- 
dertaking was at first interrupted by some objections from 
the theological faculty of Paris, who carried their remon- 
strances to the king; but the commissic>ners, whom his 
majesty etnployed to inspect the work, having reported 
^hat they saw no reason why it should not be continued, he 
proceeded to its completion, and in 1667 published an an- 
swer to their objections, entitled << Notse ad censuram.'' 
Not entirely satisfied with this triumph, he also published 
j^ poetical satire against them, with the title of '' Ad Zoilo- 
sycophantam, sive Bulseistarum obtrectatorem," a work of 
ppQsiderable spirit and elegance of style. His history h 

^ IHct. Hist. —Reel's Cyclopedia. 

204 B O U L A L 

an useful repository of facts and lives of learned men con« 
nected with the revival of literature, and especially the pro- 
gress of learning in that eminent university, and is blame* 
able only for the fabulous accounts, in which our awn uni- 
versity-historians have not been wanting, respecting the 
early history of schools of learning. Boulai^s other writ- 
ings are, 1. "Tresor des antiquit^s Romaines," Paris, 
1650, fol. 2. " Speculum eloquentiae/' ibid. 1658, 12mo. 
3. " De Patronis quatuor nationum universitatis Parisi-. 
ensis,'* Paris, 1662, 8vo. 4. " Remarques sur la diguit^^ 
rang, preseance, autorit6, et jurisdiction du recteur de I'uni* 
versit6 de Paris," ibid. 1668, 4to. 5. " Recueil des Pri- 
vileges de r University de Paris accord6s par les rois de' 
France depuis sa fondation, &c." ibid. 1674, 4to. 6. 
** Fondation de I'universit^, &c." 1675, 4to. Boulai was 
frequently involved in disputes with the members of the 
university respecting the election of officers, &'c. which 
occasioned the publication of many papers on these sub-« 
jects, which, if we may judge from his extensive labours, 
he must have understood very accurately ; and from these 
disputes, and the general bent of his researches, he ap^ 
pears to have very closely resembled the celebrated histo-^ 
rian of the university of Oxford. * 

BOULAINVILLIERS (Henry de), comte de St. Saire, 
where he was born October 21, 1658, of a noble and au^ 
cient family, was educated at Jiiilli, by the fathers of the 
oratory, and gave proofs of genius and abilities from hit 
childhood. His chief study was histoi*y, which he after* 
wards cultivated assiduously. He died January 28, 1722, 
at Paris, having been twice married, and left only daugh- 
ters. He was author of a History of the Arabians, and 
Mahomet, 12mo, '^ Memoires sur Tancien Governement de 
France ; ou 14 lettres sur les anciens Parlemens de 
France," 3 vols, 12mo; ^* Histoire de France jusqu'a 
Charles VIII." 3 vols. l2mo; and "I'Etatde la Francp,"' 
6 vols. 12mo, in the Dutch edition, and eight in the edi-. 
tion of Trevoux, " Memoire pr&entS a M. le due d'Or- 
leans, sur T Administration des Finances," 2 vols. 12mo ; 
*^ Histoire de la Pairie de France," 12mo ; V Dissertations 
sur la Noblesse de France," 12mo. All his writings on 
the French history have been collected in 3 vols. fol. They 
are not \Vritten (says M. de Montesquieu) with all the free^ 

I Moreri. — Geo. Diet— »SailIet Jii|;emtiisde SftTaiif.^Saxii Oooma^U 


dom and simplicity of the ancient nobility, from which he 
descended. M. Boulainvilliers left some other works in 
MS. known to the learned, who have, with great reason^ 
been astonished to find, that he expresses in them his 
doubts of the most incontestable dogmas of religion, while 
he blindly gives credit to the reveries of judicial astrology ; 
an inconsistency common to many other infidels. Mosheim 
informs us that Boulainvilliers was such an admirer of the 
pernicious opinions of Spinosa, that he formed the design 
of expounding i^nd illustrating it, as is done with respect to 
the doctrines of the gospel in books of piety, accommo- 
dated to ordinary capacities. This design he actually exe- 
cuted, but in such a manner as to set the atheism and im-> 
piety of Spinosa in a clearer light than they had ever ap- 
peared before. The work was published by Lenglet da 
Fresnoy, who, that it might be bought with avidity, and 
read without suspicion, called it a Refutation of the Errors of 
Spinosa, artfully adding some separate pieces, to which this 
title may, in some measure, he thought applicable. The 
whole title runs, " Refutation des Erreurs de Benoit de 
Spinosa, par M. de Fenelou, archeveque de Cambray, par 
le Pere Lauri Benedictiu, et par M. Le Comte de Boulain- 
villiers, avec la Vie de Spinosa, ecrite par Jean Colerus, 
minister de TEglise Lutherienne de la Haye, augment^e 
de beaucoup de particularites tiroes d'une vie manuscrite 
de ce philpsopbe, fait par un de ses amis,'* (Lucas, the 
atheistical physician), Brussels|, 1731, 12mo. The ac* 
Qount and defence of Spinosa, given by Boulainvilliers, 
under the pretence of a refutation, take up the greatest 
part of this book, and are placed first, and not last in or- 
der, as the title would insinuate ; and the volume concludes 
with what is not in the title, a defence of Spinosa by Bre- 
denburg, and a refutation of that defence by Orobio, a 
Jew of Amsterdam. — It remains to be noticed, • that his 
Life of Mahomet, which he did not live to complete, was 
published at London and Amsterdam, in 1730, 8vo ; and 
about the same time an English translation of it appeared. 
His letters, also, on the French parliaments, were translated 
and published at London, 17S9, 2 vols. 8vo. ^ 

BOULANGER (Nicholas Anthony), one of the earliest 
French infidels, who assumed the name of philosophers 
W9S born at^ Paris in 1722, and died there in 1759, aged 

1 MQi»ri,^Dict. Hist^-oMosheim'i Eccl. Hiit.--SaicU Onomait, 

»06 B O U L A N G E R, 

only thirty-seven. Dtiring his education, he is said ta 
have come out of the college of Bea^vais aiinost as ignorant 
a< he went in ; butj struggling hard against his inaptitude 
to study, he at length overcame it. At seventeen yes^rs of 
age he began to apply himself to mathematics and archi-^ 
tecture ; and, in three or four years made such progress 
as to be useful to the ba^on of Thiere, whom he accom- 
panied to the army in quality of engineer. Afterwards he 
had the supervision of the highways and bridges, and exe- 
cuted several public works in Champagne, Burgtindy, and 
LoiTain. In cutting through mountains, directing and 
changing the courses of rivers, and in breaking up and 
turning over the strata of the earth, he saw a multitude of 
diQerent substances, whieh (he thought) evinced the great 
antiquity of it, and a long series of revolutions which it 
must have undergone. From the revolutions in the globe, 
he passed to the changes that must have happened in the 
manners of men, in societies, in governments, in religion ; 
and formed many conjectures upon all these. To be far- 
ther satisfied, he wanted to know what, in the history of 
ages, had been said upon these particulars ; and, that he 
might be informed from the fountain-^head, he learned 
first Latin, and then Greek. Not yet content, he plunged 
into Hebrew, Syriac, Chaldaic, and Arabic: and from 
these studies accumulated a vast mass of singular and pa^ 
tadoxical opinions which he conveyed to the public in the 
following works: l.**Trait6 duDespotisme Oriental,'* 2 
vols; 12mo, 2. ** L'antiquit6 d6voil6, par ses usages,*' 5 
vols. 12mo. This was posthumous. 3. Another work, en- 
titled ^* Le Christianisme d^masqu^,'' 8vo, is attributed 
to him, but it is not certain that he was the author of it* 
4. He furnished to the Encyclopedie the articles D6iuge> 
Corvee, and Soci6t6. 5^ A dissertation on Elii^a and 
Enoch. 6. He left behind him in MS. a dictionary, which 
may be regarded as a concordance in antient and modern 
languages. Voltaire, theharon D'Holbach, and other dis- 
seminators of infidelity, made much use of Boulanger'st 
works, and more of his name, which, it is supposed, they 
prefixed to some of their own compositions. Barruel gived 
some reason for thinking that Boulanger retracted hi« 
opinions before his death. His name, however, still re- 
mained of consequence to the party ; and as late as 179], 
an edition of his works, entitled the Philosophical Li« 


braiy, was published at the philosophic press in Swisitor- 
land. ' 

BOULANGER (John), an engraver, who flourished 
about the year 1657, was a native of France. His first 
manner of engtavlng was partly copied from that of Francis 
de Poilly ; but he afterwards adopted a manner of his own, 
which, though not original, he greatly ifnpix>ved ; and, 
accordingly, he finished the faces, hands, and all the naked 
parts of his figures very neatly with dots, instead of strokes^ 
or strokes and dots. This style of engraving has been of 
'late carried to a high degree of perfection, particularly in 
England. Notwithstanding several defects in the naked 
parts of his figures, and in his draperies, his best prints 
are deservedly much esteemed. Such are " A Holy Fa- 
mily,'* from Fran. Corlebet ; " Virgin and Child," firom 
Simon Vouet; "The Pompous Cavalcade,'* upon Lpui$ 
the XlVth coming of age, from Chativeau ; ** The Virgin 
with the infant Christ," holding some pinks, and therefore 
called " The Virgin of the Pinks," from Raphael ; " The 
Virgin de Passau," from Salario ;" *' Christ carrying his 
Cross," from Nicolas Mignard ; " A dead Christ, sup- 
ported by Joseph of Arimathea." He also engraved many 
portraits, and, among others, that of Charles H. of Eng* 
land. He likewise engraved from Leonardo de Vinci, 
Cuido, Champagne, Stella, Coypel, and other great mas- 
ters, as well as from his own designs. 

There was another John Boulanger, a painter, who 
was bom in 1606, and died in 1660. Mr. Fuseli informs 
us that be was a pupil of Guido, became painter to the 
court of Modena, and master of a school of art in that 
city. What remains of his delicate pencil in the ducal 
palace, proves the felicity of his invention, the vivid har- 
mony of his colour, and in the attitudes a spirit bordering 
/on enthusiasm. Such is the Sacrifice (if it be his, as fame 
asserts) of Iphigenia ; though the person of Agamemnon is 
veiled in a manner too whimsical to be admitted in a heroic 
subject. Of his scholars, Tomaso Costa of Sassuolo, and 
Sigismondo Caula a Modenese, excelled the rest Costa, 
a vigorous colourist, laid his hand indiscriminately on 
every subject of art, greatly employed at Reggio, his usual 
residence^ and much at Modena, where jie painted the 


iO« B O U L A N G E R. 

cupola of S. Vicenzo. Caula left his home only to. improve 
himself at Venice, and returned with a copious and well* 
toned style; but sunk to a more languid one as ^e advanced 
in life. * 

BOULLONGNE (Louis de), the elder, painter to the 
king, and professor in the French academy, was born at 
Paris in 1609, and was principally distinguished for his 
ability in copying the works of the most famous ancient 
painters, which he did with astonishing fidelity. Taqre 
are also in the church of Notre Dame at Paris three pic- 
tures of his own of considerable merit. He died at Paris 
in 1674, leaving the two following sons : 

BOULLONGNE (Bon de), eldest son of the preceding, 
was born at Paris in 1649, and acquired the principles of 
painting from his father, whom he resembled in bis talent 
of imitating the works of the greatest masters. After a re- 
sidence of five years in Italy, he was admitted into the 
academy, of which he became a professor, and employed 
by Louis XIV. at Versailles and Trianon. He excelled in. 
history and portrait; his designs were accurate, and his 
colouring good. Besides his paintings in fresco, in two 
of the chapels of the Invalids, he painted several pieces 
for the churches and public buildings of Paris, several of 
which have been engraved. We have also three etchings 
done by him, from his own compositions, viz. a species of 
" Almanack ;" " St. John in the Des;ert ;" and " St. Bruno 
in a landscape;" its companion. He died at Paris in 
1717. His brother Louis de Boullongne the younger, 
was born at Paris in 1654, and educated under his father, 
by whose instruction he made such improvement, that he 
obtained the prize of the academy at 18. His studies were 
completed at Rome, where he particularly studied the works 
of Raphael, and from his copies which were sent home, th,e 
Gobelin tapestries were executed. After his return he was 
received into the academy in 1680 ; and his works in the 
churches of Notre Dame and the Invalids, and particularly 
his frescos in the chapel of St. Augustin, were so much 
esteemed, that Louis XIV. honoured him with his special 
patronage, allowing him a considerable pension ; confer- 
ring upon him the order of St. Michael ; choosing him de- 
signer of medals to the academy of inscriptions, after the 
death of Anthoby Coypel ; appointing him his principal 

i Strutt and PUkkigtom 


painter, and etinobting him and all his descendants. The 
acadeipy of painting also chose him first for its rector, and 
afterwards director, which place he occupied till his death. 
He chiefly excelled in historical and allegorical subjects* 
From his performances it appeared, that he had carefully 
studied the most eminent masters; his colouring was 
strong, his composition was in a good style, the airs of his 
heads had expression and character, and his figures were 
correctly designed. His regular attendance at the aca- 
demy, and his advice to the students, commanded respect : 
and the general mildness and affability of his disposition 
engaged esteem among those who knew him. He raised a 
considerable fortune by his profession, and died in 1734* 
Two sisters of this family, ** Genevieve" and " Magdalen,'* 
painted well, and were members of the royal academy in 
1669. * 

BOULTER (Hugh), D. D. archbishop of Armagh, pri- 
mate and metropolitan of all Ireland, was born in or near 
London, Jan. 4, 1671, of a reputable and opulent family, 
received his first rudiments] of learning at Merchant-Tay- 
lor's school, and was admitted from thence a commoner of 
Christ-church, Oxford, some time before the Revolution. 
His merit became so conspicuous there, that immediately 
after that great event, he was elected a demi of Magdalen- 
college, with the celebrated Mr. Addison, and Dr. Joseph 
Wilcox, afterwards biskop of Rochester and dean of West- 
minster, from whose merit and learning Dr. Hough, who was 
then restored to the presidentship of that college (from which 
he had been unwarrantably ejected in the reign of king James 
IL) used to call this election by the name of the golden 
election^ and the same respectful appellation was long after 
made use of in common converjfation in the college*. 
Mr. Boulter was afterwards made fellow of Magdalen-col- 
lege. He continued in the university till he was called to 
London, by the invitation of sir Charles Hedges, principal 
Jiecretary' of state in 1700, who made him his chaplain; 

' * i>r. Welsted, a physician, was also The primata maintained a son of the 

of this goldea election, and when he doctor's, as a commoner, at Hart-hall 

became poor in the latter part of his in Oxford ; and would effectually- have 

life, the archbishop, though he was no provided for him, if the young gentie- 

relation, gave him, at the least, two man had not died before he had taken 

hundred pounds a year, till his death, a degree. Dr. Weisled was one of the 

Nor did his grace's kindness to the editors of the * Oxford Pindar, and 

doctor's family end with bis decease, esteemed an excellent Qreek schol^, 

1 Pilkington.-~StrMtt.— *Abreg4 des Vies des Peintres, voL IV. 

Vol. VI. P 


and some tii&e after he was preferred to the same bonots? 
by Dr. Thomas Tenison, archbishop of Canterbury. In 
these stations he was under a necessity <^( appearing often 
at court, where his merit obtained him the patronage of 
Charles Spencer, earl of Sunderland, principal secretary 
of state, by whose interest he was advanced to the rectory 
of St. Olave in Southwark, and to the archdeaconry of 
Surrey. The parish of St. Olave was very populous, and 
for the most part poor, and required such a liberal and vi- 
gilant pastor as Dr. Boulter, who relieved their wants, 
and gave them instruction, correction, and reproof. When 
king George I. passed ovev to Hanover in 1719, Dr. Boul- 
ter was recommended to attend him in quality of his chapr 
lain, and also was appointed tutor to prince Frederic, to 
instruct him in the English tongue ; and for that purpose 
drew up for his use "A set of Instructions." This so re- 
commended him to the king, that during his abode at 
Hanover, the bishopric of Bristol, and deanery of Christ- - 
church, Oxford, becoming vacant, the king granted to 
him that see and deanery, and he was consecrated bishop 
of Bristol, on the fifteenth of November, 1719. In this 
last station he was more than ordinarily assiduous in the 
visitation of his diocese, and the discharge of his pastoral 
duty ; and during one of these visitations, he received a 
letter by a messenger from the secretary of state, acquaint- 
ing him, that his majesty had nominated him to the arch- 
1>ishopric of Armagh, and primacy of Ireland, then vacant 
by the death of Dr. Thomas Lindsay, on the 13 th of July, 
1724, and desiring him to repair to London as soon as 
^possible, to kiss the king's hand for his promotion. After 
some consultation on this affair, to which he felt great re- 
pugnance, he sent an answer by the messenger, refusing 
the honour the king intended him, and requesting the se- 
cretary to use his good offices with his majesty, in making 
his excuse, but the messenger was dispatched back to him 
by the secretary, with the king's absolute commands that 
he should accept of the post, to which he ^bmitted, 
though not without some reluctance, and soon after ad- 
dressed himself to his journey to court. Ireland was at 
that juncture not a little inflamed, by the copper-coin 
project of one Wood, and it was thought by the king and 
ministry, that the judgment, moderation, and wisdom of 
the bishop of Bristol would tend much to allay the ferment. 
He arrived in Ireland on the third of November, 1724, 

BOULTER; ;?lt 

iftid had no sooner passed patent for the primiicy, than he 
appeared at all the public boards, and gave a weight and' 
rigour to them ; and, in every respect, was indefatigable 
in promoting the real happiness of the people. Among 
his other wise measures, in seasons of great scarcity in 
Ireland, he was more than once instrumental in averting a 
pestilence and famine^ which threatened the nation. When 
the scheme was set on foot for making a navigation, by a- 
canal to be drawn from Longh-Neagh to Newry, not only 
for bringing coal to Dublin, but to carry oh more effec- 
taally an inland trade in the several counties of the north 
of Ireland, he greatly encouraged and promoted, the de-* 
sign, not only with his counsel but his purse. Drogheda 
is a large and populous town within the diocese of Armagh^ 
and bis grace finding that the ecclesiastical appointments 
were not sufficient to support two clergymen there, and 
the cure over-burthensome for one effectually to discharge^ 
he allotted out of his own pocket a maintenance for a se- 
cond curate, whom he obliged to give public service every 
Sunday in the afternoon, and prayers twice every day; 
He had great compassion for the poor cUrgy of bis dio- 
cese^ who were disabled from giving their children a pro- 
pier education^ and maintained several of the sons of 
such in the university^ in order to qualify them for future 
preferment. He erected four houses at Drogheda for the 
reception of clergymen^s widows, and purchased an estate 
for the endowment of them, after the model of primate 
Marsh's charity i which be enlarged in one particular : for 
as the estate he purchased for the maintenance of the 
widows, amounted to twenty-four, pounds a year more than 
he had set apart for that usej he appointed that the surplus 
should be a fund for setting out the children of such 
widows apprentices, or otherwise to be disposed of for the 
benefit of such children^ as his trustees should think proper. 
He also by his will directed^ which has since been perr 
formed, that four houses should be built for rlergymen's 
widows at Armagh, and endowed with fifty pounds a year. 
During his life, he contracted for the building of a stately 
market-house at Armagh, which was finished by his ex^- 
cutors^ at upwards of eight hundred pounds expence. He 
was a benefactor also to Dr. Stevens's hospital in the city 
of Dublin^ erected for the maintenance and cure of the 
poor. His charities for augmenting small livings^ an4 
huymg of glebesy amounted to upwards of thirty thousand 

P2 ! 

^12 B O U L T £ H* 

pound?, besides what he devised by his will fbr the like 
purposes in England. Though the plan of the iucorpor' 
rated society for promoting English protestant working 
schools, cannot be imputed to primate Boulter, yet he 
was the chief instrument in forwarding the undertaking, 
which he lived to see carried into execution with consider* 
able success. His private charities were not less munifi- 
cent, but so secretly conducted, that it is impossible to 
give any particular account of them : it is affirmed by 
those who were in trust about him, that he never suffered 
an object to leave his house unsupplied, and he often sent 
them away with considerable sums, according to the judg- 
ment he made of their merits and necessities.-^ With respect 
to his political virtues, and the arts of government, when 
his health would permit him he was constant in his attend- 
ance at the council-table, and it is well known what weight 
and dignity h<^ gave to the debates of that board. As be 
alvirays studied the true interest of Ireland, so he judged^ 
that the diminishing the value of the gold coin would be a 
means of increasing silver in the country, a thing very 
much wanted ; in order to effect which, he supported a 
scheme at the council- table, which raised the clamours of 
unthinking people, although experience soon demonstrated 
its wisdom. He was thirteen times one of the lords justices, 
or chief governors of Ireland ; which office he administered 
oftener than any other chief governor on record. He em- 
barked for England June 2, 1742, and after two days ill- 
ness died at his house in St. James's place^, Sept. 27, and 
was buried in Westminster-abbey, where a stately monu- 
ment has been erected to his memory. — His deportment 
was grave, his aspect venerable, and his temper meek and 
humble. He was always open and easy of access both to 
rich and poor. He was steady to the principles of liberty, 
both in religion and politics. His learning was universal, 
yet more in substance than shew ; nor would his mode^y 
permit him to make any ostentation of it. He always pre- 
served such an equal temper of mind that hardly any thing 
could ruffle, and amidst obloquy and opposition, steadily 
maintained a resolution of serving his country, embraced 
every thing proposed for the good of it, though by persons 
remarkable for their opposition to him : and when the most 
public-spirited schemes were introduced by him, and did 
not meet with the reception they deserved, he never took 
offence, but was glad when any part of his advice for thc^ 


public good was pursued, and was always willing to drop 
some points, that he might not lose all; often saying, 
'* he would do all the good to Ireland he could, though 
they did not suffer htm to do all he would." His life was 
mostly spent in action, and therefore it is not to be ex* 
pected that he should have left many remains of his learn'? 
IDg behind him ; nor do we know of any thing he hatii 
written, excepting a few Charges to his clergy at his visit^^^ 
tions, which are grave, solid, and instructive, and elevea 
Occasional Sermons, printed separately. In 1769, however, 
were published, at Oxford^ in two volumes Syo, ^^ Letter^ 
written by his excellency Hugh Boulter, D. D. lord pri«» 
mate of all Ireland^ &c. to several ministers of state in 
England, and some others. Containing an account of th^ 
most interesting transactions which passed in Ireland from 
1724 to 1738." The originals, which are deposited in the 
library of Christ church, in Oxford, w(*re collected by 
Ambrose Philips, esq. who w^s secretary to his grace, and 
lived in his bouse during that space of time in which they 
bear date. They are entirely letters of business, and are 
all of them in I>r. Bonlter's band-writing, excepting some 
few, which are fair copies by his secretary. The qditor 
justly remarks, that these letters, which could not be in* 
tended for publication, have been fortunately preserved, 
as they contain the most authentic history of Ireland, for 
the period in which they were written ; " a period,'' be 
adds, *^ which will ever do honour to his grace's memory, 
aiid to those most excellent princes George the first and 
second, who had the wisdom to place confidence in so 
worthy, so able, and so successful a minister ; a minister 
who bad the rare and peculiar felicity of growing still 
more and mdre into the favour both of the king and of the 
people, until the very last day of his life." It is much to 
be regretted that in some of his measures, be was opposed 
by de^n Swift, particularly in that of diminishing the gold 
coin, as it is probable that they both were actuated by an 
earnest desire of serving the country. In one affair, that 
pf Wood's halfpence, they appear to have coincided, and 
in that they both happened to encourage a public clamour 
which had little solid foundation. — ^The writer of archbishop 
Boulter's Life in Ithe Biog. Brit, seems to doubt whether 
he assisted Ambrose Philips in the paper called the 
** Freethinker j" but of this we apprehend there can be no 


doubt It was published while he held the living of S^, 

His widow died March 3, 1754. On the contingency of 
his having no issue by her, which was the case, he had 
bequeathed five hundred pounds to Magdalen-college in 
Oxford, to be applied towards rebuilding the same ; and a 
thousand pounds to Christ-church in the same university, 
to be applied to the pui'chase of an estate for founding five 
exhibitions of equal value, to be distributed among five of 
the poorest and most deserving of the commoners of that 
college, to be enjoyed by them for four years from the 
time of their election ; and directed, that no commoner of 
sabove three years standitig should be elected into the said 
exhibitions. He vested the said election in the dean and 
canons of that house, and directed that the exhibitioners 
should be chosen upon a public examination in the ball, 
and recommended the sons of clergymen to be in the first 
place, cateris paribus, considered. He also bequeathed the 
further sum of five hundred pounds to the last n:cntioned 
college, to buy an estate, to be distributed in equal exhi- 
bitions to five servitots of the said college, of whom none 
were to be capable of election who were of above two years 
standing, nor to enjoy the exhibition longer than for three 
years ; and he vested the right of election in the dean and 
chapter. * 

BOULTON (Matthew), who justly ought to be classed 
among public benefactors, the son of Matthew Boulton, by 
Christian, daughter of Mr. Peers, of Chester, was born sit 
Birmingham Sept. 3, 1728, and was principally educated 
at a private grammar school, kept by the rev. Mr. Ansted. 
He learned drawing under Worlidge, and mathematics tin- 
der Cooper, and laid in a stock of that useful knowledge 
by which he was enabled so highly to improve the manu- 
factures of his country. So early as the year 1745, Mr. 
Boulton invented and brought to great perfection, the in- 
laid steel, buckles, buttons, watch chains, &c. Great 
quantities of these were exported to France, from whence 
they were re-purchased with avidity 'by the English, as the 
offspring of Erench ingenuity. His manufactory at Bir- 
mingham, however, being inadequate to his extensive im- 
provements, and further experiments, he, in 1762, pur- 
chased a lease of the Soho, at Handsworth, in the county 

1 Biog. Brit.«-Pr6face to hit Letters. 

B O U L T O N. 215 

of Stafford, distant about two miles; at that time, a bar* 
reH heathy on the bleak summit of which stood a naked 
hut, the habitation of a warrener. These extensive tracts 
of common were converted by Mr. BouUon into the present 
superb manufactory, which was finished in 1765, at the 
expence of 9000/.; and in the year 1794, he purchased the 
fee simple of Soho, and much of the other adjoining lands. 

Impelled by an ardent attachment to the arts, and by the 
patriotic ambition of bringing his favourite Soho to the 
highest perfection, the ingenious proprietor soon esta- 
blished a seminary of artists, for drawing and modelling ; 
and men of genius were sought for, and liberally patronized, 
ivhich shortly led to the successful establishment of an ex- 
tensive manufactory of ornaments, in what the French call 
crmoulu; and these ornaments not only found their wiiy 
into the apartments of his majesty, but also into those of 
the nobility and curious of this kingdom, France, and the 
greatest part of £urope. 

Finding that the mill which he had erected fell infinitely 
short, even with the aid of horses, of* the force which was 
necessary for the completion of his vast designs, Mr. fioul- 
ton, in 1767, had recourse to that master- piece of human 
ingenuity, the steam engine. This wonderful machine was 
yet in its infancy, and did not at first answer the expecta- 
tions that had been formed of it. In 1769, Mr. James Watt, 
of Glasgow, obtained a patent for a prodigious improve- 
ment in the steam engine. This induced Mr. Boulton to 
form connexions with Mr. Watt, and invited him to settle 
at Soho, to which the latter consented. In 1775, parlia- 
ment granted a prolongation of the patent for twenty -five 
years ; and Messrs. Boulton and Watt entering into a part- 
nership, established a very extensive manufactory of these . 
engines at Soho, whence most of the great mines and ma- 
nufactories in England continue to be supplied, and they 
are now applied in almost every mechanical purpose, where 
great power ie requisite. 

Amongst the various applications of the steam engine, 
that of coining se^ms to be of considerable importance, as 
by its powers, all the operations are concentrated on the 
same spot. It works a number of coining machines with 
greater rapidity and exactness by a few boys from twelve to 
fourteen years of age, than could be done by a great num« 
ber of strong men, without endangering their fingers, as 
the machine itsdf lays the bliinks upon the die perfectly 


conceiitral with it, and, when struck, dj$place$ one piece 
and replaces another. The coining mill, which was erected 
in 1788, and has since been greatly improved, is adapted 
to work eight machines, and each is capable of striking 
from sixty to an hundred pieces of money in a minute, the 
size of a guinea, which is equal to between 30,000 and 
40,000 per hour, and at the same blow, which strikes the 
face and reverse, the edge of the piece is also struck, either 
plain or with an inscription. 

About the year 1773, the ingenious art of copying pic- 
tures in oil colours, by ^ mechanical process, was invented 
at Soho; and was brought to such a degree of perfection 
that the copies were taken for originals by the most expe«- 
vienced connoisseurs. This art was brought to perfection 
under the management of the late ingenious Mr. F. Egin- 
ton, who was no less celebrated for his paintings on glass. 

In 1788, Mr. Boulton struck a piece of gold, the size of 
a guinea, as a pattern, the letters of which were indented 
instead of a relief; and the head and other devices, although 
in relief, were protected from wear by a flat border ; and 
from the perfect rotundity of shape, &c. with the aid of a 
steel guage, it may with great e&se and certainty, by as- 
certaining its specific gravity, be distinguished from any 
base metel. Previous to his engagement to supply go^ 
vernment with copper pence, in order to bring his appara- 
tus to perfection, he exercised it in coining silver money 
for Sierra Leone and the African Company ; and copper 
for the East India Company and Bermuda. Various beau- 
tiful medals, also, of superior workmanship to any of the 
modern money of this country, of our celebrated naval and 
other officers, have, from time to time, been struck here by 
Mr. Boulton, for the purpose of employing and encouraging 
ingenious artists to revive that branch of sculpture. 

Since the demise of the late empress Catherine of Russia, 
Mr. Boulton presented her successor, the late emperor 
Paul I. with some of the curious articles of his manufactory, 
Und in return received a polite letter of thanks and appro- 
bation, together with a splendid collection of medals, mi- 
nerals from Siberia^ and specimens of all the modem mo- 
pey of Russia* Aaong the medals which^ for elegance of 
design and beauty of es:ecution, have never yet been 
equalled in this or any other country^ is a maasy one of 
' gold, impressed with a striking likeness, it is said, of that 
iponafcb* This uiurif aUed piece was struck from a dip en- 


fraved fay the present empress dowager, who has, from her 
youth, taken great delight in the art of engraving on steel. 

With a view of still further improving and facilitating 
the jBanufactory of steam engines, Messrs. Boulton and 
Watt, have lately, in conjunction with their sons, esta- 
blished a foundery at Smethwick, a short distance from 
Soho. Here that powerful agent is employed, as it were, 
to multiply itself, and its. various parts are fabricated and 
adapted together with the same regularity, neatness, and 
expedition, which distinguish all the operations of their ma- 
nufactory. Those engines are afterwards distributed to all 
parts of the kingdom by the Birmingham canal, which com- 
municates with a wet dock belonging to the foundery. 

In a national view, Mn Boulton^s undertakings have been 
highly valuable and important By -collecting around him 
artists of various descriptions, rival talents have been called 
forth ; and, by successive competition, have beeu multi- 
plied to an extent highly beneficial to the public. A bar- 
ren heath has beeu covered with plenty and population ; 
and these works, which in their infancy were little knowa 
and attended to, now cover several acres, ffive employment 
to more than six hundred persons, and are indubitably the 
first of their kind in Europe. No expence has been spared 
to render these works uniform and handsome in architec- 
ture, as well as neat and commodious. The same liberal 
spirit and taste have been displayed on the adjoining gar-^ 
dens and pleasure grounds, which at the same time that 
they form an agreeable separation from the proprietor's 
residence, render Soho a much admired scene of piotu** 
resque beauty. As bis great and expanded mind formed 
and brought to perfection the wonderful works thus briefly 
described, so he felt no greater felicity, than that of diffus- 
ing happiness to all around him: Mr. Boulton was not only 
a fellow of the royal societies of London and Edinburgh, 
but likewise o( that which bears the title of the free and 
oecooomical at St. Petersburg, and many other foreign 
institutions of the highest celebrity in Europe. He died ia 
his eighty *first year, at Soho, August 17, 1809, regretted 
as an illustrious contributor to the wealth and fitme of his 
country, aod a, man of amiable and generous charactetr 
file was succeeded in estate and talents by his only son^ the 
piqeaept proprietor of Soho, in conjunction with his 
^artoers. ^ 

* frook ** JMemoirs of M. Bonltoti, esq.*' printed at Birmiog^ham 1809. 


BOUQUET (DoM Martin), an eminent French histow 
rian and antiquary^ was a Benedictine of the congrega<- 
tion of St. Maur, and born at Amiens, Aug. 6, 1685. Af- 
ter finishing his course of philosophy and divinity, he 
^udied the learned languages with great success, and his 
superiors observing his <lecided taste for literature, made 
him librarian of St. Germain* des-prez. He afterwards 
assisted the celebrated Montfaucon in some of his works, 
and undertook himself an edition of Josephus. When, 
however, he had made considerable progress in this, he 
understood that a man of learning in Holland was em- 
ployed on a similar design, and therefore,^.with a liberality, 
not very common, sent to him all the collections he had 
formed for the work. On the death of father Le Long, of 
the oratory, in 1721, Bouquet was employed in making 
a collection of the historians of France. Of this important 
work, a brief account will not be uninteresting. 

The first who attempted a collection of the kind was the 
famous Peter Pithou. It was his intention to have pub- 
lished a complete body of French historians; extracted 
from printed books and M8S. but be died in 1596, having 
published only two volumes on the subject, one in 8vo, 
the other in 4to. These carried the history no lower than 
the year 1285. Nothing more was done till 1635, when 
Du Chesne, who is called the Father of French history, 
took up the subject again, and published a prospectus for 
a history, to be comprised in fourteen volumes fol. and 
end with the reign of Henry II. The first two volumes ac- 
cordingly came out' in 1636, bu^ the author died whilst the 
two next were in the press. These, however, were pub- 
lished in 1641, by his son, who added a fifth volume, end- 
ing with the life of Philippe le Bel, in 1649. The next 
attempts were vain, though^ made under the auspices of 
such men as Colbert, Louvois, and chancellor D'Aguesseau: 
the plan proposed by the first miscarried through the ob- 
stinacy of the famous Ducange (who would have the work 
done in his own way, or have nothing to do with it) and 
the modesty of Mabillon. Another was, as we have just 
mentibned, put a stop to by the death of Le Long, who, 
having pointed out the materials in his ^' Bibliothequie 
Historique de la France," was the fittest to have made use 
of them. In this state of things the Benedictine congFe* 
gation of St Maur recommended Bouquet, who accord- 
ingly went to work under the inspection of a socie^ of 

BOUQUET. ' %\9 

learned men named by the chancellor,' in whose presence 
the plan of the work, and the materials fit to be made use 
of, were discussed. Bouquet was so, assiduous in his la* 
bour, that about the end of the year 1729 he was ready 
with two volumes ; but, owing to his removal to the abbey 
of Stp John de Laon, they were not published until 1738, 
when the chancellor D'Aguesseau called him to Paris, and 
he then prbceeded so rapidly, that the eighth was published 
in 1752. He had begun the ninth, in which he hoped to 
have completed what regarded the second race of the 
French kings; but, in 1754, was seized with a violent dis- 
order, which ptoved fatal in tour days, April 6. He was 
a man of extensive learning, connected with all the learned 
men and learned societies of his time, and beloved for his 
personal virtues. For many years the work was continued 
by the congregation of St. Maur, but without the name of 
any editor. Seven more volumes have appeared since 
Bouquet^s death, and the sixteenth is now in the press, 
^nd almost ready for publication. * 


BOURBON, or BORBONIUS (Nicholas), a Latin 
poet of France, was born in 1503 at Vandeuvre, near Lan«. 
gres, the son of a rich torge-masteh Margaret de Valoi^ 
appointed him preceptor to her daughter Jane d'Albret de 
Navarre, mother of Henry IV. He retired afterwards to 
Cond^, where he had a benefice, and died there about 1550. 
Bourbon left eight books of epigrams, and a didactic poem 
on the forge entitled " Ferrarie/' 1533, 8vo; " De puero- 
rum moribus,'' Lyons, 1536, 4to, a series of moral dis* 
tichs^ with a commentary by J. de Caures. He was ex- 
tremely well acquainted with antiquity and the Greek 
language. Erasmus praises his epigrams, and he appears 
to have been the friend and correspondent of Erasmus, 
Scaliger, Latimer, Carey, Harvey, Saville, Norris, Dud-> 
ley, &c. having frequently visited England, where he was 
patronized by Dr, Butts, the king^s physician, and William 
Boston, abbot of Westminster, an hospitable man, with 
whom he speaks of having passed many pleasant hours in 
archbishop Cranmer's garden at Lambeth. He treats sir 
Thomas More with great asperity in one of his epigrams, 
from which we may probably conclude that he inclined to 
protestantism, although this is not consistent with his his* 

} Moreri.— Diet. Hist.-*Maty'f Review, vol. 11. p. 472. 



tory. His epigrams were published under the title of 
^' Nugarum libri octo," Paris^ 1 53 3, and often reprinted, par** 
ticularly by Scaliger, 1577; in 1608 by Passerat, with notes; 
and lastly, by the abb6 Brocbard in 1723, a handsome 
quarto edition, printed at Paris.* 

BOURBON (Nicholas), nephew to the above, and 
superior to him as a Greek and Latin poet, was the son of 
a physician. He taught rhetoric in several colleges at 
Paris, and cardinal du Perron appointed him professor of 
eloquence at the royal college. He was also canon of 
Langres, and one of the forty of the French academy. He 
retired at last among the fathers of the oratory, where he 
died' August 7, 1644, aged seventy. Bourbon is justly 
considered as one of the greatest Latin poets whom France 
has produced. His poems were printed at Paris, l&5lf 
12mo. The ^* Imprecation on thfe Parricide of Henry IV.^** 
i^ his chef-d'oeuvre. He wrote the two beautiful lines 
which are upon the gate of the arsenal at Paris^ in honour 
of Henry the Great : 

/Etna hsec Henrico Vukania tela ministrat^ 
Tela Gigantasos debellatura furores. * 

BOURCHIER (Sir John), lord BERNERS, was bom 
about 1467, son and heir of sir Humphrey Bourchier by 
Elizabeth, daughter and heir of sir Frederick Tilney 
(widow of sir Thomas Howard), which Humphrey was 
killed at Barnet-field, on Edward IVth's part, and buried in 
Westminster abbey, during the life of his father, who was 
sir John Bourchier, K. G. fourth son of William earl of 
Ewe, and baron Berners, by marriage with Margery, 
daughter and heir of Richard lord Berners. Lord Bour- 
chier succeeded his grandfather. May 16, 1474, being 
then only seven years old. He was educated in Baliol 
college, Oxford, and afterwards travelled abroad, and re* 
turned a master of seven languages, and a complete gen- 
tleman. In 1495 he obtained the notice of Henry VH. by 
his valour in quelling the fury of the rebels in Cornwall 
and Devonshire, under the conduct of Michael Joseph, a 
blacksmith. In 1513 he was captain of the pioneers at 
the siege of Therouenne. In 1514, being made chancellor 
of the king's exchequer for life, he attended the lady 
Mary, the king's sister, into France, to her marriage with 

1 Moreri. — Lounger's Common-pi ace-book, toI. I. 
' Moreri.— Baiilet Jog«men$ des Savank 

B O U R C H I E R, 221 

king Lewis XII. and in 1527 obtained a grant from the 
king of several manors. Afterwards he was made lieute- 
nant of Calais and the marches adjoining to France, and 
spending most of his time there, wrote several learned 
works in that situation. There he made his will, March 
3, 1532, bequeathing his body to be buried in the chancel 
of the parish church of our lady, within the town of Calais, 
and appointing that an honest priest should sing mass there 
for his soul, by the space of three years. He died March 
16th following, leaving by Katherine his wife, daughter of 
Jdfhn duke of Norfolk, Joane his daughter and heir, mar- 
ried to Edmund Knyvet of Ash'welthorpe in Norfolk, esq. 
Lord Berners is now principally known for his transla- 
tion of " Froissart's Chronicle," which he undertook by 
command of the king, and was published by Pinson, 1523, 
1 525, 2 vols. fol. It is unnecessary to add how much this 
translation has been superseded by that of Thomas Johne^^ 
esq. which lately issued from the Hafod press, and has 
passed through two editions since 1803. Others of lord 
Berners's works were a whimsical medley of translations 
from the French, Italian, and Spanish novels, which seem 
to have been the mode then, as they were afterwards in the 
reign of Charles II. These were, " The Life of Sir Ar- 
thur, an Armorican Knight ;" " The famous exploits of 
sir Hugh of Bourdeaux: ;" ** Marcus Aurelius ;" and the 
** Castle of Love." He also composed a book " Of the 
duties of the inhabitants of Calais," and a comedy entitled 
** Ite in Vineam." Of all these an ample account may be 
seen in our authorities. ^ 

mas), archbishop of Canterbury, in the successive reigns of 
Henry VL Edward IV. Edward V. Richard III. arid Henry 
VII. was son of William Bourchier earl of Ewe in Nor- 
mandy, and the countess of Stafford, and brother of Henry 
earl of Essex, and, consequently, related to the preceding 
lord Berners. He had his education in Neville^s-inn at 
Oxford, and was chancellor of that university three years, 
viz. from 1433 to 1437. His first dignity in the church 
was that of dean of the collegiate church of St. Martin's in 
London^ from which, in 1433, he was advanced, by pope 
Eugenius IV, to the see of Worcester : but his consecration 

1 Censura Literariat, Tol. I»— Park't Royal and Noble Author8,«-*Wo0cl*f 
Ath. TOl. I. 

Mi B O U R C H I E Rj 

was deferred to May 15, 1436, by reason (as is supposed^ 
of a defect, in age. He had not sat a full year, before hef 
was elected by the monks of Ely bishop of that see, and 
confirmed by the pope : but^ the king refusing his consent, 
Bourchier did not dare to comply with the election, for 
fear of incurring the censure of the laws, which forbad^ 
under very severe penalties, the receiving the pope's bull 
without the king's leave. Nevertheless, seven or eight 
years after, the see of Ely still continuing vacant, and the 
king consenting, he was translated thither, the 20th of 
December 1443. The author of the " Historia Eliensis" 
speaks very disadvantageousl^ of him, as an oppressor^ 
and neglectful of his duty during his residence on that see, 
which was ten years twenty-three weeks and five days* At 
last he was elected archbishop of Canterbury, in the 
room of John Kemp, .the 23d of April 1454. This election 
was the more remarkable, as the monks were left en- 
tirely to their liberty of choice, without any interposition 
either from the crown or the papal chair. On the con-* 
trary, pope Nicolas Vth's concurrence being readily ob- 
tained, the archbishop was installed with great solemnity. 
In the month of December following, he received the red 
hat from Rome, being created cardinal-priest of St. Cyria- 
cu^s in Thermis, but Bentham thinks this was not till ]464. 
The next year, he was made lord high chancellor of Eng- 
land, but resigned that office in October the year follow- 
ing. Soon after his advancement to the see of Canterbury^ 
be began a visitation in Kent, and made several regula* 
tioiis for the government of his diocese. He likewise 
published a constitution for restraining the excessive abuse 
of papal provisions, but deserved most highly of the learned 
world, for being the principal instrument in introducing 
the noble art of printing into England. Wood's account,, . 
although not quite correct, is worth transcribing. Bour^ 
chier " being informed that the inventor, • Tossan, alias 
John Guthenberg, had set up a press at Harlem, was ex- 
tr^^mely desirous that the English might be made masters 
of so beneficial an art. To this purpose he persuaded 
king Henry VL to dispatch one Robert Tournour, be- 
longing to the wardrobe, privately to Harlem. This man, 
furnished with a thousand marks, of which the archbishop 
supplied three hundred, embarked for Holland, and, to 
disguise the matter, went in company with one Caxton, a 
joiercbaot gf London, pretending himself to be of the same 

BO U R C H I E R. 223 

profession. Thus concealing his name and his business, he 
went first to Amsterdam, then to Ley den, and at last settled, 
at Harlem ; where having spent a great deal of time and 
money, he sent to the king for a fresh supply, giving bia 
Highness to understand, that he had almost compassed the 
enterprize. In short, he persuaded Frederic Corselli, one 
of the compositors, to carry off a set of letters, and embark 
vvithhim in the night for London. When they arrive^, the 
archbishop, thinking Oxford a more convenient place for 
printing than London, sent Corselli down thither. And, 
lest he should slip away before he had discovered the whole 
secret, a guard was set upon the press. And thus the mys- 
tery of printing appeared ten years sooner in the university 
of Oxford than at any other place in Europe, Harlem and 
Mentz excepted. Not long after, there were presses set up 
at Westminster, St. Alban's, Worcester, and other monas- 
teries of note. After this manner printing was introduced 
into England, by the care of archbishop Bourchier, in the 
year of Christ i464, and the third of king Edward IV." 

Bourchier, we are told, was strangely imposed upon by 
the specious pretences of Richard duke of Gloucester, 
when he undertook to persuade the queen to deliver up the 
duke of York, her son, into the protector's hands. He 
presided over the church thirty-two years, in the most 
troublesome times of the English government, those of 
Henry YI. and Edward IV. ^ He also performed the 
marriage ceremony between Henry VII. and the daugh- 
ter of Edward IV. ; and had the happiness to be con- 
temporary with many prelates of distinction in English 
history. He was certainly a man of learning; though 
nothing written by him has come down to us, if we 
except a few Synodical decrees. Dart tells us, he 
founded a chantry, which was afterwards surrendered to 
king Henry VIII. Archbishop Bourchier died at his pa« 
lace of Knowle, on Thursday the thirtiethof March 1486,> 
and was buried on the north side of the choir of his cathe-- 
dral, by the high altar, in a tomb of marble, on which is an 
inscription merely recording the event. 

Archbishop Bourchier's benefactions are stated by Mr. 
Bentham as follows : He gave to the prior and convent of 
Christ Church in Canterbury, the alien priory of Cranfield 
in Essex, a grant of which he had obtained from the crown 
in the time of Edward the Fourth. To the church of Can- 
terbury, besides the image of the Trinity, he bequeathed 

22« B O U R C H 1 E R* 

twenty-seven copes of red tissue, and left to his sitccessor, in 
recompence for dilapidations, 2000/w ; also 1251. to each of 
the universities, to be kept ^n chests, for the support of the 
poor scholars. The chest at Cambridge, which was united 
with Biilingford^s, was in being in 1601, when 100/. was 
borrowed out of it for the use of the univei*8ity ; but this^' 
fund was afterward embezzled, through the iniquity of the 
times. The archbishop left also legacies to several mo- 
nasteries. ' 

BOURDALOUE (Lewis), a Jesuit, and one of the most 
eloquent preachers France ever produced, was born at 
Bourges, Aug. 20, 163*2, and entered the society of the 
Jesuits in 1648. After having passed some years in teach- * 
ing grammar, rhetorick, philosophy, and divinity, his ta- 
lents pointed him out for the office of preacher, and the ex- 
traordinaiy popularity of bis sermons in the country, deter- 
mined his superiors to call him to Paris in 1669, to take 
the usual course of a yearns preaching in their church of.St« 
Louis, which soon became crowded with multitudes of both 
sexes both from the court and <»ty ; nor was this a trans- 
ient impression, as whoever heard him once wished td hear 
Iiim again, and even Louis XIV. listened with pleasure, al- 
though he appears to have introduced subjects in his dis- 
courses which could not be very acceptable in his conrt. 
On the revocation of the edict of Nantz, the king sent him 
into Languedoc to strengthen the new or pretended con- 
verts from the heresies of the protestant faith, and we are 
told the effect of his eloquence, was great. His eloquence 
was undoubtedly superior to that qf his contemporaries, and 
he has justly been praised for introducing a more pure 
style than was customary in the French pulpits. One ef- 
fect of his preaching was, that great numbers of his hearers 
requested him to take their souls into his hands, and be the 
director of their consciences, in other words, to turn father 
confessor, with which he complied, and frequently sat five 
or six hours in the confessional, completing there, says his 
biographer, what he had only sketched in the pulpit. He 
was yet more admired for. his charitable attentions and the 
sick and poor, among whom he passed much of his time, in 
religious conference and other acts of humanity. He died 
at Paris May 13, 1704, universally lamented and long re- 
jmembered as the most attractive and eloquent of preachers. 

I Biogr Brit— BmUi»m'« Ely* 


He Irad preached thirty 'four years at court and in Paris. 
Father Bretonneau published two editions of bis works, the 
first of 16 vols* Svo. 1716, reckoned the best, or at least, 
tbe most beautifully printed ; and the second in 18 vols. 
12fno« Comparisons have been formed between hiin and 
Massillon, "but several are still inclined to g^ive him the pre«» 
ference. There is warmth, zeal, and elegance in his style 
and reasoning, but he is frequently declamatory and ver-* 
bose. It is difficult, however, for English critics to appre- 
ciate the merits of his sermons, calculated as they were for 
a class of hearers with whose taste we are unacquainted* 
Of his catholic spirit we have an instance on record, that 
in an interview with bishop Burnet at Paris, he told tbe 
English prelate that he beUeved ^' all honest protestants 
would be saved.'* ' 

BOURDEILLES {Peter de), better known by the name 
of Brant6me, of which he was abbot, added to that title 
those of lord and baron of Richemont, chevalier, gentle-* 
ii>aii of the chamber' to the kings Charles IX. and Henry 
III. and chamberlain to the duke of Alen9on. He had the 
design of being created a knight of Maltha in' a voyage he 
made to that isle during tbe time of the siege in 1565. He 
returned to France, where he was fed with vain expecta- 
tions ; but he received no other reward (as he tells us him- 
self) than being^welcomedbythe^ kings his masters, great 
lords, princes, sovereigns, queens, princesses, &c. He 
died Julys, 1614, at the age of 87. His memoirs were 
printed in ten volumes, l^mo, viz. four of the French 
commsmdersj two of foreign commanders ; two of women 
of gallantry; one of illustrious ladies; and one of duels. 
There is another edition of the Hague, 1741, 15 vols. 12mOy 
on account of the supplement, which makes five, and also 
a. Paris edition 1787, 8 vols. Svo. These menK^irs may be 
of some use, if read cautiously, by those- who would know 
tbe private history of Charles IX. of Henry III. and of 
Henry IV. Here the man is more represented than the 
prince. The pleasure of seeing these kings in their pecu- 
liarities in private life, added to the simplicity of Brant6me'« 
style, renders the reading of his memoirs extremely agree- 
able. But some of his anecdotes are grossly indecent, and 
jnany of them fictions. 

^< Braiitomeji" (says M. Anquetil) *' is in the bands of 

^ Mor«ij.«-Biog. Q all ica«<— -Diet. Hist. 

Vol. VI. Q. 

826 ^ B O U R D E I L L E S. 


ev^ry body. All the world pretends to have read him ; but 
he ought particularly to be put into the hands of princes^ 
that they may learn how impossible it is for them to hide 
themselves ; they they have an importance in the eyes ^f 
their courtiers, which draws attention to all their actions ; 
and that, sooner or later, the most secret of them are re* 
vealed to posterity. The reflections that would occur, on 
seeing that Brantdme has. got together all the little transact* 
*tions, all the idle words that have escaped them, all •the 
actions pretended to be indifferent, which were thought to 
be neglectisd- and lost, and which nevertheless mark the 
character, would render them more circumspect. — In read* 
ing Brantdme a problem forces itself on the mind, which 
it is difficult to «olve.^ It is very common to see that author 
joining together the most discordant ideas in regard to mo-« 
rals. Sometimes he will represent a woman as addicted to 
the most infamous refinements of libertinism, and then will 
conclude by saying that she was prudent, and a giood^Chris« 
tian. So likewise of a priest, of a monk, or any other ec'^ 
clesiastic, he will relate anecdotes more than waiiton ; and 
will tell us very gravely at the end, that this man lived re* 
gularly according to his station. Almqst all his memoirs 
are full of similar contradictions in a sort of epigran». On 
which 1 have this questipn to propose : Was Brantdme a li- 
bertine ; who, in order to sport more securely with religion 
and morals, affects in the expression a respect to which the 
very matter of the recital gives the lie? or. Was he one of 
those persons who generally go under the name of amiable 
fops ; who, without principles as without design, confound vir-» 
tue and vice, making no real difference between one character 
and another? Whatever judgment we may form of him, we 
^ust always blame him for omitting to observe a proper re<>> 
verence for. decorum in his writings, and for frequently 
putting modesty t6 the blush* We perceive in Brantdme 
the character of those young men, who, making a p^rt of 
the court by their birth, pass their lives in it without pre* 
tensions and without desires. They amuse themselves with 
every thing : if an action has a ridiculous side, th^ seizQ 
it; if it has 'not, they give it one, Brantdme only ^kimj^ 
along the surface of a subjects he knows nothing of diving 
into an action, and unfolding the motives that gave it birtb» 
Re gives a good picture of what he has seen,, relates in sim-^ 
pie terms what he has heard ^ but it is nothing uncommon 
to see him quit bis main object^ return to it, quit it again. 



ud ctonclude by thinking no more of it With all this irr 
xegularity he pleases, because he amuses.*' ^ 

BOURDEILLES (Claude de), grand-nephew of the 
former, comte de Montresor, attached to Gaston of Or- 
leans, both while he was in favour, and when he had lost 
it, was several times deprived of his liberty for serving that 
prince. Disgusted with the tumult and the artifices of the 
court, he took up the resolution of enjoying the sweets of 
prii^cy. He died at Paris in 1663. He left memoirs^ 
known under the name of Montr^sor, 2 vols. 12mo, which 
are curious, as containing many particulars of the history 
of bis time, Montresor makes no scruple of relating the 
projects he formed against the life of cardinal Richelieu '. 

BOURDELOT (John), a learned French critic, who 
distinguished himself iu the republic of letters by 
writipg notes upon Lucian, Petronius^ and Heliodorus^ 
lived St the end of the 16th, and in the beginning of the 
17th century, was of a, good family Qf Sens, and educated 
with care. He applied himself to the study of the belles 
lettres and of the learned languages; and Baillet tells us, 
that he passed for a great connoisseur in the oriental 
tongues, and in the. knowledge of manuscripts. These pur* 
9uics did not hinder him from being consummate in the law. 
He exercised the oiEce of advocate to the parliament of 
Paris in 1627, when Mary of Medicis, hearing of his un- 
common merit, made him master of the requests. He died 
suddenly at Paris in 1638. His edition of Heliodorus, 
* which is one of th6 best, was published in 1619, Svo: 
That of Lucian at Paris, 1615, fol. with the notes of Mi* 
cyllus, Guerinus, Marsilius, and Cognatus, and some short 
and learned ones by himself, at that time a very young 
man. Among the sources from which Bourdelot professes 
to have compiled his edition, are two ancient MS3. in the 
royal library at Paris, the existence of which Faber (ad Lu-* 
cianiTimonem, c. I.) denies in the most positive terms. His 
Petronius was first published at Paris, 12mo, in 1618, a 
very scarce edition^ and reprinted in 1645, 1663^ and 

BOURDELOT (Peter Michon), nephew to the above, 
and educated by him, was a very celebrated physician at 
Paris, where he died Feb. 9, 1685, aged seventy-six. In 
1634, he obtained leave to adopt the name of Bourdelot, 

> Morerir-^Sict. Hiit. * Ibid. » Ibid.-rPibdin'i Cluiiw. 



pursuant to his uncle's desire, who on that condition left 
him his library and fortune. He wrote some treatises 
on " the Viper," on " Mount Etna," " La relation des 
appartmens de Versailles," &c. with three volumes, of 
" Conferences," which were pubUshed by M. le Gallois. * 

BOURDELOT (Peter Bonnet), physician inordinary 
to Louis XIV. and first physician to the dnchess of Bur- 
gundy, was sister's son to the preceding P. Miction Bour- 
delot, who enjoined him to change his name from Bonnet 
to Bourdelot, on the same terms that himself adopted that 
name, viz. his library and fortune. P. Bonnet Bourdelot 
was a skilful physician, and a man of geqeral literature. 
He wrote some useful notes on the ^^ Bibliotheque choisie 
de M. Colonii6s," which were added to the Paris edition of 
173], and left a manuscript catalogue of all printed medi- 
cal works, with lives and criticisms on the authors. He 
wrote also some papers on the history of music, whiJh were 
used by his brother Bonnet in his " Histoire de la Mu- 
ftique," 1715.' He died in 1 709, aged fifty-four. * 

BOURDON (Sebastian), a very celebrated French 
painter, was boi^ at Montpellier in 1616. His father, who 
was a glass-painter, gave him the first instructions in his 
art. When only seven years old, one of his uncles brought 
him to Paris, and placed him with a very indifferent painter, 
whose defects, however, were supplied by young Bour- 
don^s natural genius. Returning to Bourdeaux at the age 
of fourteen, he painted the cieling of a neighbouring cha- 
teau, and then went to Toulouse. Finding here no em- 
ployment, he went into the army ; but his captain,- a man 
of some taste, judging that he would one day excel in bis 
profession as an artist, gave him his discharge. He was 
eighteen when be went to Italy, and .became acquainted 
with Clande Lorrain, whose manner, as well as that of 
Sacchi, Caravagio, and Bamboccio, he imitated with great 
success. After a residence of three years here, be hap- 
pened to have a difference with a painter, who threatened to 
inform against him as a Calvinist, and Bourdon immediately 
set out for Venice, and thence to France. At the age of 
twenty -seven he painted his famous Crucifixion of St, Peter 
for the church of Notre Dame at Paris, which could not fail 
to raise his reputation. Du Guernier, a miniature painter, 
much employed at court, and whose sister he married, ^ts^ 

^ Morcri. > Ibid.«— Hawkios^s Uist, of Music. 

B O U R D O N. 229 

sisted him with bis advice, and procured him work. But 
the civil wars interrupting the progress of the fine arts, in 
1652 he v^ent to Sweden, where queen Christina appointed 
him her first painter. While employed on many works for 
her, chiefly portrait's, she mentioned to him one day some 
pictures which the king her father had found when he took 
Prague; these had till now remained unpacked, and she de- 
sired Bourdon to examine them. Bourdon reporied fa- 
vourably of them, particularly of some by Corregio, on 
which the queen requested he would accept them as a pre- 
sent from her. Bourdon, with corresponding liberality and 
disinterestedness, represented that they were some of the 
finest paintings in £urope, and that her majesty ought ne- 
ver to part with them, as a fit collection for a crowned head. 
The queen accordingly kept them, and took them with her 
to Rome when she abdicated the throne. After her death, 
the heirs of Don Livio Odeschalchi, who had purchased tbeonl, 
sold them to the regent duke of Orleans ; and they after- 
wards made part of the fine collection known in this coun- 
try by the name.of the Orleans Collection. 

Bourdon, however, not findiilg much exercise for his ge- 
nius in Sweden, and the queen having become Roman 
catholic after her abdication, he returned to France, then 
more favourable to the arts, and soon had abundance of 
employment. Among his first performances after his re- 
turn, were a " Dead Christ," and the " Woman taken in 
adultery.*' Some business occasioning him to go to Mont- 
pellier, during his short i^ay there he painted several 
portraitsof persons of fashion. A n anecdote is told, that, when 
in this place, a taylor who had a great esteem for him^ and 
knew he was not rich, sent to him, by the hand of one 
Francis, a painter, a complete suit of clothes, cloak, and 
bonnet. Bourdon, in return, sent him his portrait dressed 
in this suit ; but Francis, thinking it a very fine specimen 
of the art, presented the taylor with *a copy, and kept the 
original. In 1663 he returned to Paris, where he conti- 
nned to execute many fine pictures, until his death in 

He bad an uncommon readiness of hand, though he was 
frequently incorrect, and was particularly so in the extre- 
mities of his figures. As a proof of his expeditious n^an- 
ner of painting, it is reported, that in one day he painted 
twelve portraits after life, as large as nature, and those not 
the worst of his performances* His touch is extremely 

«30 B O U R D O K. 

lightj his colouring good, his attitudes are full of variety, 
and sometimes graceful, and his expression is lively and 
animated. However, it must be confessed, that his con- 
ceptions v^ere often extravagant, nor would many of his 
compositions abide a critical examination. His landscapes 
are in the taste of Titian, but they seem rather designed 
from imagination than after nature ; yet, in several of them, 
the product of that imagination has a beautiful effect ; and 
he usuajly enriched his pastoral scenes with a great num- 
ber of figures and animals. His pictures are seldom finish- 
ed, and those which appear most so, are not always his best. 
The most esteemed work of Bourdon is the Martyrdom of 
St. Peter, in the church of Notre Dame at Paris, which is 
considered as a curiosity. Sir Joshua Reynolds had his 
** Return of the Ark from captivity,*' which he bequeathed 
to sir George Beaumont. Sir Joshua in his fourteenth 
discourse speaks very highly of this picture. As a proof 
of the value of Sebastian Bourdon^s pictures in this country, 
we may mention that in 1770,« a holy family by him was 
sold by the late Mr. Christie, for 341/. 5s. 

Sebastian Bourdon has also a place among engravers. 
His etchings, which are numerous, are executed in a bold, 
masterly style ; and convey a clear idea of his manner of 
painting. The lights are broad, the draperies are formed 
with great taste, and the folds well marked, though some- 
times too dark and hard upon the lights ; the heads are 
very expressive ; the back-grounds are finely conceived, 
and executed in a grand style. Some of the principal from 
his own compositions are the following ; the ** Seven acts 
of mercy ;" the " Flight into Egypt," and the " Return 
from thence ;'* several subjects of the ** Virgin and Child ;'• 
in one of which is seen a woman washing linen, hence dis- 
tinguished by the name of the washer- woman ; the ** Re- 
turn of the ark," from the above-mentioned picture, said 
to be very scarce ; the " Baptism of the eunuch ;" ** Twelve 
large landscapes," very spirited and fine prints. * 


BOURGELAT (Claude), veterinary surgeon, was a 
native of Lyons, and in his youth a soldier, after which he 
studied law, but quitted that pursuit on being appointed 
chief of the riding-school of Lyons, where he seems to 
have discovered the employment for which he was best 

1 I)'ADscrvUio.-4'Uluostoih-*Strutt. 



fitted. ' From this time he applied himself to the principles 
of horsemansjiip, which he detailed in his " Nouveau 
Newcastle, ou Trait6 de Cavalerie," Lausanne, 1747, 8vo. 
He laboured no less assiduously to rescue the veterinary 
art from the hands of ignorance and empiricism, and with 
that view published in 1750, his ** Elemens d'hippiatrique, 
ou Nouveaux>principes sur la connoissance des chevaux,^' 
Lyons, 3 vols. 8vo. The knowledge he displayed in this 
work probably rendered it easy for him to obtain the leave 
of government to establish a veterinary school at 'Lyons, of 
the great utility of which the public soon became sensible, 
and many able scholars educated under Bourgelat extended 
, this new branch of the medical art to every part of the 
kingdom. In 1765, he published hiii ^^Matiere medicale 
raisonn^e a Pusage de Tecole veterinaire," Lyons, 8vo. 
His success at Lyons induced the government to invite him 
to Paris, and he founded a second school at Alford, near 
Charenton, and published several elementary treatises for 
the use of his scholars, such as '^ Cours theorique et pra- 
tique des bandages ;"" Trait6 de la ferrure," 1776, l^o; 
** L*Anatomie compar^e de tons les animaux," and " Me- 
moire sur les maladies contagieuses du betail,'' 1776, 4to« 
After a life spent on this important science, he died ia 
1779, aged sixty-seven. At his death he bore the titles 
of inspector-general, of the veterinary schools, and com- 
missary-general of the stud. Besides his favourite pursuit, 
he was a man of general knowledge. ^ 

BOURGEOIS (Sir Francis), knight of the Polish or- 
der of Merit, and an artist of distinguished reputation, was 
the descendant of a considerable family in Switzerland^ but 
was born in London in 1756. His early destination was 
the army, under the patronage of lord Heathfield, who was 
his father's friend ; but having been instructed while a 
child in the rudiments of painting, by a foreigner of incon-* 
siderable merit as a horse-painter, be became so attached 
to the study, as soon to relinquish the military profession, 
and devote himself wholly to the pencil. For this purpose 
he was placed under the tuition of Loutherbourg, and hav- 
ing, from his connexions and acquaintance, access to many 
of the most distinguished collections, he soon acquired 
considerable reputation by his landscapes and sea-pieces. 
In 1776, be. travelled through Italy, France, and Holland, 

^ Diet, Hist, 



'where lii» correct knowledge of the language of each couH'* 
try, added to the politeness of his address, . and the plea- 
sures of his conversation, procured him an introduction to 
the best society, and most valuable repositories of the arts 
on the continent. At his return to England, be ejshibited 
several specimens of his studies at the royal academy, which 
obtained him reputation and patronage. In 1791 he watf 
appointed painter to the king of Poland, whose brother, 
the prince primate, had been much pleased with his per- 
formances during his residence in this country ; and at the 
same time he received the honour of knighthood of the 
order of Merit, Which was afterwards confirmed by his pre- 
sent majesty, who, in 1794, appointed him landscape* 
painter to the king. Previous to this he had, in 1792, 
been elected a member of the royal academy. Some time 
before bis death, by the will of the late Noel Desenfans, 
esq. an eminent picture-dealer, he became possessed of 
sufficient property to render a laborious application to his 
profession no longer necessary, and from that time be lived 
in the circle of his friends, highly respected for his talents 
and agreeable manners. .He died Jan. 8, 1811, at his bouse 
in Portland- street, bequeathing his fine collection of pic- 
tures, and his fortune, to Pulwich college. According to 
the terms of his will, he leaves the whole of Jtbese pictures, 
besides 10,000/. to keep them in dpe preservation, and 
2,000/'for the purpose of repairing the gallery in the col- 
lege for their reception. He also bequeathed legacies of 
1000/. each to the master of the college, and to the chap- 
> lain : and the fellows of the college are to be the residuary 
legatees, and are to possess, for its advantage, all the rest 
of his property, df every denomination. Most part of this 
will, however, does not take effect until after the death of 
Mrs. Desenfans, the widow of his benefactor; and after 
that event he directs that the body of the late Noel Oesen* , 
fans, which is now deposited in a sarcophagus within a 
niausoleuip in a chapel, attached to his late house in Char- 
lotCe-street, Portland-place, shall be removed, together 
with his own body (which has, by his desire, been depo- 
sited in the same mausoleum), and entombed in a sarco- 
phagus, to be placed in the chapel of Dulwich college. 
So singular a- will) with respect at^ least to the place 
chosen for this collection, excited ipuch surprise. The 
following circumstances, however, which have been c6m- 
municated by an intimate friend of the testator^ may ia 



some measure account for it. After sir Francis became 
possessed of the Desenfans c6llection, by the ownet's 
friendly will in his favour, he wished to purchase the fee 
simple of his fine house in Charlotte-street, enlarge it, and 
endow it as a perpetual repository for the collection, easily 
accessible to the public, and particularly to students as a 
school of art ; but unluckily, his landlorc^ a nobleman lately 
deceased, refused his consent, although he afterwards ex« 
pressed an inclination to grant it, when too late. Sir Fran- 
cis then conceived the design of bequeathing the collectioii^ 
to the British Museum, but did not execute it, from a feir 
that the pictures might not be kept entire and unmixed, he 
being told that it was in the power of the trustees to jdis- • 
pose of what might appear superfluous or inferior. Such 
was his respect for his deceased friend, that his only am-* 
bition was to discover a place where the collection might 
he kept together, and known in perpetuum, not as his, but 
as the Desenfans Collection. By whom Dulwich col- 
lege, an hospital for poor men and women, remote from 
the residence of artists and men of taste, was suggested, 
we know not. It was a place sir Francis had probably never 
before seen ; but, having once visited it, and been informed 
that his terms might be complied with therfe, without risk of 
alteration, he disposed of his property as we have related. 
' As an artist, sir Francis may be placed in the second 
rank. He was a close imitator of Loutherbourg. His con- 
ception of bis subject, as well as the grouping of his 
figures, was happy, and in conformity with nature ; but he 
was often defective in his finishing, and so much a man- 
nerist in his colouring, that his paintings may be recog- 
nized by a very distant glance. * 

BOURGET (DoM John), was born at the village of 
Beaumains near Falaise, in the diocese of Seez, in 1724. 
He was educated at th^ grammar-school at Caen, whence 
he was removed to that university, and pursued his studies 
with great diligence and success till 17453^ when he be- 
came a Benedictine monk of the abbey of St. Martin de 
Seez, then en regk, that is, under the direction of a con- 
ventual abbot. Some time after this, Dom Bourget was 
appointed prior claustral oif the said abbey, and continued 
six years in that office, when he was nominated prior of 
Tiron en Perche ; whence being translated to the abbey 

> Gent Mag. isn.— *Lysons*i Snviroas, Suppl VoUme. 

554 B O U R G E T. 

6f St Stephen at Caen, in the capacity of sub-prior, be 
manage^ the temporalities of that religious house during 
two years, as he did their spiritualities for one year longer ; 
affter which, according to the custom of the house, he re- 
signed his office. His superiors, sensible of hi& merit and 
learning, removed him thence to the abbey of Bee, where 
he resided till 1764. He was elected an honorary member 
of the society of antiquaries of London, Jan. 10, 1765 ; in 
which year he returned to the abbey of St. Stephen at 
Caen, where he contiaiued to the time of his death. These 
honourable offices, to which he was promoted on account 
of his great abilities, enabled him not only to pursue bis 
favourite study of the history and antiquities of some of- the 
principal Benedictine abbies in Normandy, but likewise 
"gave him access to all their charters, deeds, register-books, 
&c. &c. These he examined with great care, and left be- 
hind him in MS. large and accurate accounts of the abbies 
of St. Peter de Jumieges, St. Stephen, and the Holy 
Trinity at Caen (founded by William the Conqueror and 
his queen Matilda), and a very particular history of the 
abbey of Bee. These were all written in French. The 
History of the royal abbey of Bee (which he presented to 
Dr. Ducarel in 1764) is only an abstract of his larger work. 
This ancient abbey, (which has produced several arch- 
bishops of Canterbury tmd other illustrious prelates of this 
kingdom) is frequently mentioned by our old historians. 
The death of this worthy Benedictine (which happened on 
new-year's day, 1776) was occasioned by his unfortunate 
neglect of a hurt he got in his leg by falling down two or 
three steps in going from the hall to the cloister of the 
abbey of St. Stephen at Caen, being deceived by the am- 
biguous feeWe light of a glimmering and dying lamp that 
was placed in that passage. He lived universally esteemed, 
and died sincerely regretted by all those who were ac- 
quainted with him ; and was buried in the church of the 
said abbey, Jan. 3, 1776. * 

BOURGUET (Louis), who was born at Nimes in 1678, 
became celebrated for his proficiency in natural history. 
The revocation of the edict of Nantes having forced bis 
family to go and seek an asylum in Switzerland, Zurich 
was indebted to them for its manufactures of stockings, 
muslins, and several silk stufFs;. Young Bourguet w^nt 

1 Memoirs by Dr, IHtcarelj prefixed to the History of the alibey of B««w 

B O U R G U E T. 235 

ihrough a course of study there; afterwards married at 
Berne, and settled at Neufch&tel, where he became pro- 
fessor of philosophy and mathematics. He died Dec. 31, 
2742, at the age of 64, after publishing, 1. A Letter on 
the formation of salts and crystals; Amsterdam, 1729, 
12mo. 2. *^ La bibliotheque Italique,"" 16 vols. 8vo. This 
journal, begun at Geneva iii 1728, found a^*welcome re- 
ception among the learned, as a soKd and useful book de- 
serving to be continued, although deficient in style, and 
hastily written. He wrote also, " Trait6 des petrifactions," 
Paris, 1742, 4to, and 1778, Svo. Many of his learned 

!>apers on subjects of natural history were inserted in the 
iterary journals^ and bis eloge is in the Helvetic Journal 
for 1745.* 

. BOURIGNON (Antoinette), a famous female enthu- 
siast, was born Jan. 13, 1616, at Lisle in Flanders. She 
came into the world so very deformed, that a Qonsultation 
was held in the family some days about stifling her as a 
monstrous birth. But if she sunk almost (>eneath humanity 
in her exterior, her interior seems to have been raised as 
much above it. For, at four years of age, she not only 
took notice that the people of Lisle did not live up to the 
principles of Christianity whicb they professed, but ear- 
Jiestly desired to be removed into some more Christian 
country ; and her progress was suitable to this beginning. 
Her parents lived unhappily together, Mr. Bourignon using 
his spouse with too much severity, especially in hi^passion: 
.upon which occasions, Antoinette endeavoured to soften 
•him by her infant embraces, which bad some little effect ; 
but the mother's uuhappiness gave the daugl^ter an utter 
aversion to matrimony. Thisr falling upon a temper strongly 
tinctured with enthusiasm, she grew a perfect devotee to 
virginity, and became so immaculately chaste, that, if her 
own word may be taken, she never had, in all her life, not 
even by temptation or surprise, the least thought unworthy 
4)f the purity of the virgin state : nay, she possessed the 
gift of chastity in so abundant a manner, that her presence 
and, her conversation shed an ardour of continence over all 
who knew her. 

Her father, however, to whom all this appeared unna- 
tural, considered her as a mere woman ; and, having found 
ap agreeable match, promised her in marriage to a French- 

> 3d[ererL««*Dict. Hist. 


S36 B O U R I G N O N. 

man. Easter-day, 1636, was fixed for the nuptials ; but, to 
avoid the execution, the young lady fled, under the disguise 
of a hermit, but was stopped at Blacon, a village of Hai- 
nault, on suspicion of her sex. It was an officer of horse 
quartered in the village who seized ber ; he had observed 
something extraordinary in her, and mentioning her to the 
archbishop df Cambray, that prelate came to examine her, 
and sent her home. Bdt being pressed again with proposals 
of matrimony, she ran away once more : and, going to the 
archbishop, obtained his licence to set up a small society in 
the country, with some other maidens of her taste and tem- 
per. That licence, however, was soon retracted, and An- 
toinette obliged ta withdraw into the country of Liege, 
whence she returned to Lisle, and passed many years there 
privately in devotion and great simplicity. When her patri- 
monial estate fell to her, she resolved at first to renounce it ; 
but, changing her mind, she took possession of it ; and as 
she was satisfied with a few conveniences, she lived at little 
expence : and bestowing no charities, her fortune increased 
apace. For thus taking possession of her estate, she gave 
three reasons : first, that it might not come into the hands 
of those who had no right to it ; or secondly, of those who 
would have made an ill use of it ; thirdly, God shewed her 
that she should have occasion for« it to his glory. And as 
to charity, "she says, the deserving poor are not to be met 
vwith in^this world. This patrimony must have been some- 
thing considerable, since she speaks of several maid ser- 
vants in her houses. What she reserved, however, for this 
purpose, became a temptation to one John de Saulieu, the 
son of a peasant, who resolved to make his court to her ; 
and, getting admittance under the character of a prophet, 
insinuated himself into thelady^s favour by devout acts 
and discourses of the most refined spirituality. At length 
be declared his passion, modestly enough at first, and was 
easily checked ; but finding her intractable, he grew so 
insolent as to threaten to murder her if she would not com- 
ply. Upon this she had recourse to the provost, who sent 
two men to guard her house ; and in revenge Saulieu gave 
out, that she had promised him marriage, and even bedded 
with him. But, in conclusion, they were reconciled ; he 
retracted his slanders, and addressed, himself to a young 
devotee at Ghent, whom he found more tractable. This, 
however, did not free her from other applications of a 
similar nature. The parson's nephew of St, Andrew's pa* 
rish near Lisle fell ip love with her; and as her hous^ 

B O U R I G N a N, «?7 

stood in the neighbourhood, he frequently environed it. 
In order to force an entrance. Our recluse threatened to 
quit her post, if she was not delivered from this trouble^ 
«ome suitor, and the uncle drove him from his house: 
upon which he grew desperate, and sometimes discharged 
a aiusquet through the nun's chamber, giving out that she 
was his espoused wife. This made a noise in the city ; 
the devotees were offended, and « threatened to af&ont 
Bourignon, if they met her in the streets. At length she 
wa3 relieved by the preachers, who published from their 
pulpits, that the report of the marriage was a scandalous 

Some time afterwards she quitted her house, and put 
herself as governess at the head of an hospital, where sh^ 
locked herself up in the cloister in 1658, having taken the 
order and habit of St. Austin. But here again, by a very 
singular fate, she fell into fresh trouble. Her hospital was 
f&und to be infected with sorcery so much, that even all 
the little girls in it had an engagement with the devil. 
This gave room to suspect the governess ; who was ac- 
cordingly taken up by the magistrates of Lisle, and exa- 
mined : but nothing could be proved against her. How« 
ever, to avoid further prosecutions, she retired to Ghent 
in 1662 : where she no sooner was, than she professed that 
great secrets were revealed to hen About this time she 
acquired a friend at Amsterdam, who proved faithful to 
her as long as he lived, . and left her a good estate at his 
death : his name was* De Cordt : he was one of the fathers 
of the oratory, and their superior at Mechlin, and was di- 
rector also of an hospital for poor children. This prose- 
lyte was her first spiritual birth, and is said to have given 
her the same kind of bodily pangs and throes as a natural 
labour, which was the case also with her other spiritual 
children ; and she perceived more or less of th^se pains, 
according as the truths which she had declared operated 
more ot less strongly on their minds. Whence another of 
her disciples, a certain archdeacon, talking with De Cordt 
before their mother on the good and new resolution which 
they had taken, the latter observed, that her pains were 
much greater for him than for the former : the archdeacon, 
looking upon De Cordt, who was fat and corpulent, 
whereas he was a little man himself, said, smiling, <' It is 
no wonder that our mother has had a harder labour for you 
than for me, since you are a great, huge child, whereas I 

M8 B O U R I G N O n: 

^sm but a little one ;" which discomposed the gravity of a$ 
the faces ptesent : This has been recorded as a proof that 
our Antoinette's disciples sometimes descended from the 
sublimity of their devotion to the innocent raillery of peo- 
ple of the world. 

Our prophetess staid longer than she intended atAmster" 
dam, where she published her book of "The Ught of the 
world," and some others ; and finding all sorts crowd to 
▼iisit her, she entertained hopes of seeing her doctrine ge- 
nerally embraced; but in that she was sadly deceived. 
For, notwithstanding her conversations with heaven* were, 
as it is said, frequent, so that she understood a great num- 
ber of things by revelation, yet she composed more books 
there than she had followers. The truth is, her visions 
and revelations too plainly betrayed the visionary and en- 
thusiastic temper of her mind, and many of them were to« 
grossly indecent to proceed from a mind that was not 
tainted with insanity. She had likewise some qualities not 
very well calcalated to attract proselytes ; her temper wslb 
morose and peevish ; and she was extremely avaricious smd 
greedy of amassing riches. This quality rendered her ut^ 
terly uncharitable as to the branch of almsgiving, andsoim** 
placably unforgiving to such poor peasants as had robbed 
her of any trifle, that she used to prosecute them with the 
utmost rigour* 

Her stay at Amsterdam was^ chiefly owing to the happi- 
ness she had in her dear De Cordt : that proselyte had ad-«» 
Tanc6d almost all his estate to some relations, in order to 
drain the island of Noordstrahdt in Holstein, by which 
means he had acquired some part of the island^ together 
with the tithes and government of the whole. He aold also 
an estate to madanie Bourignon, who prepared to retijre 
thither in 1668 ; but she rejected the proposal of Labadio 
and his disciples to se^le themselves there with hen It 
seems they had offered t)e Cordt a large sum of money to 
purchase the whole island, and thereby obtained his x^n- 
sent to their settlement in it : this was cutting the grasd 
under her feet, an injury which she took effectual care to 
prevent. Accordingly De Cordt dying on the l'2th of No-» 
vember 1669, made her his heir^: which inheritance, 

* This fanatic designed Noordstrandt He bad sold them a part, giving up att 

for the persecuted saints of God ; and the rest, with his rights and pretensions 

taking the Jansenists to be snch, he to the oratory of Mechlin, under cer- 

drew them from ^11 parts into the iyle, uia couditiont, which m% being 


B O U R I G N O N: 


Itowever, brought her into new troubles. Many law-suitil 
were raised to binder her from enjoying it : nor were her 
doctrine and religious principles spared on the occasion* 
However, she left Holland in 1671, to go into Noordstrand€. 

But stopping in her way at several places of Holstein, 
where she dismissed smne disciples (who followed her, she 
found, for the sake of interest) she plied her pen, which 
was so prolific tbat she found it convenient to provide her- 
self with a press, where she printed her books in French, 
Dutch, and German. Among others she answered all her 
adversaries in a piece entitled, " The testimony of truth^** 
in which she handled the ecclesiastics in a severe manner. 
In these controversial pieces she demonstrated her want of 
the first fundamental of all religion both natural and re- 
vettled, humility. Two Lutheran ministers raised the 
adarm against her by some books, in which they declared, 
chat people had been beheaded and burnt for opinions 
more supportable than hers. The Labbadists also wrote 
against her, and her press was prohibited. In this distress 
she retired to Hensbergin 1673, but was discovered, and 
treated so ill by the people under the character of a sor- 
ceress, that she was very happy in getting secretly away. 
Afterwards, being driven from city to city, she was at length 
forced to abandon Uolstiein, and went to Hamburgh ia 
1676, as a place of more security ; but her arrival was no 
ftooner known, than they endeavoured to seize her. On 
this she lay hid for some days, and then went to East Fries- 
land, where she got protection from the baron of Lat2- 
bourg,- and was made governess of an hospital. 

It is observable, ' that all other passions have tlieir holi-« 
days, but avarite never suffers its votaries to rest. When 
our devotee accepted the care of this charity, she declared 
tbat she consented to contribute her industry both to the 
building and to the distribution of the goods, and the in- 
i^ection of the poor, but without engaging any part of her 

•erved, he recovered his estate, but not 
without great law>suits; whereby he 
was imprisoDed at Amsterdam, la 
March 1669, at the suit of the fomous 
Jansenist Mr. St. Amour. . Before he 
went to prison, he was severely cen- 
sored by a bishop, who treated him as 
a heretic, and as a man who coveted 
the goods of this world, te the detriment 
of those whom he had deceived, by 
MlHog.them lands in Noordstrandty ai 

a man given to drinking ; suspected of 
having lost both faith and charity ; and 
who had even Suffered himself to be se- 
duced by a woman of Lisle, with whom 
he U^ed, to the great scandal of every- 
one. He continued ^x months in pri- 
son, and came out only by accident; 
he went into his own island, and died 
of poison, in 1669. Vie continu6e d? 
M, de Bourignon, p. 290, 331, 

840 B O U R I G NO N. 

• • 

estate ; for which she alleged two reasons, one, that her 
goods had already been dedicated to God for the use of 
those who sincerely sought to become true Christians ; the' 
other, that men and all human things are very inconstant. 
On this principle, she resolved never to part with any 
thing, but refer all donations to her last will and testa* 
jneot ; and accordingly, when she had distributed among 
these poor people certain revenues of the place annexed 
to this hospital by the founder, being asked if she would 
not contribute something of her own, she returned an an- 
swer in writing, that because these poor lived like beasts, 
who had no souls to save, she had rather throw her goods, 
which were consecrated to God, into the sea, than heave 
the least mite there. It was on this account that she found 
persecutors in East Friesland,. hotwitfastanding the baron 
de Latzbourg's protection ; so that she took her way to 
Holland in 1680, but died at Franeker, on the 30th of 
October the same year. 

We have already mentioned the crookedness of her out* 
ward form, which probably wa^ the reason why she would 
never suffer her picture to be taken : however, her con- 
stitution was so tough, that, in spite of all the fatigues and 
troubles of her life, she seemed to be but forty years of 
age, when she was above sixty: and, though she was al- 
most continually wearing , her eyesight, both by'readiog 
and writing, yet she never made use of spectacles. She 
was lucky enough to have the three most remarkable 
periods of her life, as her birth, her arriving to the rank 
f)f an author, and her death, characterised by comets ; a 
circumstance greatly favourable to a prophet and a teacWr 
of a new religion. Her writings were volumipous, but it 
would be impossible to draw from them an accurate and 
consistent scheme of religion ; for the pretended '^ Di- 
vine light," that guides people of this class, does not pro- 
ceed in a methodical way of reasoning and argument -, it 
discovers itself by flashes, which shed nothing but thick 
darkness in the minds of those who investigate truth with 
the understanding, and do hot trust to the reports of fancy^ 
that is so often governed by sense and passion. Madame 
Bourignon^s intellect was probably in a disordered state. 
One of her principal followers was Peter Poiret, a man of 
bold and penetrating genius, who was a great master of the 
Cartesian philosophy, and who proves in his own example, 
that knowledge and ignorance^ reason and superstition, are 

B d U R I G N O N. 241 

ofteh divided bj^ thin partitions, and that they sometimes 
not only dwell together in the same person, but also, by 
an unnatural and. unaccountable union, afford mutual as- 
sistance, and thus engender monstrous productions. 

Antoinette Bourignon had more disciples in Scotland than 
in any othei' couiltry perhaps of the world. Not only lay* 
men, but some of their ecclesiastics, embraced Bourig- 
Yionism : and one of Antoinette's principal books was pub- 
lished, entitled " The light of the wond," in English, in 
1'69€ ; to which the translator added a long preface, to 
prove that this maid ought at least' to pass for an extraor- 
dinary prophetess^ Her tenets at one time gained sd 
much ground in Scotland, as to become an object of great 
jealousy vtrith the church, and measures were adopted by 
the Genieral Assembly for checking the growth of this blas-» 
phemous heresy. Dr. George Garden, a minister of Aber- 
deen, was deposed in 1701, for teaching its "damnable 
errors," and all candidates for orders are to this day re- 
quired to abjure and renounce the Bourignian doctrine. 
Mr. Charles Lesley, in the preface to the second edition 
of his " Snake in the grass," observed the errors of this 
sect ; and they were refuted at large by Dr. Cockburn, in 
a piece entitled^ Bourignonism detected, against messieurs 
Poiret, De Cordt, and the English translator of the " Lux 
Mulidi,'* who endeavoured to shew that she was inspired, 
and had received a commission from God to reform Chris- 
tianity. This was answered by the Bourignonists in an 
apology for their leader ; who has still a remnant left in 
some parts of North Britain. * ' 

BOURNE (Immanuel), the son of a clergyman, was. 
born in Northamptonshire, Dec. 27, 1590, and was edu- 
cated at Christ church, Oxford, where he took his master's 
degree in 1616. - About that time he preached under Dr. 
Piers, rector of St Christopher's, Threadneedle- street, 
London, and was much encouraged in his studies and pro- 
fession by sir Samuel Tryon, knt. and inhabitant of that 
parish. In 1622, be got the living of Ashover, in Derby- 
shire, which he retained niany years. During the rebel- 
lion, he^sided with the predominant party, duel removed to 
London, where he became preacher of St. Sepulchre's, 
and was much followed. In 1656, he became rector of 
Waitham in Leicestershire, and having conformed at tb^ 

1 Gm. Diet. — Mosb«tiDy &c. 

Vol. VI. R 



242 BOURNE. 

restoration, was instituted to the rectory of Ailston in the 
same county. Wood says he was well acquainted with 
the fathers and schoolmen. He died* Dec. 27, 1672, and 
was buried in the chancel of the church of Ailston. Besides 
some occasional sermons, he published, 1. ** A Light from 
Christ, &c." or a preparatory to the Sacrament, London, 
1645, 8vo. 2. " Defence of Scriptures," ibid. 1656, 4to. 
3. ** Defence and justification of ministers' maintenance 
by tithes, &c." ♦against the Anabaptists and Quakers, ibid. 
1659, 4to. 4. " A Gold Chain of directions with twenty 
Gold Links of love to preserve fini> love between husband 
and wife," ibid. 1669, 12mo.* 

BOURNE (Vincent), an elegant Latin poet, and a 
tery amiable man, of whom we regret that our memoirs 
are so scanty, was admitted a scholar of Westminster- 
schojl in 1710, from whence he was elected to the univer- 
sity of Cambridge in 1714, where, in Trinity college, he 
took his degree of A. B, ni7, and A.M. 1721, and ob- 
tained a fellowship. He was afterwards for several year* 
an usher in Westminster-school, and died of a lingering 
disorder December 2, 1747. He married ; and in a letter 
which he wrote to his wife a few weeks before his death, 
gives the following reasons why he did not take orders: 
" Though I think myself in strictness answerable to none 
but God and my own conscience, yet, for the 'satisfaction 
of the person that is dearest to me, I own and declare, that 
the importance of so great a charge, joined with a mistrust 
of my own sufficiency, made me fearful of undertaking it ; 
if I have not in that capacity assisted in the salvation of 
souls, I have not been the means of losing any ; if I have 
not brought reputation to the function by any merit of 
mine, I have the comfort of this reflection, I have given 
no scandal to it, by my meanness and unworthiness. It 
has been my sincere desire, though not my happiness, to 
be as useful in my little sphere of life as possible : my own 
inclinations would have led me to a more likely way of 
being serviceable, if I might have pursued them : however, 
as the method of education I have been brought up in was, 
I am satisfied, very kindly intended, I have nothing to 
find fault with, but a vnrong choice, and the not knowing 
those disabilities I have since heen truly conscious of: 
those difficulties I have endeavoured to get over i but found 

1 Wood'5 Mh. Yol. II. 

BOURNE. 243 

them insuperable. It has been the knowledge of these dis- 
couragements, that has been the chief subject of my sIeep-« 
ing, as well as my waking thoughts, a fear of reproach and 
contempt." While we admire the conscientious motives 
which induced him to contemplate, with reverential awe, 
the duties of a clergyman, we must regret the concurrence 
of events which, according to the conclusion of this letter, 
seems to haye led him into a way of life not agreeable to 
bis inclinations. Cowper, however, in one of his excellent 
letters, throws some light on those peculiar habits, which 
were not certainly very happily adapted to his situation as 
a public teacher. " I love," says Cowper, " the memory 
of Vinny Bourne. I think him a better Latin poet thaa 
Tibullus, Propertius, Ausonius, or any of the writers in 
his way, except Ovid, and not at all inferior to him. I 
love him too, with a love of partiality, because he was usher 
of the fifth form at Westminster when I passed through it. 
He was so good-natured, and so indolent, that I lost more 
than I got by him ; for he made me as idle as himself. He 
was such a sloven, as if he had trusted to his genius as a 
cloak for every thing that could disgust you in his per- 
son ; and indeed in his writings he has almost made amends 
for all. His humour is entirely original — he can speak of 
a magpie or a cat, in terms so exquisitely appropriated to 
the character he draws, that one would suppose him ani- 
mated by the spirit of the creature he describes. And 
with all his drollery, there is a mixture of rational, and 
even religious reflection, at times, and always an air of 
pleasantry, good nature, and humanity, that makes him, in 
my mind, one of the most amiable writers in the world. It 
is not common to meet with an author who can make you 
smile, and yet at nobody's expence ; who is always enter- 
taining, and yet always harmless ; and who, though always 
elegant and classical, to a degree- not always found in the 
classics themselves, charms more by the simplicity and 
playfulness of his ideas, than by the neatness and purity of 
his verse*: yet such was poor Vinny. I remember seeing 
the duke of Richmond set fire to his greasy locks, and box 
his ears to put it out again." 

His waitings, thus char9.Gte#ised, were published in 1772, 
under the title of " Mfscellan^us Poems, consisting of 
originals and translations," 4to,^ and certainly will be a 
lasting testimony of bis« talents. ;'He was, perhaps, at the 
time he Wrote, the besi Latin j)oet in Europe. Most ef 

R i 

244 ia o U ^ N E. 

the pieces in this volume had been printed in his life-time, 
if we mistake not, in a smaller volume. Dr. Beattie, after 
'noticing that Boileau did not know that there were any 
good poets in England, till Addison made him a present of 
the *^ Musa3 Anglicana;," remarks that " those foreigners 
inust entertain a high opinion of our pastoral poetry, who 
Have seen the Latin translations of Vincent Bourne, par- 
ticularly those of the ballads of * Tweedside,' ' William 
and Margaret,' and Rowe's * Despairing beside a clear 
isftream,' of which it is no compliment to say, that in sweet- 
ness of numbers, and elegant expression, they are at least 
equal to the originals, and scarce inferior to any thing ia 
Ovid or tibullus." * 

BOURSAULT (Edmund), a French dramatic writer 
and satirist, was born in 1638, at Mussi-l'6veque in Bur- 
gundy. He was not brought up at school, and could only 
speak the rude provincial dialect of his country, when he 
came to Paris in 1651, yet, .by the perusal of good books, 
with his good memory, he was soon able to converse and 
to write elegantly in French. Having composed, by or- 
' der of Louis Xl V. a book of no great merit, entitled " Of 
t^e proper study of sovereigns," 1671, 12mo, the king 
was so well pleased with it, that he would have appointed 
ibim sub-prefceptor to Monseigneur, if Boursault had been 
master of the Latin language. The duchess of Angoulerae, 
widow of a natural son of Charles 1X« having taken him to 
pe her secretary, he was engaged to turn every week the 
gazette into rhyme, which procured him a pension of 2000 
livres. Louis XIV. and his court were much entertained 
with him ; but, having employed his satire against the 
Franciscans and the Capuchins, he was silenced. The 
queen^s confessor, a Spanish cordelier, caused both the 

f' azette and the pension to be suppressed ; and would have 
ad him imprisoned, had it not been for the interest exert- 
ed in his behalf by his patrons. He shortly after obtained 
a new licence, and published his gazette under th^ title of 
the " Merry Muse ;" but it was again suppressed. He 
afterwards got into favour once more, and was made re- 
ceiver of the excise at Montlugon, where he died of a vio- 
lent colic, aged 63, Sept. 5, 1701. He wrote several 
theatrical pieces, and other works. The chief of them 

» Critical Kev. vol. XXXIII.— Beattie's Essays, p. 733.— Haylry's Life of 
f owper. — Welch*! Wcstmiuster scholar!, — Caatabrigiensei Gradoati. 

B O U R S A U L T. i45 

aVe, "jEsop in the citjV' and <* iEsbp at court;'* which 
long remained to the stage. These two pieces and the' 
follow-ing are an agreeable satire on the ridiculous manners 
of the several ages and conditions of life. His verse in 
general is harmonious, but his style sometimes negligent, 
yet in general easy and suitable to the subject. 2. The' 
" Mercure galante," or " La comedie sans titre," in which 
he ingeniously ridicules the rage for getting a place in the' 
Mercure galant. 3. " La satyre des satyres," in one act. 
Boileau's satirical notice of Boursault, to avenge Molifire, 
with whom he had had a difference, gave occasion to this*^ 
piece, which Boileau had interest enough and meanness 
enough to prevent being played. The satirist being soifie'' 
years afterwards at the baths of Bourbon, Boursault, at that' 
tiqae receiver of the excise at Montlugon, repaired thither^ 
on purpose to offer him his purse and his services. At this 
act of generosity J^oileaii was much affected; ani they 
immediately engaged in a mutual friendship, of which 
Boursault was highly deserving by the gentleness of his ' 
manners, and the cheerfulness of his disposition. He be- 
haved with less tolerance, however, towarcis his other cen- 
sors ; and was able s6nietimes to chastise them with'effect. 
A cabal having prevented the success of the first repre- 
sentation of " iEsop in the city," the author added to it a 
fable of the dog and the ox, applying the moral of it to 
the pit; which so effectually silencied'the cabal, that the 
piece had a run of forty-three nights without interruption. 
Thomas Corneille had a sincere regard ifor Boursault, whom 
he' used to call his son, and insisted on his applying to be 
admitted a member of the academy. Boursault desired to 
be excused on account of his ignordnce, adding with his 
us^al simplicity, " What would the acadiemy do with an 
ignorant and illiterate (ignare & non lettr6) member, who 
knows neither Latin nor Greek ?" " We are not talkinop" 
(returned Corneille) of a Greek or Latin academy, but of 
a French academy; and who understands French better 
than you?" There are likewise by him, 1. Sonie ro- 
mances, " The marquis de Chavigny,'* " The prince de 
Cond6;" which afe written with spirit; "Artemisia and 
Polyanthus ; aild, " We should only believe what we see.'* 
2. A collection of letters on subjects of respect, obligation, 
and gallantry ; known under the name of ^^ Lettres k Ba- 
bet ;** now forgotten. 3. " Lettres nouvelles," with fa- 
bles, tales, epigrams, remarks, bon-mots, &c. 3 vols. 12mo, 

246 B O U R S A U L T. 

several times reprinted, though mostly written in a loose 
and inelegant style : a miscellany, which was very popu- 
lar when it first came out ; but is much less at present, as 
the tales and bon-mots which Boursault has collected, or 
put into verse, are found in many other books. His fables 
liave neither the simplicity ,of those of La Fontaine, nor 
the elegant precision of Phaedrus. There is an edition of 
the " Theatre de Boursault," in 3 vols. 1746, l2mo. ' 

BOUBSIER (Lawrence Francis), doctor of the Sor- 
bonne, was born at Ecoven in the diocese of Paris, in 
1679, and died at Paris in 1749, at the age of 70. He 
published, 1. " L'action de Dieu sur les creatures," Paris, 
2 vols. 4to, or 6 vols.' 12mo. This treatise, in which he 
endeavours to establish physical premotjon by argument, 
was attacked by Malebranche ; but it discovers the powers 
of a profopnd metaphysician. 2. A memoir presented to 
Peter the Great by the doctors of Sorbonne for the re* 
union of the Greek and Latin churches. When the tzar 
appeared in the Sorbonne, Boursier addressed hiqi on the 
subject of this memoir. The monarch immediately an- 
swered, that he was but a soldier. Boursier replied, that 
he was a hero ; and that, as a prince, he was a protector of 
religion. — " This re-union is not so easy a matter (said the 
tzar) ; there are three points that divide us : the pope, the 

procession of the Holy Ghost " As he had forgot the 

third point, which is the unleavened bread and the cup, 
Boursier recalled it to his mind. " As for that article,** re- 
turned the emperor, *^we shall have no difficulty in coining 
to an agreement." At the end of tjie conversation, the 
Russian sovereign asked, for a memorandum of it :, it was 
given him ; but nothing more was ever heard of it. 3. An 
enormous quantity of publications on subjects of eccle- 
siastical controversy, enumerated by Moreri. There was 
another of thp name, almost a contemporary, Philip Bour- 
sier, deacon of Paris, where he was born in 1693, and died 
in 1768, aged 77. He was the first: author, in 1727, of 
the " Nouvelles eccl^siastique*;" in which work he nad 
several coadjutors, as Messrs. d'Etemare, d^ Fernanville, 
Berger. de Russy6, de Troya, Fontaine, But he alone 
composed the greatest part of the discourses that annually 
precede this periodical work. ' 


* Mortri.— Dict» Hist.^-Gen. Diet.— Niceron, vol. XIV.^Bio^. Gallica, 
vol. 1 1. s Diet. Hi8t.-:^>1 or^ri. 

B O U V A R T. 247 


BOUVART (Michael Phiup), physician and doctor 
regent of the faculty of Paris, and associate-veteran of the 
academy of sciences, was born atChartres Jan. 11, 1717, 
Many of his ancestors having been physicians, he deter- 
mined on the same profession, which he practised at Pa- 
ris with so mnoh success that no physician was more con* 
suited ; yet this did not prevent his being jealous of Tron- 
chin, Bordeu, and some others, of whom he spoke' very 
illiberally, but he was a man otherwise of great kindness 
and benevolence. One anecdote is recorded as character- 
istic. A banker, who had experienced some heavy losses, 
was taken ill, and Bouvart, who was called in, suspected 
that this weighed on his mind, but could not obtain the se- 
cret from him. The banker's wife, however, was more 
communicative, and told him that her husband had a pay- 
ment of twenty thousand livres to make very shortly, for 
which he was unprovided. Bouvart, without making any 
professions of sorrow or assistance, went immediately home 
and sent the money to his patient, who recovered surpris- 
ingly. Bouvart wrote only two or three small tracts : one a 
critique on Tronchin's book, *Me colica Pictonum," 1758, 
8vo ; a " Consultation sur une naissance tardive," against 
the anatomists Petit and Bertin, 1765, Svo; and* a "Me- 
moire au sujet de Thonoraire des medicines," 1768, 4to, 
all written in a keen, controversial style. He was also an 
opponent of inoculation for the small pox. He introduced 
the use of the polygalaof Virginia in cases of the bite of ve- 
nomous reptiles, and this was the subject of the only paper 
he contributed to the academy ; but the remedy, although 
said to be successful in his hands, fell into disrepute. He 
died Jan. 19, 1787.* 

BOWER (Archibald), a person of a very celebrated, 
but dubious character, was a native of Scotland, born on 
the 17th of January 1686 at or near Dundee, of an ancient 
family, by his own account, which had been for several 
hundred years possessed of an estate in the county of An- 
gus in Scotland. In September 1702, at the age of six- 
teen, he was sent to the Scots college of Douay, where he 
studied until the year 1706, to the end of his first year of 
philosophy. From thence he was removed to Rome, and 
on the 9th day of December 1706, was admitted into the 
^rder of Jesus. After a noviciate of two years, he went^ 

y Diet. Hist.— Eloi^ei cl«8 Academiciens^ toI. IV. 


in the year 17.12, to Fano, \ybpre he tapght huq9anitie9 
during the space of two years. He then removed tp.Fer- 
rnp, and resided there three years, until, the year 1717> 
when he was recalled to Rome to study divinity in the Ro- 
man college. There he remained until tfie year, 1721, 
when he was sent to the college of Arezzo, where he staid- 
until the year 1723, and became reader of philosophy, and 
consultor to the rector of the college. He then was sent 
to Florence, where he remained but a short titae, being iu 
the same year removed to Macerata, at which place he con* 
tinned until the year 1726. Between the two latter periods 
it seems probable that he made his last vows, his own ac^ 
count fixing that event in the month of . March 1722, at 
Florence ; though, as he certainly was th^t year sit Arezzo^ 
it is most likely to have been.a yeiir later. 

Having thus been confirmed in the ordex of tbei Jesuits, 
and arrived at the age of almost forty yeajs, it was? rpason^ 
able to suppose that Mr. Bower would have passed tbrpugl^ 
life with no other changes than such as are usual vyith pe^*- 
sons of the same order; but this uniformity. of, life was ndt 
destined to be his lot. To whatever cause it is to be as-r 
cribed — whether, according to his own, account, to his dis- 
gust at the enormities committed by the inquisitiop, in 
whigh he perfprmed the office of -counsel lor.; or, as his ene? 
inies assert, to his indulgence of his passions, particuiarly 
with a nun to whom he was ghostly father ; certain it is, 
that in the year 1 726 he was removed ftom Macerata to Pe-r 
rugia, and from thence made his escape, into Eiigland, where 
he arrived at the latter end of June or July, after various 
adventures, which it now becomes our duty to communicate 
to the reader, and which we shall do in his own words j 
premising, however, that the truth of the narrative, has 
been impeached in several very material circumstances. 
Having determined to put into execution his design^ of 
quitting the inquisition and bidding for ever adieu to 
Italy, he proceeds : " To execute that design with some 
safety, I purposed to beg leave of the inquisitor to visit the 
Virgin of Loretto, but thirteen miles distant, and to, pass 
a week there ; but in the mean time to make the best of 
my way to. the country of the Grisons, the nearest country 
to Macerata, out of the reach of the inquisition. Having 
therefoi'e, after many conflicts with myself, asked leave to 
visit the neighbouring sanctuary, and obtained it, I set out 
on horseback the very next morning, leaving, as I purposed 
to keep the horse, his full value with the owner, I topk 

BOWER. 249 

jthe road to Loretto^ but turaed out of it at a small distance 
f^oin RecaDati, after a most violent struggle with myself^ 
the attempt appearing to uie, at that juncture, quite de- 
sperate and iaipracticable ; and the dreadful doom reserved 
for me, should I miscarry, presenting itself to my mind in 
the strongest light. But the reflectiun that I had it in my 
power to avoid being taken alive, and a persuasion that a 
,man in my situation might lawfully avoid it, when every 
pther means failed him, at the expence of his life, revived. 
my staggered resolution ; and all my fears ceasing at once, 
I steered my course, leaving Loretto behind me, to Calvi 
iq the dukedom of Urbino, and from thence through the 
Romagna into the Bolonese, keeping the by-roads, and at 
a good* distance fron^ the cities of Fano, Pisaro, Rimini,. 
Forli, F^enza, and Imola, through which the high road 
passed* Tiius I advanced very slowly, travelling, generally^ 
speaking, in very bad roads, and often in places where 
jthere was no road at all, to avoid not only the cities and 
towns, but even the villages. In the mean time I seldom 
h^d any other support than some coarse provisions, and a 
very small quantity even of them, that the poor shepherds, 
tbe countrymen, or^ wood -cleavers, I met in those unfre- 
quented by-places, could* spare me. My horse fared not 
much better than myself; but in choosing my sleeping* 
place I consulted bis convenience as much as my own ; 
passing the night where I found most shelter for myself, 
and most grass for him. In Italy there are very few soli- 
tary farm-houses or cottages^ the country people there all 
living together in villages ; and I thought it far safer to lie 
where I could be any way sheltered, than to venture into 
any of them. Thus I spent seventeen days before I got out 
of. the Ecclesiastical State; and I very narrowly escaped 
being taken or murdered on the very borders of that statet 
It happened thus : 

^* I bad passed two whole days without any kind of sub- 
nistence- whatever, meeting nobody in the by-roads that 
would supply me with any, and fearing to come near any 
bouse, as I was not far from the borders of the dominions > 
of tbe pope — I thought I should be able to hold out till I 
got into the Modenese^ where I believed I should be in less * 
danger than while 1 remained in the papal dominions ; but ' 
finding myself about noon of the third day extremely weak» 
and ready to faint, I came into the high road that leads 
fcom Bologna to Florence^ at a few miles distance from the 

250 • BOWER. 

former city, and alighted at a post house that stood qnite 
by itself. Having asked the woman of the house whether she 
bad any victuals ready, and being told that she had, I went 
to open the door of the only room in the house (that being a 
place where gentlemen only stop to change horses), and 
saw, to my great surprise, a placard pasted on it with a 
most minute description of my whole person, and the pro- 
mise of a reward of 800 crowns, about 200/. English money, 
for delivering me up alive to the inquisition, being a fugi- 
tive from the holy tribunal, and 600 crowns for my head. 
By the same placard all persons were forbidden, on the pain 
of the greater excommunication, to receive,' harbour, or en- 
tertain me, to conceal or to screen me, or to be any way 
aiding and assisting to me in makingmy escape. This greatly 
alarmed me, as the reader may well imagine ; but I was 
still more affrighted when entering the room I saw two fel- 
lows drinking there, who, fixing their eyes upon me as 
soon as I came, continued looking at me very steadfastly. I 
strove, by wiping my face, by blowing my nose, by look- 
ing out at the window, to prevent their having a full view 
of me. But one of them saying, * The gentleman seems 
afraid to be seen,' I put up my handkerchief, and turning 
to the fellow said boldly, * What do you mean, you rascal ? 
Look at me ; I am not afraid to be seen.' He said nothing, 
but, looking again steadfastly at me, and nodding his head, 
went out, and his companion immediately followed him. I 
watched them ; and seeing them with two or three more in close 
conference^ and, no doubt, consulting whether they should 
apprehend me or not, I walked that moment into the stable, 
mounted my horse unobserved by them, and, while tBey 
were deliberating in an orchard behind the house, rode off 
full speed, and in a few hours got into the Modenese, tvhere 
I refreshed both with food and with rest, as I was there in 
no immediate danger, my horse and myself. I was indeed 
surprised to find that those fellows did not pursue me ; nor 
can I any other way account for it but by supposing, what is 
not improbable, that as they were strangers as well as my- 
self, and had all the appearance of banditti or rufEans flying 
out of the dominions of the pope, the woman of the h6use 
did not care to trust them with her horses. From the Mo- 
denese I continued my journey more leisurely through the 
Parmesan, the Milanese, and part of the Venetian territory, 
to Chiavenna, subject, with its district, to the Grisons, who 
abhor the very nan^e of the inquisition, and are ever ready to 

BOWER. 251 

receive and protect all who, flying frodi it, take refuge, as 
majiy {talians do, in their dominions. However, as I proposed 
getting as soon as I could to the city of Bern, the metropo- 
lis of that great protestant canton, and was informed that my 
best way was through the cantons of Uiy and Underwald, 
and part of the canton of Lucern, all three popish cantons^ 
I carefully concealed who I was and from whence I came. 
For though no inquisition prevails among the Swiss, yet the 
pope's nuncio, who resides at Lucern, might have per- 
suaded the magistrates of those popish cantons to stop me 
as an apostate and deserter from the order. 

*^ Having rested a l^w days at Chiavenna, I resumed my 
journey quite refreshed, continuing it through the country 
of the Grisons, and the two small cantons of Ury and Un- 
derwald to the canton of Lucern. There I missed my way, 
as I was quite unacquainted with the country, and discover- 
ing a city at a distance, was advancing to it, but yery 
slowly, as I knew not where I was ; when a countryman 
whom I met informed me that the city before me was Lu- 
cern.. Upon that intelligence I turned out of the road as 
soon as the countryman was out of sight ; and that night 
I passed with a good-natured shepherd in his cottage, who 
supplied me with sheep's milk, and my horse with plenty of 
grass. I set out very early next morning, making the best 
of my way westward, as I knew that Bern lay west of Lu- 
cern. But after a few miles the country proved very moun- 
tainous; and having travelled the whole day over moun- 
tains, I was overtaken amongst them by night. As I was 
looking out for a place where I might shelter myself during 
the night against the snow and rain, for it both snowed and 
rained,. I perceived a light at a distance ; and, making to- 
wards it, got into a kind of footpath, but so narrow and 
rugged that I was obliged to lead my horse and feel my way 
with one foot, having no light tp direct me, before I durst 
move the other. Tbu$ with much difficulty I reached the 
place where the light was, a poor little cottage ; and, 
knocking at the door, was askiEid by a man within who I 
was, and what I wanted. I answered that I was a stranger, 
and had lost my way. ^ Lost your way !' replied the man ; 
* there is no way here to lose.' I then asked him in what 
canton I was ; and upon his answering that I was in the 
canton of Bern, * I thank God,' I cried out, transported 
with joy^ * that 1 am.' The good man answered, * And so 
do V I thea told him who I was, and that I was going to 

252 BOWER. 

Bern,butbad quite lost myself by keeping out of all the high^ 
roads to avoid falling into the hands of those who sought my 
destruction. He thereupon opened the door, received and' 
entertained ifle with all the hospitality his poverty would' 
admit ot^ regtaled me with sour-kYdut and some new-laid 
eggs, the only provisions he had, and clean straw with a^ 
kind of rug for my bed, he having no other for himself and 
bis wife. The good woman expressed as much satisfaction' 
and good-nature in her countenance as her husband^ and^ 
said many kind things in the Swiss language, which her' 
husband interpreted for me in the Italian ; for that language 
hie well understood, and spoke so as to be understood, hav- 
ing learnt it as he told me in his youth while servant in a 
public-house on the borders of Italy, where both languages 
are spoken. I never passed a more comfortable night; and' 
. no sooner did I begin to stir' in the morning, than the good 
man and his wife came both to know how I rested, and 
wishing they had been able to accommodate me better, 
obliged me to breakfast on two eggs, which Providence, 
they said, had supplied the'm with f6r that purpose: I' 
then took leave of the wife, who, With her eyes lifted up to 
heaven, seemed most sincerely to wish me' a' good j6urney. 
As for the husband, he would by all means attend me to 
the high road leading to Bern; which road, hesaid, was but 
two miles distant from that place. But he insisted on my 
first going back with him* to see the way I had come the 
night before, the only way, he said, I cbuld have possibly 
come from the neighbouring canton of Lucern. I saw it, 
and shuddered at the danger 1 • had escaped ; for Ifound 
that I bad walked and led my horse' a good way along a 
very narrow path on the brink of a dreadnil precipice. The 
man made so many pious and pertinent retoaAs on the oc- 
casion, as both charmed and surprised nie. I no le^s ad- 
mired his disinterestedness than his piety : for, upon our ' 
parting, after he had attended m& till I was out of all dan- 
ger of losing my way, I could by no meaiis prevail upoti ' 
him' to accept of any reward for his trouble. He had the sa- 
tisfaction, he said, of having relieved me in the' greatest 
distress, which was in itself a sufficient reward, and he cared 
for no other. 

** I reached Bern that night, and purposed istaying some 
time^here ; but being inforriied by the priricipar minister of 
the place, to whom I discovered myself, that boats went 
frequently down the Rhine at that time of th^ year wfCk'* 

BOWER. 255 

foods and passengers from Basil to Holland, and advised 
y him to avail myself of that opportunity, 1 set out accord- 
ingly the next day, and crossing the popish canton of So- 
leurre in the night, but very carefully avoiding the town of 
that name, I got early the next morning to Basil. There I 
met with a most friendly reception from one of the minis- 
ters of the place, having been warmly recommended to him 
by a letter I brought with me from his brother at Bern* 
As a boat was to sail in two days, he entertained me very 
elegantly during that time at his house ; and I embarked 
the third day, leaving my horse to my host in return for 
his kindness. 

*^ The company in the boat consisted of a few traders, of 
a great many vagabonds, the very refuse of the neighbouring 
nations^ and some (Criminals flying from justice. But I was 
uot long with them ; for the boat striking against a rock 
not far from Strasburgb, I resolved not to wait till it was re- 
fitted (as it was not my design to go to Holland), but to , 
pursue my journey partly in the common diligence or stage 
coach, and partly on post-horses, through France into 

*^ And here I must inform the .reader, that^ •though the 
cruelties of the inquisition had inspired me with great hor- 
ror at their being encouraged under the name of religion, 
and I had thereupon begun to entertain many doubts con- 
cerning other doctrines that I had till that time implicitly 
swallowed, as most Italian catholics do, without examina- 
tioii ; nevertheless, as I had not thoroughly examined them, 
nor had an opportunity of examining them, being employed 
in studies of a quite difte rent nature, I was not yet deter- 
mined to quit either that church or the order. Having 
therefore got safe into French Flanders, I there repaired to 
the college of the Scotch Jesuits at Douay ; and discover- 
ing mysplf to the rector, I acquainted him with the cause 
of my sudden departure from Italy, and begged him to 
give immediate notice of my arrival, as well as the motives 
of my flight, to Michael Angelo Tamburini, general of the 
order, and my very particular friend. My repairing thus 
to a college of Jesuits, and putting myself in their power, 
is a plain proof, as may be observed here by the way, that 
it was not because I was guilty of any crime, or to avoid the 
punishment due to any crime, that I had fled from Italy; 
for, had that been the case, no man can think that instead 
uf rejpairing to Holland or England, as I might have easily 

254 B O W fe It. 

done, arid bid the whole order defiance, I would have tbits 
delivered myself up to them, and put it in their power to 
indict on me what punishment soever they pleased. - 

"The rector wrote, as I had desired him, to the general ; 
and the general, taking no notice of my flight in his an^* 
swer (for he could not disapprove it, and did ndt think it 
»afe to approve it), ordered me to continue where I was 
till further orders. I arrived at Douay,. early in May, and 
continued there till the latter end of June or the beginning 
of July, when the rector received d second letter from the 
general, acquainting him, that he had beeri commanded 
by the congregation of the inquisition to order liie, wherevet 
I was, back to Italy ; to promise me in their fiame full 
pardon and forgiveness, if I obeyed ; but if 1 did not obey, 
to treat me as an apostate. He added, that tlie same order 
had been transmitted soon after my flight to the nuncios 
at the different Roman catholic courts ; and he therefore 
advised me to consult my own safety without farther delay. 
" It is to be observed here, that it is deemed apostacy 
in a person of any religious order to quit his habit, and 
withdraw, without the knowledge of his superiors, from 
the college, convent, or monastery, in which they have 
placed him ; and that all bishops are not only impowefed, 
"but bound to apprehend such an apostate within the limits 
of their respective jurisdictions, and deliver him Up to his 
superiors to be punished by them. As 1 had quitted the 
habit, and withdrawn from the college of Macerata, with- 
out leave from n)y superiors who had placed me there, I 
should have been treated as an apostate, had I been dis- 
covered in my flight in a Roman catholic country, even 
where no inquisition prevailed. But my returning volun- 
tarily, and resuming the habit, cleared me from the guilt 
of apostacy at the generals tribunal, nay, and at that of 
the inquisition itself. However, the congregatipn of the 
inquisition had it still in their power to obhge the general 
to recal me to Italy, and to treat ine as an apostate if I 
did not obey ; disobedience to an express command of a 
lawful superior being deemed apostacy, and punished as 
such with close confinement, and with bread and water for 
food till the order is complied with. That order the gene- 
ral received ; but his friendship for me, of which he had 
given me some remarkable instances, and his being fully 
convinced of my indocence, the inquisitor himself having 
nothing to lay to my charge but my flight, prompted huu 


B O W E R. 255 

to warn me of the danger that threatened me. Indeed I 
thought myself quite safe in the dominions of France; and 
should accordingly hav^ lived there unmolested by the in- 
quisition, what crime soever I had been guilty of cogniz- 
able by that tribunal alone ; but as I had belonged to it, 
and was consequently privy to their hellish proceedings, 
they were apprehensive I should discover them to the 
world,; and it was to prevent me from ever discovering 
them, that they obliged the general to order me back to 
Italy, and promise me, in their name, a free pardon if I 
complied, but to confine me for life if I did not comply 
with the order. 

** Upon the receipt of the general's kind letter, the rec- 
tor was of opinion, that I should repair by all means, and 
without loss of time, to England^ not only as the safest 
asylum I could fly to in my present situation, but as a 
place where I should soon recover my native language, 
and be usefully employed, as soon as I recovered it, either 
there or in Scotland. I readily closed with the rector's 
opinion, being very uneasy in my mind, as my old doubts 
in point of religion daily gained ground, and new ones 
arose upon my reading, which was^my only employment, 
the books of controversy I found in the library of the col- 
lege. The place being thus agreed on, and it being at 
the same time settled between the rector and me that I 
should set out the very next morning, I solemnly pro- 
mised, at his request and desire, to take no notice, after 
my arrival in England, of his having been any ways privy 
to my flight, or of the general's letter to him. This pro- 
mise I have faithfully and^ honourably observed ; and I 
should have thought myself guilty of the blackest ingrati- 
tude if I had not observed it, being sensible that, had it 
I^een known at Rome that either the rector or general had 
been .accessary to my flight, the inquisition would have re- 
sented it severely on both. For thou t>h a Jesuit in France 
or in Germany is out of the reach of the inquisition, the 
general is not ; and the high tribunal not only have it in 
their power to punish the general himself, who resides 
constantly at Rome, but may oblige him to inflict what 
punishment they please on any of the order ^ obnoxious to 

** The rector went that very night out of town ; and in 
his absence, but not without his privity, I took one of the 
horses of jthe college early next morning, as if I were 

2 5€ BOWER. 


going for change of Bjr, being somewbat indisposed, id 
pass a few days at LisIeJ But^steering a different course, 
I reached Aire that night, and Calais the next^lay. I was* 
there in no danger of being stopped and seized at the pro- 
secution of the inquisition, a tribunal no less abhorred in 
France than in England. But being informed by the gene- 
ral, that the nuncios at the different courts had been or- 
dered, soon after my flight, to cause me to be apprehended 
in the Roman catlKtlic countries through which I might 
pass, as an apostate or deserter from the order, I was 
iiuder no small apprehension of being discorelred and ap-» 
prehended as such even at Calais. No sooner, therefore, 
did I alight at the inn, than I went down to the quay ; tind 
there, as I was very little acquainted with the sea, and 
thought the passage much shorter than it is, I endeavoured 
to^ engage some fisliermen to carry me that very night in 
one of their small vessels over to England. Thi:$ alarmed 
the guards of the harbour; and I shoAild certainly have 
been apprehended, as guilty or suspected of some great 
crime, flying from justice, had not lord Baltimore, whom 
I had the good luck to meet at the inn, informed of my 
danger, and pitying my condition, attended me that mo- 
ment with all his company to the port, and conveyed me 
immediately on board his yacht. There I lay that night, 
leaving every thing I had but the clothes on my back in 
the inn ; and the next day his lordship set me on shore at 
Dover, from whence I came in the'common stage to Lon- 

This is the narrative which, after thirty years, Mr* 
Bower gave the public as a genuine account. Whether 
owing to the inaccuracy of those who had formerly heard 
it, to the variations to which a tale frequently repeated is 
always liable, or to the neglect of veracity. in the writer, it 
certainly differed from accounts which had been orally 
given by him too much not to furnish some suspicion^ of 
the author. On his arrival in England it appears to have 
been his 6rst object to procure an introduction to some 
persons of respectability in the country destined for his 
future residence. He had heard of Dr. Aspinwall soon 
after bis arrival ; and that divine having formerly belonged 
to the ord^r of Jesuits, he waited on him, and was kindly 
received. By this gentleman he was introduced to Dr. 
Clarke ; and to them both he opened, as he says, his 
ipind, without disguise, respecting his doubts relative^ ta 

BOWER. " «A7 

hi$ fja|th. After several conferences with these gentlenpen, 
and some with Berkeley, the bishop of Cloyne, then dean 
of Londoiiderry, added to \w own reading an^ reasoning, 
he obtained, as he says, the fullest conviction that many 
' of the favourite doctrines of Rome were not only evidently 
repugnant to scripture and reason, but wicked, blasphe- 
mous, and utterly inconsistent with the attributes of thp' 
supreme and infinite being* He therefore withdrew him- 
self from the communion of the church without further de« 
lay, took leave of the provincial, quitted the order, and 
broke off all connection with those of the communiou. 
This happened in the month of November, 1726. 

'He did not, however, become immediately a member 
of any other church. ^* I declined," says he, " conform- 
ing to any particular church ; but, suspecting all alike, 
after I had been so long and so grossly imposed upon, I 
foriped a system of religion to myself, and continued a prO'- 
te&tant for the space^ I think, of six years, but a protestant 
of no particular denoqiination: At last I conformed to the 
church of England, as free in her service as any r^form^d 
church from the idolatrous practices and superstitions of 
popery, and less inclined than many others to fanaticisgi 
and enthusiasm." 

By Dr. Aspinwall's means he was introduced to all that 
gentleman's friends and acquaintance ; and among others 
to Dr. Goodman (physician to king George the first), who 
procured hiip to be recommended to lord Aylmer, who 
wanted a person to assist him in reading the classics. With 
this nobleipan he continued several years on teems of the 
greatest intimacy ; and was by him made known to all his 
lordship^s cp,nnectionS| and particularly to. the family of 
lord Lyttelton, who afterwards became his warm, steady^ 
and to the last, when deserted by almost every other per- 
son, his unalterable friend. 

During the time he lived with lord Aylmer, he under- 
took, for Mr. Prevost, a bookseller, the " Historia Lite- 
;raria,'' a monthly publication in the nature of a review, 
the first number of which was published in the year 1730. 
He wrote the preface to that work, and several of the ar- 
ticles, in Italian ; not being, as he asserts, yet sufficiently 
acquainted with the English to write in that language .^^ 

* The preface wai translated by Mr. ley, who kept afterwards a boardini^* 
.WVman, aod the rest by Mr* Bark- school at Liule Chelsea. 

Vot.VIi s 

«58 BOWER. 

In the mean time he closely applied to the study of th6 
EngKsh tongue, and after six months began to think diat 
he had no further occasion for a translator^ and he em- 
ployed him no more. 

While he was yet engaged in writing the Historia Lite- 
raria, the proprietors of the " Universal History" would 
have engaged him in that undertaking. But though some 
advantageous offers were made him, he declined them, 
until the Historia Literaria was relinquished in 1734. In 
the next year he agreed with the proprietors of the ** Uni- 
versal History," and was employed by them to 1744, being 
the space of nine years *. 

"JVhile he was engaged in the ** Universal History," he 
undertook, at the request of Mr. Charlton, of Apley castled, 
in Shropshire, the education of young Mr. Thompson, son 
iof Mr. Thompson, of Cooley, in Berkshire : but the bad 
state of his health at that time did not allow him to coo" 
tinue more than a twelvemonth in that family ; and upon 
his recovery, lord Aylmer engaged him to educate two of 
his children, one of whom afterwards became a captain in 
colonel tree's regiment, and the other a prebendary of 

By the emolaments arising from his tuition and his writ- 
ings, it appears that in the year 1740 he had saved the sum 
of 1100/. in the Old South Sea annuities, with which be 
bad resolved to purchase a life-annuity. In the disposition 
of this money he was engaged in a negociatiou for the loan 
of it, which afterwards proved fatal to his character. We 
shall again have recourse to Mr. Bower*s own accotrnt. 
Having determined to purchase this annuity, he proceeds 
in this manner : ** This resolution I imparted to several of 

* The part which he wrote of this find most reigpis contained in as maof 

work was the Roman history ; in the short paragraphs as they would have 

execution of which he is charged by his required sheets ; which is so much the 

fellow-labourer, George Psalmanazar, greater loss to the public, inasmuch 

with the blame of some material parts as the Reman history, being so veil 

of the work, and particularly of the By- known, and written bjr so many bands, 

zantine history, being curtailed. " The was the fittest to have been epitomized { 

truth is," says that author, '* that the whereas the Byzantine, though equally 

author of the Roman history having curious and instructive, is so littk 

wire-drawn it to above three times the known, that it ought to have been writ* 

length it was to have been, there was ten in a more copious manner, espe* 

•n absolute necessity of curtailing that cially as it abounds with the most ia- 

of the Constantinopolitan emperors, to teresting incidents to the church a^weA 

prevent the work swelling into an enor- as the state : so that the author hath 

mons bulk; and he himself hath a- done, in both respects, the very reverse 

bridged it insiich a manner as hath of what he ought to have done." Pialv 

^ttite marred it, since the reader will manazar's Life, p. 309. 



(p\y protestant friends ; and, among the rest, to sir Thomas 
Mostyn^s lawyer, and to sir Thomas himself, offering at 
the same time the above-mentioned sum to him, as he well 
remenibers, and is ready to attest But neither sir Tho^ 
mas, nor any of my other protestant friends, caring to 
.burthen their estates with a life-rent, I left my mon^ in 
the funds till August 1741, when being informed that an 
act of parliament had passe/1 for rebuilding a church in th^ 
city of London, St. Botolph^s Aldgate *, upon life*annui* 
ties, at seven per cent I went upon that information into 
th^ city, with a design to dispose of my money that way. 
That this was my intention, Mr. Norris, eldest son to the 
Jate sir John Norris, with whQm I advised about it at the 
time, still remembers, and is ready if required to declare* 
But I came too late, and found the subscription was closed. 
This disappointment I mentioned to Mn Hill, whom I ac^ 
cidentaily met in WilPs coffee-house, near the Royal Ex*- 
change ; and upon his offering me the same interest that 
was given by the trustees of the above-mentioned churchy 
the bargain was concluded in a few meetings, and the sun^ 
of 1100/. transferred, Aug. 21, 1741, not to Mr. Shirburn^ 
as is said in the letter from Flanders, p. 64, but to Mr* 
Wright, Mr. Hill's banker, as appears from the books of 
the Old South Sea annuities. Mr. Hill was a Jesuit, but 
transacted money matters as an attorney, and . was in that 
way a very noted man, bore the character of a fair dealer^ 
and dealt very largely in affairs of that nature with protes* 
tants as well as with papists. It was with him I immedi* 
ately dealt ; as is manifest from the orders on his banker 
or cashier, Mr. Wright, in p. 72 of the libel, which were 
all signed by him, and by nobody else ; and he paid me so 
punctually, that some time after I added 250/. to the sum 
already in his hands, and received for the whole 94/. 10^. 
^ year. I afterwards resolved to marry ; and it was chiefly 

< * fn this circumstance, howerer, he 
iras mistaken. His Answer says : " I 
can now take upon me to assure the 
public, that Mr. Bower's journey into 
the city to lend his money at St. Bo- 
tolph's, his coming too late, and finding 
the subscription closed, and his acci- 
dental meeting with Mr. Hill at Will's 
cofitee-house, as related in his Defence* 
are fictions of the inventive imagina- 
tion of a man who appears to be ca- 
pable of saying any tbiogf whei^ he 

thinks he shall not be traced.*' Full 
Confutation of Mr. Bower, p. 6S^— la 
reply to which Mr. Bower says, ** It 
mi^ht he St. Catherine's Coleman, Fen* 
church-street, or any other; that the 
point of importance was, that he meant 
to subscribe to a church, though his 
memory at such a distance of time 
might mistake ,the particular one." 
Mr. Bower's Reply to the Full Coofiita« 
tion, p. 33. 


^60 BOWER. 

upon that consideration^ though not upon that alone, I 
«tppllfed»tb Mr. Hill to know upon what terms he would 
return me the capital. Thie terms he proposed were as easy 
^s I could expect : for he agreed at once to repay it, only 
*cteductins: what I had received over and above the com- 
iioh intferest of four per cent, during the time it had been 
in his hands; and he did so, accordingly, as soon as he 
'conveniently could. Thus did tliis money transaction begin 
Avith Mr. Hill, was carried On by Mr. Hill,- and with Mr. 
«iH did it end.'* 

The account of this transaction given by his opponents 
Ss niaterially different. By them it is asserted, that after 
%. time he wished to return into the arms of the church he 
had renounced, and therefore, in order to recommend 
inmself to his superiors, he had recourse to a method 
which he thought would effectually prove his sincerity to- 
ivards them. He proposed to father Shirburn, then pro- 
vincial in England, to give up to him, as representative of 
the society, the money he thien possessed^ on condition 
of being paid for it, during his life, an annuity at the rate 
•of seven per cent. This offer was accepted ; and on the 
-Slst of August 1741, he paid to father Shirburn 1100/.; 
andFon the 27th of February 1741-2, he paid to the same 
person 150/. more upon the same conditions. Nor did bis 
oonfidence rest here ; for, on the 6th of August 1 743, be 
added another 100/. to the above sums, now augmented to 
1350/. when the several annuities were reduced into one, 
amounting to 94/. 10^. for which a bond was given. This 
negotiation had the wished effect ; and otir author wad 
re-admitted in a formal manner into the order of Jesus, at 
luondon, about the end of 1744 or beginning of 1745. 

It seems difficult to assign a sufficient reason why^ after 
having been re-admitted to the order, he should again 
grow dissatisfied with his situation ; though some conjec- 
tures have been offered to account for it. Certain it is, 
however, he once more determined to break with the Jesuit^ 
and obtain his money again. To accomplish this point, 
he engaged in the correspondence which afterwards was 
$o much canvassed. It answered, however, his purpose; 
and he received his money back from the borrowers on the 
20thof June 1747. 

The success of the '' " Universal History" in its first 
edition, encouraged the proprietors to venture on a se* 



cond; and tbey had recourse^ unluckily for themselves^ 
and the credit of the work, to the aid of Mr. Bower^i to 
revise and correct it. For thi» service he received the sum 
of 300/. though it is asserted he did very little to the work ; 
and that even upon collating the two editions, so far as 
Mr. Sale wrote, where he professed to have done much, it- 
appeared he had not made a single alteration, only substi- 
tuted in a few places the Hebrew chronology in the room 
of the Samaritan. 

Being thus disengaged from his literary employmen.ty 
though he had not then received back his money from the 
J^esuits, he, on the 25th of March 1747, put forth the 
proposals for his " History of the Popes ;'* a work, which, 
he says, he undertook some years since at Rome, and theii( 
brought it down to the pontificate of Victor, that is, to 
the close of the second century. In the execution of this 
work at that period he professes to have received the first 
"unfavourable sentiments of the pope's supremacy. On 
the 13th of May 1748, ]xe presented to the king the first 
volume ; and ou the deatli of Mr. Say, keeper of queen 
Caroline's library (10th of September), one of his friends 
(Mr. Lyttelton, afterward^ lord Lyttelton) applied to Mr* 
Pelham for that place for him, and obtained it. The next 
year, 1749, on the 4th of August, he married a piece of 
bishop Nicolson, and daughter of a clergyman of th^ 
church of England, a yeunger son of a gentleman's family 
in Westmoreland, who haa a. fortune of 4000/. sterlings 
and then had a child by a former husband ; which child h§ 
afterwards deposed on oath was no way injured by his mar^ 
riage. He had been engaged in a treaty of marriage, 
which did not take effect, in 1745. In 1751, the second 
volume of the History of the Popes made its appearance f. 

• •* With respect to the manage' 
meat of the partners about this second 
^itiop, tbey were guilty of two fatal 
errors : the first in comoiitting so great 
a share of the work, as well as the re- 
visal of the whole, to a man who thay 
had all reason to believe aimed chiefly 
^t gain and dispatch ^ and to agree 
with him by the lump, as they did, 
which would only prove a temptation 
lo him to hurry it off as fast as he 
could ; and as he accordingly did, to 
their no small mortification, as well as 
^urt to themselVes and to the work* I 

might add, that as he was and owne4 
himself quite unacquainted with the 
eastern languages, he was the mos^ 
unqualified for several parts, that fell 
to his lot of any; and if care had not 
been taken, would haire committed 
sucll mistakes in the very spelling of 
'the proper names, as would quite have 
discredited it."— Psalmanazar's Xafc, 
p. 329. .. See also p. 320. 

f In a* letter from lord Xyttelton to 
Dr. Doddridge, dated OcU XiSl, ho 
says, ** Vou have brought ou yqnr 

distemper t>y to^ cqntJBvisd study^ s^nd 


B 6 W E R. 

In the same year, 1751, Mr. Bower published by way of 
stipplement to his second volume, seventeen sheets, which 
were delivered to his subscribers gratis ; and about the 
latter end of 1753 he produced a third volume, which 
brought down his history to the death of pope Stephen, in 
757. His constant friend Mr. Lyttelton, at this time be- 
come a baronet, iii April 1754 appointed him clerk of the 
buck warraints, instead of Henry Read, esq. who held that 
place under the earl of Lincoln. This office was probably 
of no great emolument. Kis appointment to it, how- 
ever, serves to shew the credit he was in with his 

It was in this year the first serious attack was made upon 
him on account of his "History of the Popes,*' in a 
pamphlet printed at Douay, entitled *^ Remarks on the 
two first volumes of the late Lives of the Popes. In letters 
from a gentleman to a friend in the country,'* 8vo ; and 
written,' as Mr. Bower asserted, by a popish priest, Butler, 
one of the most active and dangerous emissaries of Rome 
in this kingdom. His correspondence with the Jesuits at 
last came to light ; and falling into the hands of a person 
who possessed both the sagacity to discover, and the in-« 
jdustry to pursue and drag to public notice the practices 
of our historian, the warfare began in 1756, and ended in 
the total disgrace of Mr. Bower. After a careful perusal 
of the controversy, a list of which is here added in a note, 
we are compelled to believe that our author (who, shock- 
ing as it may be to observe, made an affidavit, denying 
the authenticity of letters we think fully proved) was 
clearly convicted of the material charges alleged against 
him. He repelled the attack, however, made on him, with 
great spirit; and continued to assert his innocence, and to 
charge his eneories with foul practices, long after bis 
** History of the Popes," as well as his own veracity, had 
fallen into contempt. We find, in the course of this con- 
troversy, he ran some hazard of being brought on the stage 
.by Mr. Garrick, on account qf the manner in ^ich he 


labour in your spiritual functions, and 
an entire remission of mind is abso- 
lutely necessary for your recovery. ^I 
therefore request it of you not to write 
the f>refi^ce to Bower's book: it will 
do more bartn to you than good to him : 
it^e inerit of the work will bear it up 

against all these attacks; and aa to 
the ridiculous story of my having' dis- 
carded him, the intimate friendship in 
which we continue to live will be a suf- 
ficient answer to that, and better than 
any testimony formally given." — Do^n 
4ridge*s Letters^ p^ 471, 870/^790^ 

B O W £ R. 263 

iV)entioned that incomparable actor and his lady in one oif 
his works*. 

JFrom this period bis whole time seems to have been 
spent in ineffectual attacks upon his enemies, and equally 
vain efforts to recover the' reputation of himself and his 
" History of the Popes ;" which points he pursued with 
great spirit, considering the age to which he had then at- 
tained. Before the controversy had ended, he published 
his fourth volume ; and in J 757 an abridgment of the first 
four volumes of his work was published in French at Am- 
sterdam. In L761 he seems to have assisted the author of 
** Authentic Memoirs concerning the Portuguese Inquisi- 
tion, in a series of letters to a friend/' 8vo ; and about 
the same time produced the fifth volume of his History of 
the Popes. To this volume he annexed a summary view 
of the controversy between himself and the papists, iu 

* This was in his. << Summary view his friendship, and his lordship had, 
of the Controversy between the Papists notwithstanding all that had been said 
and the Author,'' 4to, p. 16S; where- and written against Bower, continued 
in, after taking notice of an observa- to countenance and protect him, he 
tioa of his antagonist, that he had not thought it an act of decency to ac- 
ventnred of laie to visit the gentleman quaint his lordship with his intention* 
^nd lady mentioned in one' of the Mr. Garrick read his own letter, to me»; 
pamphlets published against him, he as well as his lordship's answer. The 
replies: *' Now, that foreigners, and first contained complaints of Bower's 
they who live at a distance from Lon- ill behaviour to Mr. GarricK; his reso- 
don, may not think that I dare not lution to write a farce, with a short 
$hew my face at the house of any real outline of it, in which Bower was to be 
gentleman or real lady where I was introduced on the stage as a mock con- 
once honoured with admittance, I beg vert, and to be shewn in a variety of 
leave to inform them who the gentle- attitudes, in which the profligacy of his 
man and lady are. The gentleman, character was to be exposed. How- 
then, is Mr. Garrick, an actor who ever, be submitted the matter to his 
BOW acts upon the stage. The lady lordship, and declared, that be should 
is his wife, Mrs. Garrick, alias Violetti, not proceed a step in his intended re- 
who within these few years danced sentment without his permission. The 
■u|)on the stage. To do them justice, answer, I remember perfecUy weU^ 
they are both eminent in tbeir way, was comprised in very condescending 
The gentleman* though no Koscius, is and polite terms: but, at the same 
as well known and admired for his act<v time, he declined the countenancing ao 
ing as the lady for ber dancing ; and attempt which would be attended, per* 
the lady was as well knqwn and ad- haps, with some little uneasiness to 
mired for her dancing as the gentle* himself^ He expressed himself in the 
man is for his acting; and they are most obliging and friendly terms to Mr. 
in that sense pqr nobile,^^ -^ <* This Garrick i and, as far as I can recoU 
contemptuous notice," as Mr. pa- lect, recommended the suppressingiiis 
yie^ observes, "alarmed the spirits lateodeJchastisemeotof Bower.''^— Life 
find iired the resentment of our mft- of Garrick, vol. I. p. 272. Mr, Davies 
nagerj he determined to make an ex- adds, that " Mr. Garrick, in conse- 
, ampljB of the impostor, and to bring quence of lord Lyttelton's letter, gave 
^Is character upon the stage. But as up all further thoughts of introdo^ii^ 
jord J^yttelton bad honoured him wiUi BQwer to the public," 


B O W E R. 


J 80 pages; a performance, v^rhich, from the virulence of 
his abuse, was more calculated to impress the reader with' 
the conviction of his guilt, than to afibrd any satisfaction 
6f his innocence. 

Whether through the neglect of the work by the public, 
or his age, declining abilities, or to whatever other cause 
it is to be ascribed, the remainder of his history did ndb 
make its appearance until just before the author's death, 
when the sixth and seventh volumes were published to- 
gether, and these in so hasty and slovenly a manner, that 
the whole period from 1600 to 1758 was comprehended in 
twenty-six pages. — He died on the 3d September 1766, at 
the age of eighty years, and was buried in Mary-le-bone 
church-yard, with an inscription maintaining his purity 
^nd innocence. By his will, made on the 1st of August 
1749, which does not contain, &s might be expected, any 
declaration of his religious principles ^, he bequeathed all 
his property to his wife, who, some time after his death, 
fittested bis having died in the protestant faith f \. 

^ Thill is the more remarkable, as 
it was very much the practice of the 
times, and as from the peculiarity of 
Mr. Dower's situation it seems to have 
been particularly incumbetat on him, 
on that solemn occasion, to have given 
the world that satisfaction. In his 
i\nswcr to Bower and Tillemont com- 
pared, p. 3, he says he was married 
SOih of August 1749. From the date 
of hi$ will it appear^ he was married 
earlier than August. 

f This we remember to have seen 
in tiie London Chronicle. 

t The following is a Hst of the pieces 
published in consequence of the His- 
tory of the Popes: I. A Dialogue be- 
tween Archibald and Timothy; or, 
iome observations upon the dedicatiou 
^nd preface to the History of the 
Popes, &c. 1*748, 8vo. 2. A faithful 
Account of Mr. A. B— r's motives 
Ibr leaving his oiUce of secretary, &c. 
1750, 8vo. 3. Remarks on the two 
first volumes of the late Lives of the 
Popes, in letters from a gentleman 
to a friend in the country, Douay; 
1754, 8vo. 4. Six Letters from A ' d 
JB — ^r to father Sheldon, provincial 
of the Jesuits in England. Illustrated 
with several remarkable facts, tending 
to ascertain the authenticity of the said 
letters, and the true character of the 
vriteri 1756j 8vo. 5. Mr. Archibald 


Bower's affidavit in answer to the False 
accusations brought again<:t him by the 
papists, ^c. 1756v 8vo. 6. Bower vin-^ 
dicated from the false insinuations and 
accusations of the papist s^ tVith a 
short account of his character, &c. 
By a country neighbour, 1756, 8vo. 
7. Mr. Bower's answer to a scurrilous 
pamphlet entitled Six Letters, &c. Part 
I. 1757, 8vo. 8. Bower and Tillemont 
compared j or, the first volume of the 
pretended original and protestant His- 
tory of the Popes shewn to be cliiefly a 
translation from a popish one, &:c« 
1757, Bvo. 9. Mr. Bower's Answer to 
a new charge broiight against him in a - 
libel entitled Bower and Tillemont comf- 
pared, 1757, 8vo. 10. The sec'aftf 
Part of Mr. Bower's Answer to a' sour- » 
rilous pamphlet, &c. 1757, 8vo. 1'^^ jj 
A f^uU Confutation of all the! fadt^ iid; 
vanced in Mr. Bower's three def^ces^ 
&c. 1757, 8vo. 12. Mr. Bower'^ Rev, 
ply to a scurrilous Libel, entitled 1^', 
full Confutatiou, &c, 1757,' 8 vo. ' 13. -v 
A complete and final detectioif ofAfrcfii"-/^ 
j^owcr, &c. 1758, 8vo. 14. One vefjf 
remarkable fact more relathig to'^lid^ 
conduct of the Jesuits, &c, "By Mr. 
Bower, 1758, 8vo. 15. Some very re- 
markable' facts lately discovered, re&' 
lating to the conduct of the Jesuifi 
with regard to Mr. Bower, which will, 
greatly contribute to unravel the mpf^\ 

7 O W L E. fidS 

BOWLE (Johk), an ingenious soholaf^ who, from his 
ittacfament to Spanish literature, was usually called by his 
friends Don Bowie, was a descendant from Dr. John Bowle^ 
bishop of Rochester in the early part of the seventeenth 
Cientury. He was born in 1725, and educated at Oriel 
coltege> OxfcNTd, where he took his master^s degree in 
1750, and having Entered into holy orders, was presented 
tO'the vicarage of Idtnisfon, Wiltshire. In 1776 he was 
elected F. S. A. He was a man of great erudition, and 
much respected for his various researches in itntiquity^ 
>nd various other lucubrations in obsCure literature. H6 
had the honour of beling one of ihe first detectors of Lau^ 
der's forgeries, and according to Dr. Douglas's account^ 
had the justest claim to be considered as the original de- 
tector 'of that unprincipled impostor. In 1765, he was 
editor of " Miscellaneous pieces of ancient English Poesiie,'* 
contttining Sbaktspeare's ^^King John,'' and some of the sa* 
lires of Marston. To a very accurate and extensive fund 
of classical learning, he had added a comprehensive know« 
ledge of most of the modem languages, particularly of thd 
Spani^, Italian, and French; and in the course of his 
reading contacted a fondness for Cervantes' admirable 
romance, which could scarcely be said^to be kept within 
Reasonable bounds. Don Quixote himself did not sally 
forth with more enthusiasm than Mr. BoWle, when, in 1777 
he published " A Letter to the rev. Dr. Percy, concerning 
\ a new and classical edition* of Historia del valoroso Caval* 
lero' Don Quixote de la Mancha, to be illustrated by an*- 

tejy of that affair, &c. By the rev. A ' -d, coacerning hie motives for r«« 

J.ohn Corpe, r«ctor of Way ford, Somer- nonncing the popish and re-embjracing 

set, 1738, 8\'o. 16. Bower detected as tke protestabt relig^HMi, 1758, Svo. 19. 

ao historian, or his many essential Suauiiary view Of the cof^trovenv 

omissions, and more essential perver- between the Papists and the Author, 

sions of facts in favour of popei'y de- 1761, 4to. 20. A brief refutatien of 

^ tBonstrated, by oemparing the three the principal charges broitght against 

"^ tolomesof bis History with the first Mr. Bower by his enemies, extracted 

volume of the French History of tiie from the Summary View, 4to. 21* 

Popes now translating. By the rev. The reverend Detector: or, the dis- 

Temple Henry Croker, 175$, 8vo. 17. guised Jesuit detected, or proved out 

Bfr. A d's motives for reuounoing of his own mouth a liar and a sian- 

^ihe popish and re-embracing the pro* derer, 4to. 22. The Seven Letters to 

t«staAt religion, in M'hidh he was eda- fktber 'Sheldon proved to be forgeriei ^ 

cated, with several fresh instances of by the tesllmony of a professed Jesuit, (^ 

the unchristian principles of the papists 4to. Of the above, the articles No. 4, 

in genera), and the Jesuits in parti* 8, and^lS^. were written by Dr. Dong- //' 

oillar« 1766, 8vo. 18. A Letter to Mr. ■ las, late bishop of Saiitbory. ^ 

1 Life oomptied from the above pamphlets for the last edition of this Dio- 
tionary. — See Gent. Mag. and Month. Rev. Indexes. See also some favourable 
ipetticulitrs, Oeot. Mag. i^. lia? j L2^L 1 IS i IXXXX, 509. 

«« BOW L E. 

notations and extracts from the historiatis, poets, and fd^ 
mances of Spain and Italy, and other writers ancient and 
modem, with a glossary and indexes, in which are occa- 
sionally interspersed some reflections on the learning and 
genius of the author, with a map of Spain adapted to the 
history, and to every translation of it,'^ 4to. He gave ako 
an outline of the life of Cervantes in the Gent. Mag. for 
1731, and circulated proposals to print the work by subn 
scription at three guineas each copy. It appeared accord'* 
ingly in 1781, in six quarto volumes, the first four consist*- 
ing of the text, the fifth of the anaotations, and the sixth 
is wholly occupied by the index, but the work did nol 
answer his expectations. The literary journals were, either 
silent or spoke slightingly of his labours ; and the public 
sentiment seemed to be that annotations on Cervantes were 
not quite so necessary as on Shakspeare.^ He appears, 
however, to have taken some pains to introduce them to 
the public in a favourable light. In 1784 (Gent. Mag. 
LIV. p. 565) we find him bmenting certain ^^ unfair prac- 
tices respecting the admission of an account of the work 
into two periodical publications to which he had some 
reason to think he was entitfed." He adds, that the per-* 
petrators of these -practices were '' a false friend, and 
another, whose encomium he should regard as an affront 
and real slander ; the one as fond of the grossest flattery, 
as the other ready to give it, and both alike wholesale 
dealers in abuse and detraction.*^' Nor was this all ; in 
17;85 he published ** Remarks on the extraordinary con- 
duct of the Knight of the Ten Stars and his Italian Squire, 
to the editor of Don Quixote. In a letter to I. S. D. D.'* 
8vo. This produced an answer from the ** Italian Squire,'* 
Baretti, not of the most gentleman^like kind, entitled 
** Tolondron. Speeches to John Bowie, about his edition of 
Don Quixote," 8vo, 1786, ^nd with this the controversy 
ended. Mr. Bowie contributed many valuable hints and 
corrections to Granger's History, and many criticisms and 
illustrations to Johnson and Steevens's edition of Shakspeare^ 
and Warton's History of Poetry. His course of reading 
well qualified him £pr literary aid of this description. In 
the Arch8eologia,voj. VL VII. and VIH. are four papers by 
him, on the ancient pronunciation of the French language^ 
on some musical instruments mentioned in ^^ Le Roman d« 
la Rose ;'' on parish registers ; and on cards. He was also, 
under various signaturesi a frequent contributor to tUf^ 

B O W Y E R. 267 

<l€titlan^Q'8 Magazine, but as a divine he was^ not known' 
to the public. He died Oct. 26, 1788. ' 

BOWYER (William), the most learned English printer 
of whom we have any account, was born in Dogwell-court, 
White Fryars, London, on. the 19th of December, 1 699. His 
father, whose name was also William, was of distinguished 
eminence in the ftame profession ; and his maternal grand- 
&dber (Thomas Dawte) was employed in printing the cele- 
bvited Polygtett Bible of bishop Walton. At a proper 
age, he was placed, for grammatical education, under the 
care of Mr. Ambrose Bonwicke, a non-juring clergyman of 
known "piety and learning, who then lived at Headley, near 
Leatberhead in Surrey. Here Mr. Bowyer made such ad- 
vances in literature as reflected the highest credit both on 
himself and his preceptor ; for whose memory, to his latest 
years^ he entertained the sincerest respect ; and to whose 
family he always remained an useful friend. The attach- 
ment, indeed, was mutual ; and the following instance of 
the good school-master^s benevolence made an indelible 
impression on the mind of his pupil. On the 30th of 
January, 1712-13, the whole prcfperty of the elder Mr, 
Bowyer was destroyed by a -dreadful fire ; on which occa- 
sion, Mr. Bonwicke, with great generoisity, and no less 
delicacy (endeavouring to conceal its being his own act of 
.kindness), took upon him, for one year, the expences of 
his scholar's board and education. In June 1716, young 
Mr. Bowyer was admitted as a «izar at St. John's college, 
Cambridge, of which Dr. Robert Jenkin was at that time 
master. The doctor had been a benefactor to the elder 
IVf r. Bowyer in the season of his calamity ; and the son, at 
the. distance of sixty years, had the happiness of returning 
the favour to a relation of the worthy master, in a manner 
by which the person obliged was totally ignorant to whom 
Ive was indebted for the present he received.' Mr. Bowyer 
continued at Cambridge under the tuition, first^ of Dr. An<* 
fitey, and afterwau*ds of the rev. Dr. John Newcome, till 
June 1722, during. which time he obtained Roper^s exhi- 
bition, and wrote^ in 1719, what he called '^ Epistola pro 
iSodalitio A rev. vtro F* Roper mihi legato ;" but it does not 
appear that he took his degree of bachelor of arts. Not- 
.witbstanding an habitual shyness of disposition, which 
was unfavourable to him at bis first appearance, the re- 

* . " 

1 Nichols's Life of Bowyer.— Gra|ij;er'9 L&ti^n, o, ^7«¥47.^WoQlP8 Life nC 
"^ayton, p, 399/ 402. 

t6S B O W,Y E R. 

gularity of bis conduct, and bis application to study, pii5« 
cured bim tbe esteem of many very respectable memben 
of tbe university. Here it was that he formed an intimacy 
with Mr. Markland and Mr. Clarke, two learned friendb 
with whom he maintained a regular correspondenee 
through life ; and their letters contain a treasure of po<r 
lite literature and sound oriticitfrn. On the death of Mr. 
Bonwicke, bis grateful scholar had an opportunity of Te-> 
quiting, in some measure, tbe obtigfttions he bad received, 
by officiating, for a time, in the capacity of a tchooU 
master, for the benefit of the family ; but before this, be 
had entered into the printing business, together with hia 
father, in June 1722 ; and one of tbe first books which te^ 
ceived the benefit of his correction^ was tbe complete edi* 
tion of Selden by Dr. David Wilkius, in three volumes, 
folio. This edition was begun in 1722, and finished in 
1726 ; and Mr. Bowyer's great attention to it appeared in 
his drawing up an epitome of Selden ^^ de Syn^edriis,?' as 
he read the proof-sheets, and the several memoranda 
from '^ The privileges of tbe Baronage" and '^Judicature 
in Parliament,'' i&c. which are now printed in bi^ *^ Mis-» 
cellaneous Tracts." In 1727, tbe learned world was in- 
debted to him for an admirable sketch of William Baxter's 
-Glossary of tbe Roman Antiquitiea. Tbe sketch was 
called ** A View of a Book, entitled, ' Beliquis Bax* 
teriansB.* la a Letter to a Friend ;" a single sheet, 8vo. 
* Very few copies were printed ; and, having never been 
published, it is seldom found witbtbe Glossary; but it was 
reprinted in tbe " Miscellaneous Tracts." Dr. Wotton and 
Mr. Clarke were highly pleased with this first public prpof 
given by Mr. Bowyer of bis literary abilities. • On the ^Oth 
of December, 1727, he lost an affectionate mother, upon 
which occasion he received a letter of pious consolation, 
from Mr. ChisbuU, the learned editor of tbe ^^ Antiquitates 

Very highly to his own and his father's aatisfactioQ, he 
entered, on tbe 9th of October, 1926, into the marriage 
atate, with Anne Prudom, his mother's nieoe. His hap- 
piness, however, with this ao^omplisbed woman, lasted 
but little more than three years ; he being deprived of her> 
by death, on the 17tb of October, 1731. Of two soot, 
whom be bad by her, William died an. infant, and Thomas 
survived him. His friends Mr. Clarke and Mr. ChishuU 
wrote him very affectionate md Christian letters on tM^ 
melancholy event 

B O W Y E R. J6f 


', In 1729, he ushered into the world a carious treatise^ 
entitled ** A Pattern for yonng Students in the University, 
set forth in the Life of ^* Mr. Ambrose Bonwicke, some 
time scholar of St John's college, Cambridge." (See Bon* 
Wicke). This little volume was generally ascribed to our 
learned printer, though it was in reality the production of 
Mr. Ambrose Bonwicke the elder, but the preface was pro- 
bably Mr. Bowyef^s. About the same time, it appears, 
Irom a letter of Mr. Clarke, that Mr. Bowyer had written a 
pamphlet agamst the Separatists ; but neither the title nor 
tile occasion of it are at present recollected. Through the 
friendship of the right honourable. Arthur Onslow, he was, 
likewise, appointed, in 1729, printer of the Votes of the 
House of Commons ; an office which he held, under three 
successive speakers, for nearly fifty years. In 1730, he 
^ was avowedly the editor t)f " A Discourse concerning the 
Confusion of Languages at Babel, proving it to have been 
luiraculous, from the essential difference between tbem, 
<:ontrary to the opinion of M. Le Clerc and others. With 
9Xi Enquiry into the primitive language b^efore that won* 
derful event. By the late learned WiUiam.Wotton, D.D. 
i&c." In 1731, he took part in a controversy occasioned 
bya«ermon of Mr. Bowman, a clergyman in Yorkshire, 
entitled << The Traditions of the Clergy destruotive of Re* 
ligion, with an Enquiry into the Grounda^ and Reasons of 
such Traditions.^* This performance, which was charged 
with containing some of the sentiments that had been adt* 
tranced by Dr. Tindal in his <^ Rights of the Christian 
)Church,^* and by Mr. Gordon in his ^* Independent Whig,^* 
excited no small degree of offence ; and several answers 
were written to it, and strictures made upon it, both of a 
•serious and ludicrous nature. Mr. Bowyer, upon this oc- 
casion, printed a pamphlet, called '^ The Traditions of 
-the Clergy not destructive of Religion ; being Remarki 
on Mr. Bowman's Sermon ; exposing that gentleaoan's de«- 
fieiencyin Latin and 'Greek, in ecclesiastical histoiy, and 
troe reasoning.^ .^he dispute, like many others of . a 
similar kind, is now sunk into oblivion. In 1733, he pub- 
lished << The Beatv and Academick,'' two sheets, in4to; 
atraiiskitionfiX)m>*BellusHomo.& Academicus, &Ci'' apoem 
' recited that year at the Comitia in the Sheldonian theatre, 
«iid' afterwards printed in bisTracts. On the 7th of July^ 
^1756, Mr. Bowyer was admitted into the Society of Anti- 
paries, of wbioh heiuid been chosen printer in May pne^ 

fl70 B P W Y E R. 

ceding ; and he was an active, as well as an early member 
of that respectable body, regularly attending tbeir meel^ 
ings, and frequently comiifunicating to them matters of 
utility and curiosity, which were reprinted in his "Tracts*** 
In conjunction with Dr. Birch, he was, also, materially 
concerned in instituting " The Society for the Encourage- 
ment of Learning/' Of this Mr. Nichols has given an in- 
teresting account. It was certainly well-meant, but inju- 
dicious, and became diss|olved by its own insufficiency. 
On the 27th of December, 1737, Mr. Bowyer lost his fa- 
ther, at the age of seventy- four ; and it is evident, from hia 
scattered papers, that he severely felt this affliction ; ap-*^ 
plying to himself the beautiful apostrophe of JEneaa td 
Anchises, in Virgil : 

■ ^*' Hie me, pater optime, fessum 

« Deserisy heu ! tantis nequicquam erepte periclis ?*' 

His friend Mr. Clarke again addressed to him a letter of 
Sjrmpatfay and consolation. In 1741, Mr, Bowyer correct- 
ed, and put into a convenient form, Heuset's ** Sele^tae g 
Veteri Testamento Historian," and " Select® ex Profanis^ 
&c." The prefaces to both these volumes were translated 
by Mr. Bowyer, and are inserted in his ** Miscellaneous 
Tracts.'' In 1742, he published a translation of Trapp*i 
** Latin Lectures on Poetry," with additional notes. In 
translating this work, be had not only the advice, but the 
assistance, of his friend Mr. Clarke : and yet this gentle-' 
man had no high opinion of the original "performance. He 
thought it a very superficial book ; and. was particularly 
offended with Trapp for affecting to'find fauh with Vossiua 
on every little occasion. 

. Though it is uot our intention to notice the works print*- 
ed by Mr. Bowyer, excepting when he^ himself contri*^ 
buted to them by prefaces, notes, or other additions, yet 
we shall mention his having been the printer, in 1742, of 
the additional book of the Dunciad ; as he received, on this 
occasion, testimonies of regard both from the great poet 
and .his learned commentator. Among other friendly ex- 
pressions of Dr. Warburton, he says, " I have never more 
pleasure when there (in London), than when I loll and 
talk with you at my ease, de gualibet ente^ in your dining-, 
room :'* And again, ** The Greek I know will be well 
printed in your edition, notwithstanding the absence afScri-' 
blerus?* The same celebrated writer had long before told 
•Mr. Bowyer, ^^ No one's thoughts will have greater weightr 

B O W Y E R. 571 

-^ith me than your own, in whom I have experienced so 
iduch candour, goodness, and learning.'' It is not, how- 
ever, to be concealed, that a difference afterwards arose 
between them, in which, as is qommonly the case, each 
party was confident that he was right. Mr. Bowyer, who 
thought hioisetf slighted, used often to remark, that, " after 
the death of the English Homer, the letters of his learned 
friend wore a different complexion." " But, perhaps,** 
as Mr. Nichols candidly and judiciously observes, '^ this 
may be one of the many instances, which occur through 
life, of the impropriety of judging for ourselves in cases 
^hich affect our interest or our feelings." Mr. Bowyer, 
indeed, had a great sensibihty of temper with regard to 
any neglects which were shewed him by his literary friends, 
in the way of his business. This did not proceed from a 
principle of avarice^ but from a consciousness of the respect 
^hich was due to him from bis acquaintance, as the first 
of his profession : for be expressed his resentment as 
strongly in cases where profit could be no material object, 
as he did in more important instances. Dr. Squire, then 
deai^of Bristol, not having appointed him to print a sermon 
which had been preached before the house of commons, 
on the general fast day, Feb. IS, 1761, Mr. Bowyer wrote 
to the doctor, upon the occasion, an expostulatory letter. 
JNor was this the only evidence he gave how much he was 
offended, when he thought that a slight had been put upon 
bim from a quarter where he imagined he had a natural 
claim to favour. 

In 1744, Mr. Bowyer is supposed to have written a small 
pamphlet on the present state of Europe, taken principally 
firom Pufendorff. In 1746, he projected, what during his 
>wbole life he had in view, a regular edition of Cicero's 
Letters, in a chronological order, on a plan which it is to 
he lamented that he did not coinplete ; as an uniform series 
"thus properly arranged would have formed a real history of 
Tully's life, and those which cannot be dated might be 
thrown to the end without any inconvenience. In the same 
year he published " The Life of the Emperor Juliap/' 
translated from the French of M. Bleterie, and improved 
mth twelve pages of curious notes, and a genealogical 
table. The notes were not entirely Mr. Bowyer's, but 
were drawn up, in part, by Mr. Clarke and other learned 
mea. The translation, by Miss Anne Williams (Dr. John^ 
fon's UmaX^)f and the two sister^ of the name of Wilkin* 

372 p o w Y j: H. 



SOD, was m^de uoder l^r. Bpwyer's imaiedii^ iii«pectiofr« 
In this ye$kr also, he printed, and is supposed to have aus^ 
sisted in the copiposition of, ^' A Pi^ssertation, in lybicii the 
objections of a late pamphlet (by bishop ^o^^) to the writ* 
logs of tlie ancient^, after the mapner of Mr. MarkUody 
are clearly answered : those pas^^iges in Ta^l> porrectedy 
on whict) sojne of the objections are founded ; wi^ 
Amendments of a few pieces of criticism ip Mr. Marklaad's 
Epiatola Critica/' 8vo. On the 9d of August, ^47, Mr. 
Bowyer entered a secqnd time into the nuatrirnQoial atal^, 
with a most benevolent and worthy wooa^n, Mrs. JElizabe^ 
Billy by whom he had nc cbUdren. In 1750, he had the 
honour of sharing, with Dr. Burton, in (be inve^^iyes most 
liberally bestowed by Dr. King, in his ^^ JClpgium' Faow 
inserviens Jacci £toni^asis, siv.e Gigantis : ov, the PraiMS 
of Jack of Eaton, jcommonly caLbed 4a.ok the Qianit*'* Dr. 
King's abuse was probably owing t^ his having heard that 
our learned printer had hinted, iii conyers^ktigni his doubts 
concerning the doctor's Latioity. Mr. Bowyer drew iip 
strictures in his own defence, which he ioAended ,to insert 
at the conchisioa of a preface to Mon(e§quien'iS Re0ec* 
tions, iu:^; but^ in consequence of Mr. Clarke's adiriice> thsgr 
were omitted. In the tame year, a pf efatqry critical dia* 
sertation, and some valuable notes, wsece a^oe^M^d, ky onr 
author, to Kuater's Treatise ^^ De verp usu Veri^onw 
Mediorum;" a new edition of which work, witji further 
improvements, appeared in 1773. £(e wrote, likewise, 
about the same time, a Latin preface to Leiede^'s ^ Vetecids 
Poet® citati, &c.' Being soon after employed to print an 
edition of colonel Bladen^s translation oiCm^^'^ iCommeor 
taries, that work received coo^iderable improvements from 
Mr. Bowyer's hands, and the additiqn of .^ch note.s in it 
as are sigaed Typogr. Iu the subsequent edition^ of this 
work, though printed by another peiison, and in our au'- 
thor's life*time, the same signature, ^xnntrary to deoorumt 
and even justice, was still retained. In 17^1, Jb^ wrote it 
long prefiiice to Montesquieu's ^^ BefleoticHis .cm the Rise 
end FaH of the Roman Empioe ;*' translated the Dialogue 
t^etween Sylla and Socrates ; made several corrections ta 
the work from the Baron's ^^ Spirit of Laws/' andimproviad 
it wi^th his own notes. A uew edition, with many j^om 
potes, was printed in 1759. He gave likewise ^ ^the 
public, in 175J, with a preface, the first trauida^ion. that 
jvas ffiade of RoasseauUt potadoxicalocatioii gfi »tfaia is&oii 

B O W Y E R. 27i 

of the arts and sciences, which gained the prize at the aca- 
demy of Dijon, in 1750; apd which first announced that 
singular genius to the attention and admiration of Europe. 
Oil -the publication of the third edition of lord Orrery?s 
" Remarks on the Life and Writings of Dr. Swift," in 1752, 
Mr. Bowyer wrote and printed, but never published, 
**T\Vo Lietters from Dr. Bentley in the shades below, to 
lord Orrery in a land of thick darkness.'* The notes 
signed B, in the ninth quarto volume of Swift's works, are 
extracted from these Letters, which are reprinted at large 
in his ** Tracts." In 1752, when Bp. Clayton published 
his ** Vindication of the Histories of the Old and New Tes- 
tament, in answer to the Objections of Lord Bolingbroke,'* 
M^. Bowyer drew up an analysis of the same, with an inten- 
tion of sending it to the Gentleman's Magazine : it is no^ 
printed in Mr. Nichols's "Anecdotes." In 1753, to allay 
the ferment occasioned by the Jew bill, he published, in 
qusferto, ** Remarks on a Speech made in Common Council, 
on the Bill for permitting persons professing the Jewish Re-' 
ligioh to be naturalized, so far as Prophecies are supposed 
to be affected by it." The design of this sensible little tract, 
whi(;h was written with spirit, and well received by those 
who -were superior to narrow prejudices, was to shew, that 
wbati^ver political reasons might be alleged against the 
Bill,- Christianity would in no degree be prejudiced by 
the indulgence proposed to be granted to the Jews. In. 
the same year, some of Mr. Bowyer's notes were annexed 
to bishop Clayton's translation of " A Journal from Grand 
Cailro to Mount Sinai, and back again." In 1754, witi^ 
a Tiew of lessening his fatigue, he entered into part-.* 
nei'ship with a relation ; but some disagreements arising^ 
the connection was dissolved in 1757, and he resumed tha 
Active part of business. In 1760 he superintended a second 
edition of Arnald's ** Commentary on the Book of Wis- 
dom," and enriched it with the remarks of Mr. Markland. 
Upon the death of Mr. Richardson, in 1761, Mr. Bowyer, 
through the patronage of the late earl of Macclesfield, was 
appointeid printer to the Royal Society; and, uncler the 
friendship of five successive presidents, had the satisfaction. 
of continuing in that employment till his death. In the 
«amfe year (1761), appeared "Verses on the Coronation 
of thieir late majesties, king George the Second and queen 
Caroline, October 4, 1727, spoken by the Scholars* of 
Westminster school (some of them now the ornamentt of 
Vol. VI. T 

474 ^ O W Y E It 


the Nation) on January 15th following, being the Day <ft, 
the Inauguration of Queen Elizabeth, their foundress; 
with a Translation of all the Latin copies: The whole 
placed in order of the transactions of tliat important day. 
Adorned wi^ the Coronation Medals of the Royal Pair^- 
and a bust of our present king. To which is subjoined 
the Ceremonial of the august Procession, very proper to 
be compared with the approaching one ; and a Catalogue 
of the Coronation Medals of the Kings and Queens of Eng« 
iandt" The original part of this pamphlet, in which a great 
<ieai of humour is displayed, was entirely Mr« Bowyer^s : 
the LaUn verses were translated partly by him, but prinr. 
cipally by Mr. Nichols, Our learned printer^s next pub-* 
lication was of a more serious and weighty nature, an ex* 
cellent edition of the Greek Testament, in two volumes, 
1763, 12mo, under the following title: " Novum Testa- 
mentum Grsecum, ad Fidem Grsecorum solium Codicuoi 
MSS. nunc prinHum expressum, adstipulante Joanne Ja-» 
c.obo Wetstenio, juxta Sectiones Jo. Alberti Bengelii di* 
visum; et nova Interpunctione seepius illustratum. Ac« 
cessere in altero Volumine Emendationes conjecturales vi-. 
rorum doctorum undecunque collects^." This sold with, 
great rapidity ; though Mr. Bowyer, in his advertisements 
of it in the public papers, was pleased to add, that it 
boasted neither elegance of type nor paper, but trusted to 
other merits. The conjectural emendations are a very 
valuable addition to the Greek Testament, and were ex-- 
tremely well received by the learned. In a letter of thanks^ 
from the president and fellows of Harvard college, in Cam* 
' bridge, New-England, to Mr. Bowyer, in 1767, for seve- 
ral benefactions of his to that college, they express them- 
selves as follows : ^^ It is a particular pleasure to us to 
mention your very curious edition of me Greek Testa-- . 
ment, in two volumes, with. critical notes, and many happy 
conjectures, especially as to the punctuation, an afiair of 
the iitmost importance as to ascertaining the sense. This 
work, though small in bulk, we esteem as a rich treasurer 
pf sacred learning, and of more intrinsic value than many, 
large volumes of the commentators.'^ A second edition of 
^he Conjectures on the New Testament, with very consi- 
derable enlargements, was . separately published, in one 
volume, 8vo, in 1772, a third in 4to, 1782, and a fourth 
from the interleaved copy of Dr. Owen, which he be- 
queathed to the honourable and right reverend Dr. Shute 
Sarrington, bishop of Durham, is just published (1812). 

B 6 W X *^ R. S75 

Bisbop Warburton having censured apassage in the first edi- 
tion, Mt. Bowyer sent him a copy of the second, with a con- 
ciliatory letter. In 1765, at the request of Thomas HoUis, 
esq. our learned printer wrote a short Latin preface to Dr. 
Wallis's " Grammatica Linguae AngUcanae.** A larger Eng- 
lish preface, which was written by him, and intended for 
that work, is printed in his " Tracts." Some copies of thia 
book were sent by him to the rev. Edward Clarke, whea 
chaplain to the earl of Bristol at Madrid, to be given to the 
Spanish literati. Towards the latter end of the same year, 
in consequence of overtures from a few respectable friends 
at Cambridge, Mr. Bowyer had some inclination to have 
undertaken the management of the University press, by 
purchasing a lease of its exclusive privileges. He went^ 
accordingly, to Cambridge for this purpose ; but the treaty 
proved fruitless^ and he did not much regret the disappoint- 
ment. In the beginning of 1766, by engaging in a part- 
nership with Mr. Nichols, h6 was again enabled to with- 
draw, in some degree, from that close application, which 
had begun to be prejudicial to his health* His new asso- 
ciate had been trained by him to the profession, and had 
assisted him several years in the management of busi- 
ness. He was very happy in this connection ; and it is un« 
necessary to add how successfully Mr. Nichols has trod in 
the steps of his worthy and learned friend and partner. la 
that year (1766) Mr. Bowyer wrote an excellent Latin pre- 
face to ^* Joannid Harduini, Jesuitee, ad Censuram Scrip- 
torum veterudi l^rolegomena ; juxta Autographuixi.^' la 
this preface he gives an account of the nature of the work, 
and of the manner in which it had been preserved. Mr. D^ 
Missy's remarks on the celebrated Jesuit^s extraordinary pro- 
duction were published about the same time^ in a letter to 
Mr. Bowyer, written in Latin. In 1767, he was appointed 
to print the Journals of the House of Lords, and the Rolls 
of Parliament. The noble peer to whom he was indebted 
for this appointment, arid his gratitude to whom is testified 
in the inscription which he left behind him, to be placed in 
Stationers Hall, was the earl of Marchmont. Mh Bowyer 
was now compelled, from the want of sufficient room, to 
exchange White Fryars for Red Lion-passage ; and it was 
not without reluctance that he quitted a residence to which 
he had been acchstomed from his infancy. His new print- 
ing-house was opened with the sign of his favourite Cicero's 
Head : under which was inscribed, « m, t. cjcero, a qu^ 

T 2 

27<5 B O W Y E R. 

IPRIM'ORDIA PRELI," in allusion to the welUknown early edi- 
tions of Tully's Offices. Having printed this year Mr. 
Clarke's excellent and learned work on **The Connexion 
of the Roman, Saxon, and English Coins," he wrote some 
notes upon it, which are interspersed throughout the vo- 
lume with those of the author. Part of the dissertation on 
the Roman Sesterce was, likewise, Mr. Bowyer's produc- 
tion ; and the index, which is an uncommonly good one, 
6nd on which he did nqt a little pride himself, was drawn up 
entirely by him. On the 14th of January, 1771, he lost 
his second wife, who died at the age of seventy. His old 
friend, Mr. Clarke, who had administered consolation to 
him, on a similar occasion, nearly forty years before, again 
addressed him with tenderness on this event. In the Philo- 
sophical Transactions for 1771, was printed a very inge- 
nious " Enquiry into the value of the antient Greek and Ro- 
man Money," by the late Matthew Raper, esq. The opi- 
nions advanced by this respectable gentleman, on these 
subjects, not coinciding with those of Mr. Bowyer, he 
printed a small pamphlet, entitled, *^ Remarks, occasioned 
by a late Dissertation on the Greek and Roman Mo- 
ney." The pamphlet was intended as an appendix 
to Mr. Clarke's Treatise on Coins. The opinions of many 
excellent writers in Germany and France having been ably 
controverted in that elaborate work, Mr. Bowyer transmitted 
a copy of it to the French king's library, and inscribed his 
little appendix, 

** Reoi Chxistiakissimo 


** Judicium ut subeat magis sequum candidiusve> 
Qai poni potuit commodiore loco }*' 

He was very desirous that Mr. Clarke's book should be 
translated and reprinted in France ; and he took some pains, 
though without success, to get it accomplished. In 1773, 
three little tracts were published by him, under the title of 
" Select Discourses : 1. Of the Correspondence of the He» 
brew months with the Julian, from the Latin of Professor 
Michaelis. 2. Of the Sabbatical years, from the same. 3. 
Of the years of Jubilee ; from an anonymous writer, in 
Masson's Histoire Critique de la Republique des Lettres.'* 
In 1774, he corrected a new edition of Schrevelius's Greek 
Lexicon, to which he added a number of words (dis- 
tinguished by an asterisk) he had himself collected in the 
course of his own studies. Considerable additions^ which 

fl P W Y E R. 277 

are strll in maimscript^ were made by him to the Lexicons 
of Hederic and of Buxtorf, the Latin ones of Faber and of 
Littleton, and the English Dictionary of Bailey ; and he 
left behind him many other proofs of his critical skill in the 
learned languages. His Greek and Latin grammars in ge« 
neral are filled with such curious explanatory notes, asf 
bear the most convincing proofs of. consummate critical 
knowledge in those languages, and that knowledge he ap- 
plied particularly to the advancement of sacred learning. 
It was his constant custom, in the course of his read- 
ing, to note down every thing which he thought might 
contribute to illustrate any passage of Scripture, espe- 
cially of the Greek Testament, In pursuance of this 
method, it is hardly to be coqceived what a number of use- 
ful and curious remarks stand inserted in the margins of 
bis theological books, which may greatly contribute to im- 
prove future editions. In 1774, was pubhshed "The Ori- 
gin of Printing, in two essays. 1. The substance of Dr. 
Middletoo's Dissertation on the Origin of Printing in Eng- 
land. 2. Mr. Meermau's Account of the Invention of the 
Art at Harlem, and its progress to Mentz, with occasional 
remarks ; and an app"fendix." (See Richard Atkins.) The 
original idea of it was Mr. Bowyer's; but it was completed 
by Mr, Nichols. The two learned friends, whose assistance 
is acknowledged in the preface, were the rev. Dr. Henry 
Owen, and the late Mr. Caesar de Missy. Tliough this 
work appeared without a name, it was immediately judged 
to be Mr. Bowyer's, and was well received in the world of 
letters, and justly spoken of in terms of great commenda- 
tion, both at home and abroad. A second edition,, with 
very considerable improvements, was published in 1776, 
and a Supplement in 1781. When Mr. Nichols was engaged 
in printing the " Original Works of Dr. King of the Com- 
mons," and the *' Supplement to Swift,*' Mr. Bowyer, by 
suggesting useful hints, and adding some illustrations, as- 
sisted him in both these undertakings. Our eminent printer 
now drew to the end of his literary career, which he closed 
with a new edition, in 1777, of Dr. Bentley's "Disserta- 
tion on the Epistles of Phalaris." Dr. Bentley was a writer 
whom he had always held in the highest estimation. In the 
republication of this great critic's Dissertation, Mr. Bowyer 
inserted the remarks which had occurred to him in the 
course of many years attention to the subjects there treated 
of; an4 ^scribed theopi to the respegtiv^ authors from whose 

278 B O W y E R. 

books or personal communication they were selected. H« 
wias touch indebted, on this occasion, to the friendly Assist- 
toceof Dr. Salter and Dr. Qwen, 

Mr. Bowyer had always been subject to a bilious colic ; 
and during the last ten years of his life, he was afflicted 
with the pally and the stpne. But, notwithstanding tfaese 
xn(irmitie9, he preserved, in general, a remarkable cheer- 
fulness of disposition ; and received great satisfaction from 
the conyer^tion of ^ few literary friends, by whom he con- 
tinued to be visited. The faculties of his mind, though 
somewhat impaired, were strong enough to support the la- 
bour of almost incessant reading, whiqh l^ad ever been his 
}>rincipal amusement j and he regularly corrected the 
earned works, and especially the Greek books, which came 
from his press. This he did till within a very few weeks of 
his death; which happened on the 18th of November, 
1777, when he had nearly completed his 78th year. The 
publications of Mr. Bowyer are an incontrovertible evidence 
of his abilities and learning ; to which may be added that 
he was honoured with the friendship and patronage of many 
of the most distinguished ornaments of his age. We al- 
ready have had occasion to mention the earls of Maccles- 
field and Marchmont^ Dr. Wottpn, Mr. Pope, Mr. ChishuII^ 
Mr. Clarke, Mr. Markland, bishop Wafburton^ the right 
honourably Arthur Onslow, Mr. HoUis, Dr. Salter, Mr. 
De Missy, Dr. Owen, and Dr. Heberden. To these, among 
other respectable names, might be added those of archbi- 
shop Seeker, bishop Kennett^ bishop Tanner, bishop Sher- 
lock, bishop Hoadly^ bishop Lyttelton, bishop Pearce, bi- 
shop Low^h, bishop Barrington, bishop Hurd, bishop 
Percy, lorfi Lyttelton, lord Sandys, dean Prideaux, doctors 
Robert and John Freind, deitn ^reind, dean Miiles, the very 
learned Dr. Taylqr, chf^ncellor of Lincoln, Dr. Barnard, Dr. 
Powell, Dr. \yilkins, Mr. Maittaire, Messrs. R. and S. 
Gale, Mr. Browne Willis, Mr. Spelman, Mr. Morant, Dr. 
Ducarel, Dir. Pegge, Mr. Garrick, s^nd'mostof the distin- 
guished scholars and antiquaries of his time. His connec- 
tion with the late eminent and excellent Richard Gough, 
esq. so well known by bis acquaintance with British topo- 
graphy and antiquities, is apparent from his last will; 
where his obligations to Dr. Jenkin, dean Stanhope, and 
Mr. Nelson, are acknowledged. The late excellent Dr. 
Robert Clayton, bishop of Clogher, so highly esteemed hia 
friendship, that be not only honoured him by l^ regular ep1»% 

B O. W Y E B. 


telary intercoursei but presented bim with the copy^right 
of all his valuable writings. Mr, Bowyer stood unrivalled^ 
for more than half a century, as a learned printer ; and 
"some of the most easterly productions of this kingdom have 
undoubtedly appeared from his press. To his literary and 
professional abilities, he added an excellent moral character. 
His regard to religion was displayed in his publications, and 
in the course of his life and studies ; and he was particularly 
distinguished by bis inflexible probity, and an uncommon 
alacrity in assisting the necessitous. His liberality in reliev** 
ing every species^of distress, and bis endeavours to conceal 
his benefactions, reflect great honour on his memory.. 
Though he was naturally fond of retirement, an<^ seldom 
.entered into company, excepting with men of letters, he 
was, perhaps, excelled by few in the talent of justly discri- 
minating the real characters of mankind., He judged of the 
persons he saw by a sort of intuition; and his judgments 
were generally right From a consciousness of literary su-^ 
periority, he did not always pay that particular attention to 
the booksellers which was expedient in the way of his busi- 
ness. Too proud to solicit the favours in that way which he 
believed to be his due, he was often disappointed in his ex- 
pectations. On the other hand, he frequently experienced 
friendships in cases where he bad ftiuch less reason to have 
hoped for them ; so that, agreeably to his own expression, 
^^ in what he had receivedi and what he had been denied, 
he thankfully acknowledged the will of Heaven." The two 
great objects of Mr. Bowyer^^s view, in the decline of his 
life, were to repay the benefaictions bis father' bad met 
with, and to be himself a benefactor to'tbe meritorious of 
)iis own profession. These purposes are fuUy displayed in 
his last will :. for which reason, and because it illustrates 
the turn of his mind in other respects, w^ shall insert it at 
large. After a liberal provision for his son, a^iong other 
legacies are these : ^^ I likewise give to my son all my plate ; 
except the small silver cup which was given to my father 
(after his loss by fire) by Mrs. James^ and which I give to 
the Company of Stationers in London, hoping they will 
preserve it as a memorial. Having committed my body to 
the earth, I would testify my duty and gratitude to my few 
relations and numerous benefactors after my fatber^s loss by 
fire. I give and bequeath to my cousin Scott, lately of 
Westminster, brewer, and to his sister, fifty pouiids each^ 
I give ^d bequeath to my relations I^r. Thomas l«inley aa^Jl 

«80 B W Y E R. 

bis wife one thousand pou nds four percent, consolidated annu- 
ities, to be transferred to them, or to the survivor of them ; 
and which I hope they will take care to. settle,, at their 
deaths, for the benefit of their son and daughter. I give 
to the two sons and one daughter of the late reverend Mr. 
Maurice of Gothenburgh in Sweden, who married the only 
daughter of Mr. Richard WilUanison, book<sellor (in return 
for her father's friendship to mine), one thousand pounds 
four per cent, consolidated annuities, to be divided equally 
between them. Among my father^s numerous benefactors^ 
there is not, that I can hear of, one alive: to several of 
them I made an acknowledgement. But one respectable 
body I am still indebted to, the University of Cambridge ; 
to whom I give, or rather restore, the sum of fifty pounds, 
in return for the donation of forty pounds made to my father 
at the motion of jthe learned and pious master of Saint John's 
college, doctor Robert Jenkin: to a nephew of his I have 
already given another fifty pounds, as appears by his receipt 
of the thirty-first of May, one thousand seven hundred and 
seventy. The benefactions which my father received from 
Oxford I can only repay with gratitude ; as he received 
them, not from the university as a body, but from particu- 
lar members. I give thirty pounds to the dean and chapter 
of Canterbury, in gratitude for the kindness of the worthy 
doctor Stanhope (sometime dean of Canterbury) to my fa- 
ther ; the remembrance of which amongst the proprietors of 
his works I have long out-lived, as I have experienced by not 
being employed to print them: the like I might say of the 
works of Mr. Nelson, another respectable friend and patron of 
my father's, and of many others. I give to doctor William 
Heberden my little cabinet of , coins, with Hickes's Thesaurus, 
Tristan, and the odd volume, Spanheim's Numismata, Har- 
duin's Opera Selecta, in folio, Nummi Populorum et Ur« 
fcium, in quarto, and any other of my books he chooses to 
accept : to the reverend doctor Henry Owen, such of my 
Hebrew books and critical books on the New Testament, 
as he pleases to take : to Richard Gough, esq. in like man- 
ner, my books on topographical subjects: to Mr. John 
Nichols, all books that relate to Cicero, Livy,and the Roman 
history, particularly the * Cenotaphia' of Noris and Pig- 
hius^ my grammars and dictionaries, with Swift's and 
Pope's works : to my son, whatever books (not described 
above) he thiuks proper to take. — ^And now I hope I may 
^e allowed to leave somewhat for the. benefit of printing. 


B O W Y E R; 231 

To this end^ I give to the master and keepers or wardens 
«nd commonalty of tbe mystery or arc of a stationer of the 
£ity of London, such a sum of money as will purchase two 
thousand pounds three per cent, reduced Bank annuities, 
upon trust, to pay the dividends and yearly produce thereof, 
to be divided for ever equally amongst three printers, com- 
positors or pressmen, to be elected from time to time by 
the master, wardens, and assistants, of the said company, 
and who at the time of such election shall be sixty-three 
years old or upwards, for their respective lives, to be paid 
half-yearly; hoping that such as shalt be most deserving 
will be preferred. And whereas I have herein before given 
to my son the sum of three thousand pounds four per cent, 
^consolidated annuities, in case he marries with the consent 
of aiy executors : Now, I do hereby give and bequeath the 
dividends and interest of that sum, till such marriao^e takes 
place, to the said company of stationers to be divided 
equally between six other printers, compositors or press- 
meUj as aforesaid, in manner as aforesaid ; and, if my said 
son shall die unmarried, or married without such consent as 
aforesaid, then I give and bequeath the said capital sum of 
three thousand pounds to the company of stationers, the 
dividends and yearly produce thereof to be divided for ever 
equally amongst six other such old printers, compositors or 
pressmen, for their respective lives, to be qualified, chosen, 
and paid in manner as aforesaid. It has long been to me 
matter of concern, that such numbers are put apprentices 
as compositors without any share of school-learning, who 
ought to have the greatest : in hopes of remedying this, 
I give and bequeath to the said company of stationers such 
a sum of money as will purchase one thousand pounds three 
per cent, reduced bank annuities, for the use of one journey- 
man compositor, such as shall hereafter be described ; with 
this special trust, that the master, wardens, and assistants, 
shall pay the dividends and produce thereof half-yearly to 
such compositor : the said master, wardens, and assistants 
of the said company, shall nominate for this purpose a com- 
positor who is a man of good life and conversation, who shall 
usually frequent some place of public worship every Sun- 
day unless prevented by sickness, and shall not have worked 
on a newspaper or magazine for four years at least before 
such nomination, nor shall ever afterwards whilst he holds 
this annuity, which may be for life, if he continues a jour- 
Deyoian: he shall be abiie to read aud construe Latin, and at 

^82 B O W V E Rk 

least to read Greek fluently with accents ; of which he shall 
bring a testimonial from the rector of St. Martin's Ludgate 
for the time being : 1 could wish that he shall have been 
brought up piously and virtuously, if it be possible, at Mer* 
chant Taylors, or some other public school, from seven 
years of age till he is full seventeen, and then to serve se-* 
ven years faithfully as a compositor, and work seven yean 
more as a journeyman, as I would not have this annuity be* 
stowed on any one under thirty -one years of age : if after 
he is chosen he should behave ill, let him be turned out, 
and another be chosen in his stead. And whereas it may 
be many years before a compositor may be found that shall 
exactly answer the above description, and it may at some 
times happen that such a one cannot be found; I would 
have the dividends in the mean time applied to such |>erson 
as the master, wardens, and assistants, shall think approaches 
nearest to what I have described. And whereas the above 
trusts will occasion some trouble : I give to the said com« 
pany, in case they think proper to accept the trusts^ two 
hundred and fifty pounds.** It is almost superfluous to add, 
that the trust was accepted, and is properly executed. 

Mr. Bowyer, agreeably to his own directiob, was buried 
at Low Leyton in Essex, where a neat monument is erected 
in the church to his father^s memory and his own, with a 
Latin inscription written by himself. A bust of him is 
placed in Stationers' Hall, with a good portrait of his fa- 
ther, and another of his patron Mr. Nelson ; all which, with 
good portraits of Steele and Prior, were presented to the 
Company of Stationers by Mr. Nichols. 

Early in 1778, Mr. Nichols printed twenty copies of 
some short *^ Biographical Memoirs of Mr. Bowyer," an oo- 
tavo pamphlet of fifty-two pages, which were given in pre-* 
sents to his friends^ and reprinted in the Gent. Mag. vol. 
XLVin. These memoirs, although interesting in them- 
selves, were not sufficient to gratify the friends and eon* 
temporaries of Mr. Bowyer, who foresaw that, with continued 
industry and research, Mr. Nichols mighterect a more sump<» 
tuous monument to the memory of his learned predecessor. 
Accordingly from many valuable materials in bis possession, 
and the aid of some literary friends, he produced in 178^, 
in a handsome quarto volume, closely printed, *< Biographi- 
cal and Literary Anecdotes of William Bowyer, Printeiv 
F. S. A. and of many of his learned friends, containing. an 
incidental view of the progress apd advancement of liteja* 

B O W Y E R. 23^ 

ture in this kingdom from the beginning of the present cen- 
tury to the end of the year 1 777." The importance of this 
work was soon acknowledged by men of learning and curio- 
sity. It contained memoirs of several liundreds of eminent 
scholars who had been unnoticed or imperfectly noticed in 
biographical compilations^and opened so many new and rich 
sources of information and inquiry, that the author was fur- 
ther urged to extend his labour^ and improve upon his own 
plan so as to include a larger portion of literary history, 
-With this view, during the intervals he could spare from an 
extensive business, and the publication of many useful 
works, among which bis elaborate * History of Leicestershire* 
stands prominent, amidst too his indefatigable attention to 
the affairs of the corporation oi London, of which he was 
ifor many years a distinguished member, he was enabled in 
the present year to publish a new edition of his Memoirs of 
Bowyer, under the title of ** Literary Anecdotes of the 
Eighteenth Century; comprizing Biographical Memoirs 
of William Bowyer,'* &c. extended to six copious and 
closely printed volumes in octavo, illustrated by a ^e* 
Ties of engraved portraits. Of this work the editor of 
this Dictionary, or of any compilation of the kind, cannot 
speak without gratitude. It will appear, indeed, by our 
references, that our obligations are numerous and impor- 
tant, nor should we be content with this brief acknowledge 
ment, but from a motive of delicacy, it being known to 
our readers that the author to whom we are so much indebted 
is at the same time the medium of conveying our praises to 
the public. We cannot help adding, however, that where 
we refer to Mr. Nichols's " Anecdotes," we wish it to be under- 
stood that it is for the purpose of more ample information 
than we have usually extracted, and that ho book has perhaps 
^ver been published in this or any country by which lite- 
rary curiosity is so much excited, or so pleasingly gratified. 
BOXHORN (Mark Zuerius), an eminent philologer, 
Historian, and antiquary, born Sept 12, 1612, was the son 
of James Zuerius, minister at Bergen-op-Zoom, by Anne 
Boxhorn, the daughter of Henry Boxhorn, a minister of 
*Breda, originally a Roman Catholic, but who embracing the 
reformed religioi), became minister firist in the duchy of 
Cleves, then at Woorden in Holland, and lastly at Breda, 
which place he left in 1625 when the Spaniards took it, and 
retired to Leyden : here he superintended the education of 
bis grandson, the subject of the present article, who lost 

484 B.D X H,0 R N. 

bis father wh^n only six j^vlts old, and as he had n6 male 
children, gave young Zuerio? bis. name of Boxhorn. -Under 
his tuition, the youth nmde great progress in bis .studies, 
and in 1629 published §ome. good poetry on the taking of 
Boisledoc, and some othbr victories which the Dutch bad 
gained. This was when he was only seventeen years old, 
and be was but twenty when he published some more consi- 
derable works, as will appear in our list, which induced the 
curators of the university of Leyden in the same year, 1632, 
to promote him to the professorship of eloquence. His re- 
putation extending, chancellor Oxeustiern, the Swedish 
ambassador, made him great offers in queen Christina'^ 
name, but preferring a residence in. his own country, he 
was afterwards appointed professor of politics and history 
in the room of Daniel Heinsius, now disabled by age. For 
some time he carried on a controversy with Salmasius, but 
they were afterwards apparently reconciled. Besides his 
numerous works, he contributed frequently to the labours 
Qf bis learned friends: bis career, however, was short, as 
be died, after a tedious illness, at Leydeo, Oct. 3, 1653, at 
the age of only forty -one. How industriously this time was 
employed will appear from the following list of his publica- 
tions. I. "Poemata,'* 1629, 12mo. 2. " Granatarum 
encomium,'* Amsterdam, 1631, 4to. 3. "Historiae Au- 
gustsB Scriptores," a new edition with bis notes, Leyden, 
1631, 4 vols. 12mo, which Harwood calls beautiful but in- 
correct.' 4. "Theatrum, sive Descriptio Comitatus et Ur- 
bium HollandisB,^' ibid. 1632, 4to. and translated into Ger- 
man the same year by Peter Montanus. 5. An edition of 
*^Plinii Panegyricus,'* Leyden, 1632 and 1648, Amsterdam, 
1649, L2mo. 6. A ni mad version es ad Suetonium TranquiU 
lum," Leyden, 1632 and 1645, 12mo. 7. " Poetse Satirici 
minores, cum Commentariis," ibid. 1632, 8vo. 8. "Res- 
.publica Leodieusium/' ibid. 1633, 24mo. 9. "Apolo- 
gia pro Navigationibus Hollandorum, adversus Pontum 
Heuterum," ibid. 1633, 24mo, and reprinted at Lou- 
don, 1636, 8vo. 10. " Emblemata Politica, et Disser«- 
tationes Political,'' Amsterdam, 1634 and 1651, 12mo. 
11. ^^Julii Csesaris Opera, cum commentariis variorum,'* 
ibid. 1634, fol. 12. " Grammatica regia, &c. pro Chris- 
tina Suecorum regina," Holm. 1635, 12mo, Leyden, 1650. 
13. " Catonis Distioha, Gr. Lat. cum Notis," Leyden, 
1635, 8vo. 14. " Orationes duae de vera Nobilitate et in- 
eptiis saeculi,*' ibid. 1635, fol. 15. ^H)ratio inaugura^lis de 
Biajestate eloqueutiis liomanse/' ibid. 1636, 4to. \§» 

» O X H O R If, 28« 

^* Orationes Tres, de theologia paganorum, fabuHs poeta-* 
rum, et aninmrum immortalitate,'' ibid. 1636, 4to. 17. 
^* Oratio funebris in obitum Dominici Molini," ibid. 1636, 
fol. 1 8. " Character capsarum Patroni," ibid. 1637, 4to. 1 9. 
" Character Amoris," ibid. 1637, 4to. 20. " Panegyricus 
Principi Fred. Henrico, post Bredam oppugnatam dictus,'* 
Leyden, 1637, fol. 21. ** QusBstiones Romanae, cum Plu- 
tarchi quoBtionibus Romanis, commentario uberrimo expli* 
catis,'* ibid. 1637, 4to, and reprinted in Graevius, vol. V, 
22. ** Monunienta illustrium virorum aeri incisa et elogia/* 
>bid. 1633, fol. 23. "Justinus, cum iiotis,'* Amsterdam, 
1638. 24. " Panegyricus in classem Hispanorum profli- 
gatam," Leyden, 1639, fol. 25. *^ Oratio de Somniis/' 
ibid. 1639, 4to. 26. " Historia obsidionis Bredanae, 
&c.'' ibid. 1640, fol. 27. " De Typographicae artis in- 
ventione et inventoribus, Dissertatio," ibid. 1640, 4t(>. 
In this he is inclined to think that the art of printing 
was first discovered at Haerlem, and not at Mentz, as he first 
supposed. 28. " Dissertatio de Trapezitis, vulgo Longo-^ 
bardis," ibid. 1640, 8vo, and Groningen, 1658, 4to. 29. 
** Panegyricus in Nuptias principis Arausionensium Guli- 
elmi, et Marise, Britanniae regis fiiiae,'' Leyden, 1641, foL 
30. "Oratio in excessum Cornelii Vander Myle," ibid. 
1642, fol. 31. " Oratio qua Ser. Henricae Mariae, rai^gnae 
Britanniae reginae urbem Leydensem* subeuntis adventum 
veneratur," ibid. 1642, fol. This compliment to our exiled 
queen, and a subsequent publication, Bayle inforais us, 
was disliked by some republicans. 32. " Oratio in exces- 
sum principis Const. Alexandri," ibid. 1642, fol. 33. 
" Commentarius in vitam Agricolae Corn. Taciti," ibid. 
1642, 12mo, and an Apology for this edition, *'adversu» 
Dialogistam,'* Amsterdam, 1643, 12mo. 34. " Animad- 
versiones in Corn. Tacitum, Amsterdam," 1643, and oftea 
reprinted. 35. The Belgic History to the time of Charles 
V. in Dutch, Leyden, 1644, 1649, 4to. 36. « Chronicon 
Zelandiae," Middleburgh, 1644, 4to. 37. On the worship 
of the goddess Nehalennia, in Dutch, Leyden, 1647, 4to. 
38. " Plinii Epistolae cum ejus Panegyrico,'* ibid. 1648, 
and Amsterdam, 1659, 12mo. 39. "Dissertatio de Am- 
nestia," ibid. 1648, 12mo. 40. " Dissertatio de successione 
et jure primogenitorum, in adeundo priricipatu, ad Carolum 
IL MagnsB Britanniae regem,'' ibid, 1649, 4to. 41. " De 
Majestate Regum, Priqcipumque liber singularis,V a defence 
of the former, ibid. 1 649, 4to. 42, " Commentariolusde Statu 

isa B Q X H O R N. 

Fcederataruni Provinciarum Belgii, Hague^ 1 649. Some 
oilence taken by the States of Holland obliged the author to 
alter part of this work in the editidn 1650, 43. " Orati<> 
funebris in exeessum Adriani Falkoburgii Med. Doct.*' Ley- 
den, 1650, 4te. 44. ** Haymonis Hist ecclesiasticse Brevia-» 
rium/^ ibid. 1650, 12mo. 45. ^^ Disquisitiones Politicse, ex 
•mni historia selectae/' Hague^ 1654^ Erfidrt, 1664^ 12itio. 
46. ^^Dissertatio de GrsDcae, Romans, et GermanicaB Lingua- 
rum hamionia/^ Leyden, 1650^ 47. " Historia Univer- 
salis Sacra et Profana ai nato Christo ad annum 1650,'^ ibid. 
1651, 1652, 4to, and Leipsic, 1675, 4to. Mencke, the 
continuator, speaks of this as an excellent account of the 
origin and rights of nations. 48. ^ Orationes varti ai^- 
menti," Amst. 1651, 12mo. 49. ^* Oratio in exeessum 
Gul. principis Arausiee, comitis Nassoni, Leyd. 1651, foK 
5O4 ^* Metamorphosis Anglonim/' Hague, 1653, l2mo^ 
51. ^* Originum Gallicarum liber j^' Amst. 1654, 4to. This 
critical history of ancient Gaul procured him much repu- 
tation* He was employed on it in his latter days, but did 
not live to publish it. The following are also posthumous : 
S2» ^^ Ideae orationum i selectiori materia moderni statui» 
politic! desumptie/' Leyden, 1657, ]2mo, and Leipsic^ 

1661, 12mo. 53. *' Institutionum seu dbqutsitionum Po- 
liticarum Libri Duo,'^ Leipsic, 1659, Amst. 1663. 54. 
^< Chronologia sacra et prophana,^' edited by Bosius, 
£rancf. 1660, fol. 55^ *^ Epistolffi et Poemata," Amst. 

1662, 12mQ, with his life written by James Baselius, a Cal- 
vinist minister, and reprinted at Leipsic in 1679, with a 
preface by Tbomasius. 56. ^* Dissertatio de Imperio Ro- 
mano/^ Jena, 1664, 12mo.* 

BOYCE (William), an eminent English musician, cha* 
pel-master and organist to George H. and ItL was the son 
of William Boyce, a joiner and cabinet-maker, and house* 
keeper of Joiners'-hall, where our musician was born, Feb. 
7, 1710. He was at first a singing-boy at St. PauPs, and 
afterwards apprenticed to the celebrated Dr. Greene, who 
bequeathed to him his manuscripts. In 1734 he was a 
candidate for the place of organist of St. Michael's church, 
Cornhill, with Froud, Young, James Worgan, and Kelway ; 
but though unsuccessful in this application, Kelway being 
elected, he was appointed the same year to the place of 
organist of Oxford chapel ; and in 1736, upon the death 

1 Gen. Diet yol. X art. Zaeriu8.*^Foppeu Bibl. Belg^. — Saxii Onomasticon. 

B O T C B. 287 

^{ Weldotii when Kelway being elected organiist of St. 
Martin's in the Fields, resigned his place at St. MichaeVs 
Conihill, Boyce was not only elected organist of that 
churchy but organist and composer in the chapel royaL 
The same year he set David's ^^ Lamentation over Saul and 
Jonathan,'/ which was performed at the Apollo Society. 
About the year 1743, he produced his serenata of ^^ Solo^ 
mon," which was not only long and justly admired as a 
pleasing and elegant composition^ but still affords great, 
delight to the friends of English music whenever it is per- 
formed. His next publication was ^^ Twelve Sonatas or 
Txios for two violins and a base/' which were longer and 
more geaerally purchased, performed, and admired, than 
any productions of the kind in this kingdom, except those 
of CorelU. They were not only in constant use, as cham* 
ber music, in private concerts, for which they were ori- 
ginally, designed, but in our theatres, as act-tunes, and 
public gardens, as favourite pieces, during many years. 

In 1749, he set the ode written- by the rev. Mr. Mason^ 
for the installation of the late duke of Newcastle, as chan-^^ 
cellor of the university of CaP^bridge, at which time be 
was honoured with the degree^f doctor in music by that 
university. Soon after this eyent, he set the " Chaplet,'* 
a musical drama, written by the late Mr. Mendez, for 
Drury-lane theatre, which had a very favourable reception, 
and long run, and continued many yjears in use. Not long 
after the first performance of this drama, his friend Mr. 
Beard brought on the same stage the secular ode, written 
by Dryden, and originally set by Dr. Boyce for Hickford's 
room, or the Castle concert, where .it was first performed, 
in still life. This piece, though less successful than the 
Chaplet, by the animated performance and friendly zeal 
of Mr. Beard, was many times exhibited before it was 
wholly laid aside. These, coippositions, with occasional 
single songs for Vauxhall and Ranelagh, disseminated the 
fame of Dr. Boyce throughout the kingdom, as a dramatic 
and miscellaneous composer, while his choral compositions 
for the king's chapel, for the feast of the sons of the clergy 
at St. Paul's, and for the triennial meetings at the three 
cathedrals of Worcester, Hereford, and Gloucestei^ at the 
performances in all which places he constantly presided 
1^11 the time of his death, established his reputation as an 
ecclesiastical composer, and able master of harmony. Dr. 
Boyce was one of thfe few of our church composers,, who 

28g BOY C tf. 

neither pillaged or servilely imitated Handel. There is ai»* 
original and sterling merit in his productions) founded as . 
much on the study of our own old masters, as on the best 
models of other countries, that gives to all bis works a pe-- 
euliar stamp and character of his own, for strength, clear* 
ness, and facility, without any mixture of styles, or ex- 
traneous and heterogeneous ornaments. On the decease . 
of Dr Greene, in 1757, he was appointed by the duke of 
Devonshire, master of the king's band ; and, in 1758, on 
the death of Travers, organist of the chapel-royal. He 
published, at a great expence to himself, three volumes 
of cathedral music, b6ing a collection in score of the most 
valuable compositions for that service by the several Eng- 
lish masters of the preceding two centuries, which wa» • 
designed to have been published by Dr. Greene : and in 
this Dr. Boyce was assisted by the first Dr. Hayes, of Ox- 
ford, and by Dr. Howard. Dr. Boyce died, of repeated 
^attacks of the gout, Feb. 7, 1779, and was interred in St* 
Paul's cathedral. An anonymous biographer records a . 
very singular circumstance in Dr. Boyce's history, oamely, 
that he was from his youth incurably deaf. ' 

BOYD (Hugh, or Hugh Macauley), a writer who 
would scarcely have deserved notice, if he had not been 
obtruded on the public as the author of J unius's Letters^ 
was the second son of Alexander Macauley, esq. of the 
county of Antrim, in Ireland. He was born in 1746; was 
educated at Trinity college, Dublin; and was designed 
for the bar ; but, instead of prosecuting his original views, 
came over to London, where, under the patronage of Mr. 
Richard Burke, he soon became known both in the literary 
and faslxionable world. A propensity to extravagance had 
already reduced him to considerable embarrassments, 
when, in 1777, he married a lady of good fortune; but 
this relief was only teipporary; for the same expensive 
habits still continued, and at length obliged him to ac-- 
company lord Macartney to Madras, in the capacity of a 
second secretary. He remained there after bis lordshipV 
return, and died in 1791, having for some years previously 
to his death, held the lucrative office of master attendant, 
with little advantas:e to his circumstances. He wrote in 
Ireland, a political periodical paper, called ^^ The Free-i 
holder," in 1772; an Introduction to lord Chathain^» 

> Barney '« Hist, of Music, toI. 2X1.--- Londm Cbfowcle, Feb. 18, 1779. 

b O Y D. Qi$ 

•^ecbe^ oti the American war, reported and published bj 
him ; and the ** Whig/' published in Almon's newspaper^ 
the London Courant, in 1780. In 1794, he also wrote a 
few periodical essays called " The Indian Observer,** pub- 
lished at Madras. These were reprinted in an 8vo volume* 
in 1798, by the late Mr. Laurence Dundas Campbell, with 
a view to establish an assertion which Almon first made^ 
if we mistake not, purporting that A|r. Boyd was the au- 
thor of Junius ; but unfortunately the reader has ^^ the 
bane aud antidote*' both before him in this volume, and 
few attempts of the kind can be conceived more injudici- 
ous than a comparison between the styles of Boyd and Ju- 
nius. Boyd wrote after Junius, and, like most political 
writers, aims at his style ; and the only conclusion which 
his friends have arrived at amounts to this absurdity, that 
an imitator must be an original writer ; and even this in the 
case of Mr. Boyd is peculiarly unfortunate, for his imita-^ 
tions are among the most feeble that have been ever at^** 
tempted. — ^Mr. Campbell returned to the charge, however, 
in 1 800, with a publication of '^ The miscellaneous works 
of Hugh Boyd, the author of the Letters of Junius : with 
an account of his Life and Writings,** 2 vols. 8vo. ^ 

BOYD (Maek Alexander), a Scotch writer of cousin 
derable reputation in the sixteenth century, the son of 
Robert Boyd, of Pinkill in Ayrshire, was born Jan. 13^ 
1562. Having lost his father early, he was educated undef 
the inspection of his uncle, Mr. James Boyd, of Trochrig, 
who^ with the then unpopular title of ^^ Archbishop of 
Olasgow," performed the offices of minister of the Barony 
parish in that city. Young Boyd, in his nature lively 
and headstrong, soon grew weary of academical discipline^ 
quarreled with his preceptors, renounced bis studies, and, 
eager to become a man of the world, presented himself at 
court. It is not unlikely that in this scheme he relied chiefly 
on the patronage of Robert, fourth lord Boyd, who was 
probably the cousin-german of Boyd*s fiaither. All, bow- 
ever, that we learn of his proficiency at court is, that he 
fought one duel, and was engaged in numberless broils* 
His relations advised him to follow the profession of artxis 
in the Low Countries, for they could not moderate his im-» 
petuous and unruly teniper, and perhaps they were little 

1 The above publications.— Monthly Review, N. S. toL XXVIl. aocl XXXiV. 
— <-See also another advocate for Mr* Boyd, ifr Mr. G. Chalmerses " A. p«;iidix tp 
ibe Suppiemeotal Apolofyi 9f,c.*^ 1800. 


290 BOYD. 

inclined or little able to support bim in a manner of life 
which had no determined object or aim. Boyd i^eadily 
consented to become a soldier ; but be chose France rather 
than the Low Countriesi for the theatre of his future 
acfaievements. He went therefore to Paris, furnished with 
a small # tock of money, all of which be soon lost at dice. 
This the author of his life ascribes to some secret fate, 
** occulto veluti fato ;*' but says his more recent biogra- 
pher, lord Hailes, we may absolve/fl/^, for when the raw 
and self-suf&cient go amongst sharpers, they ought to as- 
cribe their ruin io folly, 

Boyd, observing that young pek'sons of quality, and even 
military men, were wont to attend academical lectures 
at Paris, resumed his stuclies. The teachers to whom 
he attached himself were, J. Marius d'Amboise, profes- 
sor of philosophy ; J. Passerat, professor of eloquence, nut 
only a scholar, but a wit also, and a poet; and Gilb. Franc. 
Genebrand, professor of the Hebrew language, who after- 
wards by his zeal for the French league, tarnished the re- 
{>utation that he had gaiiied by his literary abilities. Guil- 
onius also is mentioned amongst the professors under 
'whom Boyd studied. He next resolved to apply himself 
to the civil law, and went to the university of Orleans, 
where that science was taught by J. Robertus, a man prin- 
cipally known for having dared to become the rival of Cu- 
jacius. But he soon quitted Orleans, and went to the 
university of Bourges. Cujacius, who taught the civil 
law there, received him with kindness, and possibly, not 
with the less kindness because bis new scholar had quitted 
Orleans and professor Robertus. It was said that Boyd ob- 
tained the friendship of Cujacius, by writing some verses 
in the obsolete Latin language. Perhaps that learned man 
liked those verses best which approached nearest to the 
standard of the Twelve Tables. 

While at Bourges, however, Boyd applied his mind to 
serious study, with more earnestness than could have been 
looked for from a person of his age and desultory temper. 
But unfortunately his studies were interrupted, not by the 
constitutional fickleness of his own disposition, but by a 
public calamity. The plague broke out at Bourges, and 
Boyd, dreading the infection, fled to Lyons, and on its 
appearance at Lyons, he went into Italy. There he be- 
came acquainted with a person whom he calls Cornelius 
Varus, but having been seized with an ague, be returned 

BOYD. 291 

to L5^ons for change of air. It is said that the being de^ 
prived of the conversation and salutary advices ^ of hi^ 
friend Varus was the only regret which be had in quitting 
Italy. Varus flattered him with all the extravagancy of 
Italian hyperboles, and finding that Boyd prided himself 
on the excellence of his Latin poetry ^ addressed some 
verses to him in which he asserts that Boyd surpassed Bu^^ 
chanan and all other Bi'itish poets in a greater degree than 
Virgil surpassed Lucretius, Catullus, and all other Roman 
poets. / 

In 1587, a numerous army, composed of mercenary 
Germans and Swiss, invaded France, in support of thtt 
king of Navarre. Boyd joined the troops that marched 
from Auvergrie to reinforce the army of Henry III. His 
commander was a Greek by birth, an officer of cavalry* 
Boyd mentions not his name ; but describes him as one 
who, with the specious advantages of elocution, and a 
noble figure, was volatile, forward, easily provoked, and 
of ungovernable passion. The temerity of this commander 
exposed his soldiers to more hazards in skirmishes with 
the peasants, than they would have found in storming of 
towns. Boyd received a shot in the ancle, and this is a\\ 
we know, with certainty, of his niilitary services. 

In 1588, Boyd fixed his residence at Toulouse, and 
again applied himself to the study of the civil law under 
Fr. Rouldes, a celebrated professor. It appears that, 
about this time, he wrote some tracts on that science, and 
projected others; and that he even had it in view to com*- 
pose a system of the law of nations. Toulouse having, 
about this time,, by means of a popular insurrection, fallei\ 
into the hands of the faction of the league, Boyd, who had 
assisted the royal cause, was thrown into prison; and^ 
from the hatred of the Jesuits, was iii great danger of his 
life. When be had obtained his liberty, which was granted 
him at the solicitations of the learned men of Toulouse, he 
went first to Bourdeaux, and thence to Rochelle. In thi$ 
last journey he was attacked by robbers, and with difficulty 
escaped being assassinated by them, after ha^yirxg lost all 
the property he had with him. Disliking the air of Ro-. 
ciielle, he retreated to the borders of Poictou, ^her^ 
he enjoyed an agreeable rural retirement; devoting hi$ 
time partly to polite literature, and partly. ta the aid of big 
friends, when they were occasionally exposed to the incur^ 
* »iqifi9 of tb^ enemies. He so equally applied himself tt^ 

V 2 

ft92 6 O Y D. 

thm study of learning and war, that it was not ea^ to say 
•ivliich be most preferred ; but bis character appears now to 
luAre been more decided than when in youth. Among men 
4d tbe sword be appeared to be the accomplished soldier^ 
and as eminently the scholar among those of the gowii. 
la his person he was tall, compact, and well prop(5rt]oned ; 
4iis countenance was beautiful, sprightly, and engaging ; 
jmd there was a singularly tio\}le air in his discourse, aspect^ 
voice, and gesture. He was polite, pleasant, acute, 
courteous, a ready speaker, and entirely free from envy 
and avaiice. He could easily bear with the boasting of 
die ignorant, but extremely disliked the abusive manner 
of writing which prevailed so much among the learned of 
his time. He thought it unworthy of a Christian, in a li- 
terary controversy, to throw out any thing, either in speech 
or writing, which should hurt the reputation of an adver- 
sary. In injuries of an atrocious nature, he chose to do 
himself justice by having recourse to tbe laws of arms. 
Among the ancients, Xenophon was bis favourite as a pbi«« 
losopber, Caesar as an bistorianf, and Virgil as a poet. So 
admirably was he skillied in the Greek language, that he 
eouid write, dictate, and converse in it, with copiousn^ 
and elegance. He despised the centos, which were then 
not a little in fashion ; and said, that however learned th« 
authors of them might be, they were dull and ignorant 
jnen. Besides his epistles after the manner of Ovid, and 
bis hymns, he wrote a variety of Latin poems, which have 
■iiot been printed. He was the author of notes upon Pliny, 
and published an excellent little book, addressed to Lip* 
sius, in defence of cardinal fiembo and the ancient elo- 
eiienoe. He translated, likewise, Caesar's Commentaries. 
into Greek, in tbe style of Herodotus ; but would not per* 
mit bis translation to appear in public. He afterwards aj)- 
/plied himself to the cultivation of poetry in his native Ian* 
guage^ and arrived at considerable excellence in it. In all 
his eomponliionS) genius was more apparent than labour. 

.Boyd, at length, returned into Scotland, where be soon 
aftee died, «f,a flow fever, in April 1€01, at Pinkill, 
Ins fadierV seat, in the 5Sth or Sdth year of bis age ; and 
«ns 'buried with bis ancestors in the church ot Daiie or 
iDarile.. ' Among tbe manuscripts which he left behind hiin, 
the following were in sir Robert Sibbald's possession: 
^In Instituttbnes Istiperatorts Commenta,'' 1591, folio. 
<^ L'Estat du Royauwe 4'£seoflse i present^'^ foK << PoU« 

BOYD. S9t 

fcicufl^ a4 Joannem Metellanum, cancellarium Scdtiae.'^ 
,** Scriptum de Jurisconsulto, ad Franciscum BalduiniHn/' 
'* Poeta, ad Cornelium Varum Florentinum," " Poemala 
varia.'^ *' Epistolse/' But of these, the only works novr 
fenown are his " Epistolse Hcroidum," and his " Hjrmni/' 
These are inserted in the " Delitias Poetarum Scotoruai^*^ 
Anist. 1637, in two volumes 12mo; and a great character 
has beefi given of them by several authors. His biogra- 
pher questions whether lany of the ancients have excelled 
|iim in elegiac poetry, and is positive that none of the 
Latins have equalled his hymns. Olaus Borrichius, an 
eminent critic, in his *' Dissertationes Academics de Poe^ 
tis,*' says, ^^ In Marco Alexandro Boclio, Scoto, redivivmn 
fipectamus Nasonem ; ea est in ejusdeiii Epistolis Heroi* 
^um, lux, candor, dexteritas.*' The same critic speaks as 
)iighly of Boyd's Hymns, but modern taste will not coin*^ 
cide with these praises. Boyd undoubtedly was a man of 
genius and elegant accomplishments, yet we learn this 
rather from his history than his writings. ^ 
y. BOYD (Robert), a nobleman of Scotland, of whose 
/early years we have no account, began to make a figure ia 
, pubtip life towards the end of the reign of James II. of 
Scotland. Being a man of great penetration and sound 
judgment, courteous and affable, he acquired the esteem 
. find confidence of all ranks of people, as well as of bis 
prince, who created him a baron by the title of lord Boyd, Kilmarnock. In 1459, he was, with several other no- 
blemen, sent to Newcastle, with the character of plenipo- 
tentiary, to prolong the truce with England, which bad 
i*ust then expired. On the death of James II. who was 
illed at the siege of Roxburgh, lord Boyd was made jus- 
ticiary, and one of the lords of the regency, in whose 
bands the administration was lodged during the minority 
of the young king. His lordship had a younger brother 
who had received the honour of knighthood, tiiir Alexander 
Boyd of Duncow, a man in great credit with the king, 
whom he was appointed to teach the rudiments of military 
discipline ; and between them, the two brothers found 
ineans to engross most of the places and preferments about 
the court. Sir Alexander began to instil into the yeutig 
king, then twelve years old, that he was now capable^ of 
governing without the help of guardians and tutors^ and 

l^ Sketch of the life of Btfytt, by L6r<I Hailes, Edin. Il%3, 8yo.— Biog, Brit 

t94 BOY D. 

that he might free himself from their restraint Thi« ad- 
vice was readily listened to, and the king resolved to take 
«pon himself the government, which, however, was no 
other than transferring the whole power, from the other 
regents, to the Boyds. The king was at this time at Lin- 
lithgow, and it was necessary to remove him to Edinburgh, 
to take iipan him the regt^l government, which the Boyds 
effected, partly by force, and partly by stratagem. Hav- 
ing got the king to Edinburgh, lord Boyd began to pro- 
vide for his own safety, and to avert the danger which 
threatened him and his friends, for what they had done in 
the face of an act of parliament ; and accordingly prevailed 
*ipon the king to call a parliament at Edinburgh, in Octo- 
•ber 1466; in which lord Boyd fell down upon his -kneei 
before the throne, where the king sat, and in an elaborate 
harangue, complairted of the hard construction put upon 
the king's removal from Linlithgow, and how ill this was 
interpreted by his enemies, who threatened that the ad-? 
visers of that affair should one day suffer punishment; 
humbly beseeching his majesty to declare his own sense 
^nd pleasure thereupon, and that if he conceived any ill- 
will or disgust against him for that journey, that he would 
t)penly declare it. The king, after advising a little with 
•the lords, made answer, that the lord Boyd was not his 
' adviser, but rather his companion in that journey; and 
therefore that he was more worthy of a reward for his cour* 
isesy, than of punishment for his obsequiousness or com-* 
pliance therein ; and this he was willir\g to declare in a 
public decree of the estates, and in the same decree pro- 
vision should be made, that this matter should never be 
prejudicial to the lord Boyd or his companions. His lord^ 
«hip then desired, that this decree might be registered in 
the acts of the assembly, and confirmed by letters patent 
under the great seal, which was also complied with. At 
the same time also the king, by advice of Ms council, 
'gave him letters patent, whereby he was constituted sole 
regent, and had the safety of the king, his brothers, sisters, 
towns, castles, and aH the jurisdiction over bis subjects, 
coiftmitted to him, till the king himself arrived to the age 
,pf twenty-one years. And the nobles then present so- 
•lemnly promised to be assistant to the lord Boyd, and also 
Jtjo his^brother, in all their public actions, and that they 
woiTild be liable to punishment, if they did not carefully, 
f^i}d with faithfulness, perform what thpy then promisefd, 

B O Y I>. 295 

to which stipulation the king also subscribed. Lord Boyd 
next contrived to be made lord great chamberiam^ and 
after this had the boldness to procure the lady Mary Stew^ 
arty the late king's eldest daughter, in marriage for his son 
sir Thomas Boyd, notwithstanding the care and precaution 
of the parliament The lord Boyd's son was a most ac- 
complished gentleman, and this match and near alliance 
to the crowuj added to his own distinguished merit, raised 
him to a nearer place in the affection as well as confidence 
of his sovereign, by whom he was soon after created 
earl of Arran, and was now himself considered as the 
fountain from whence all honours and preferments must 
flow. The lord chamberlain, by this great accession of ho« 
nour to his family, seemed to have arrived at the highest 
pinnacle of power and grandeur ; but what seemed to esta- 
blish bis power, proved the very means of its overthrow. 
About this time, a marriage having been concluded, by 
ambassadors sent into Denmark for that purpose, between 
the young king of' Scotland, and Margaret, a daughter of 
the king of Denmark, the earl of Arran was selected to go 
over to Denmark, to espouse the Danish princess in the 
king his brother-in-law's name, and to conduct her to Scot- 
land. The earl of Arran, judging all things safe at home, , 
willingly accepted this honour ; and, in the beginning of 
the autumn of 1469, set sail for Denmark with a proper 
convoy, and a noble train of friends and followers. This 
was, however, a fatal step, for the lord chamberlain, the 
earPs father, being now much absent from the court in 
the necessary discharge of his office, as well as through 
age and infirmities, which was the case also of his brother 
sir Alexander Boyd ; the earl of Arran had no sooner set 
out on his embassy, than every endeavour was tried to 
alienate the king's a&ction from the Boyds. Every pub- 
lic miscarriage was laid at their door ; and the Kennedies, 
their ancient enemies, industriously spread abroad reports, 
to inflame the people likewise against them^t They repre- 
sented to the king, that the lord Boyd had abused his 
^^ power during his majesty's minority ; that his matching his 
9on, the earl of Arran, with the princess Mary, was stain- 
ing the royal blood of Scotland, was an indignity to the 
crown, and the prelude to the execution of a plot they had 
contrived of usurping even the sovereignty itself; for they 
represented the lord chamberlain as an ambitious, aspiring 
man, guilty of the highest ofifences, and capable of con^ 

*W BOY D. 

trivitig and eteCuting the worst of yillanies: with what 
justice, history does not inform us. Buehanan only says 
the Boyds were the occasion of the king's degeneracy into 
all manner of licentiousness, by their indulgence of his 
pleasures. The king, however, young, weak, credulou9, 
and wavering, and naturally prone to jealousy, began to 
be alarmed, and was prevailed on to sacrifice, not only the 
earl of Arran, but all bis family, to the resentment of their 
enemies, notwithstanding their ancestors* great services to 
the crown, and in spite of the ties of blood which united 
tliem so closely. At the request of the adverse faction, 
the king summoned a parliament to meet at Edinburgh, 
the 20th of November, 1469, before which lord Boyd, tbe 
earl of Arran, though in Denmark, and sir Alexander. Boyd 
of Duncow, were sumnioned to appear, to give an account 
of their administration, and answer such charges as should 
be exhibited against them. Lord Boyd, as^tonished at this 
sudden blow, betook himself to arms ; but, finding it im« 
possible to stem the torrent, made his escape into England.; 
but his brother, sir Alexander, being then sick> and trust- 
ing to his own integrity, was brought before the parlia- 
ment, where he, the lord Boyd, and his son the earl of 
Arran, were indicted of high-treason, for having laid hands 
on the king, and carried him, against an act of parliament, 
f^nd contrary to the king's own will, froqi Linlithgow to 
Edinburgh, in 1466. Sir Alexander alleged in bis de- 
fence, that they had not only obtained the king^s pardon 
for that oiFence in a public convention, but . it was even 
declared a good service by a subsequent act of parliament; 
but no regard was had to this, because it was obtained by 
the Boyds when in power, and masters of the king's per- 
son : and the crime being proved against them, they were 
found guilty by a jury of lords and barons; and sir Alext 
ander Boyd, being present, was condemned to lose his 
^ead on the Castle-hill of Edinburgh, which sentence, wai^ 
executed accordingly. The lord Boyd would have Under-^ 
gone the same fate, if be had not made his escape into 
England, where, however, be did not long survive his 
great reverse of fortune, dying at Alnwick in 1470. The 
^arl of Arran, though absent upon public businesa, was 
declared a public enemy, without being granted a hear- 
ing, or allowed the privilege of defending himself, and hi« 
estates confiscated. Things w^re in this situation, wbeof 
lie arrived from Denmark^ With the espoused queen^ ip tt\f 

BOYD. S91 

FHth of Forth. Before be landed he received iiltelUgenee 
of the wreck and ruin of bis family, and resolved to retire 
into Denmark ; and without staying to attend the cere-* 
isionial df the queen^s landing, be took the opportunity of 
one of those Danish shipis which convoyed the queen, and 
were linder his command, and embarking his Udy, set sail 
for Denmark, where he met with a reception suitable to 
his high birth. From thence be travelled through Ger- 
many into France, and went to pay a visit to Charles duke 
of Burgundy,, who received him most graciously, and 
being then at war with his rebellious subjects^ the unfortu- 
nate lo« d oiFered him his service, which the duke readily 
accepted, and finding him to be a brave and wise man, h« 
honoured and supported him and his lady in a manner be- 
coming their rank. But the king their brother, not yet 
satisfied with the miseries of their family, wrote over to 
Flanders to recal his sister home ; and fearing she would 
not be iddi!iced to leave him, he caused others to write to 
her, aiid give her hopes that his anger towards her husband 
might be appeased, and that if she would come over and 
plead for him in person^ there was no doubt but she might 
prevail with her brother to restore him again to his favour^ 
The countess of Arran, flattered with these hopes, returned, 
and was no sooner arrived in Scotland, than the king urged 
her to a divorce firom her husband, cruelly detained .her 
from going back to him, and caused public citations, at- 
tested by witnesses, to be fixed up at Kilmarnock, the 
seat of the Boyds, wherein Thomas earl of Arran was com- 
manded to appear in sixty days, which he not doing, his 
marriage with the king^s sister was declared null and void^ 
and a divorce made (according to Buchanan), the earl still 
absent and unheard ; and the lady Mary was compelled, by 
the king, to marry James lord Hamilton, a man much in- 
ferior to her former husband both in point of birth and 
fortune. This transaction was in 1474; and the earl of 
Arran, now in the last stage of his miseries, and borne 
down with the heavy load of his misfortunes, soon after 
4died at Antwerp, and was honourably interred there. The 
character of him and of his father i^ variously represented. 
That they were ambitious, and regardless of the means of 
gratifying that ambition, cannot well be denied, nor are we 
permitted to censure with great asperity their enemies who 
effected their ruin by similar measures and with similar 
^motives. Their fall undoi^btedly holds out an useful les^-» 

598 BOYD. 

son, but the e:9rperiei)ce of others, especially of example^ 
. in history, seldom checks the progress of that ambition that 
has once commenced in success. ^ 

BOYD (William), a descendant of the preceding, and 
fourth and last earl of Kilmarnock, was born in 1704, and 
was but thirteen years old when his father died : he dis*- 
covered early a genius not unequal to his birth, but found 
the family estate pretty much encumbered, and great part, 
of the patrimony alienated, which was by no means an- 
swerable to his lordship^s generous and noble disposition. 
It was also his misfortune to bo too soon let loose among^ 
the gaieties and pleasures of life. As he grew up, instead 
of applying himself to study, he launched out into the 
world in pursuit of pleasures which were more expensive 
than his fortune could support, and by this means consi-* 
derably reduced his estate, which, from the most probable 
conjecture, was the true reason of his taking up arms against 
the king. Indeed, his lordship himself owns in his confes- 
sion to Mr. Foster (while under sentence), that his rebellion 
was a kind.of desperate scheme, proceeding originally from 
his vices, to extricate himself from the distress of his cir« 
' cumstances ; for he says, *^ the true root of all was his care«* 
less and dissolute life, by which he had reduced himself to 
great and perplexing difficulties ; that the exigency of his 
affairs was in particular very pressing at the time of the 
rebellion ; and that, besides the general hope he had of 
mending bis fortune by the success of it, he was also 
tempted by another prospect of retrieving his cia:cum«- 
stances, by following the Pretender^s standard.'' It does 
not appear that his lordship was in the original design of 
the rebellion : on the contrary, he declared both in his 
speech at the bar of the house of lords, and in his petition 
to the king after his sentence, that it was not till after the 
battle of Preston Pans that he became a party in it, having, 
till then, neither influenced his tenants or followers to 
/ assist or abet the rebellion; but, on the contrary, in- 

fluenced the inhabitants of the town of Kilmarnock, 
and the neighbouring boroughs, to rise in arms for his 
majesty's service, which had so good an effect, that two 
hundred men from Kilmarnock very soon appeared m 
arms, and remsvned so ail the winter at Glasgow and other 
places. It is said^ that when the earl joined the Pret^o* 

» Biog. Briu 


BOYD. 219^ 

Aer*s standard, be was received by him with great marks 
of esteem and distinction ; was declared of his privy-coun- 
cil, made colonel of the guards, and promoted to the de- 
gree of a general (though his lordship himself says, he was 
far from heing a person of any consequence among them). 
How he behaved in these stations (quite new to him, and 
foreign from his former manner of life), we cannot deter- 
mine ; but common fame says, he displayed considerable 
courage till the fatal hattle of Cuiloden, when he was , 
taken^ or rather surrendered himself, prisoner, to the king's 
troops, though involuntarily, and with a < design to have 
facilitated his escape: for be acknowledged to Mr. Foster, 
whilst under sentence, that when he saw the king's dra- 
goons, and made towards them, he thought they had been 
Fitz-James's horse ; and that if he could have reached 
them by mounting behind one of the dragoons, his escape 
would have been more certain, than when he was on foot. 
Yet, in his speech to the house of lords, he made a merit 
of having surrendered himself, at a time when he said he 
could easily have made his escape, and in this he owned, 
^ben in a state of repentance, that he had not spoken 
truth. His lordship was brought to the Tower, and on 
Moaday the 28th of July, 1746, was, together with the 
earl of Cromartie, and lord Balmerino, conducted to West- 
fiiinster-hall, and at the bar of the lord'^ high-steward's 
icoiirt, arraigned, and pleaded guilty to his indictment, 
submitting himself to his majesty's mercy and clemency. 
On the Wednesday following, the three lords were agaih 
brought from the Tower to receive sentence, when the 
lord Kilmarnock being asked by the lord high-steward, if 
he had any thing to offer why sentence of death should not 
>be passed upon him, his lordship, addressing himself tb 
his grace and the whole august assembly, then consisting 
.of an hundred and thirty-six peers, delivered an eloquent 
•speech, after which, sentence of death was pronounced 
-upon him, and he returned to the Tower. After this, he 
presented petitions to the king, the prince of Wales, and 
iduke of Cumberland, wherein he set forth his family's 
constant attachment to the revolution interest, and that of 
the iUnstrious house of Hanover; his father's zeal and 
activity in support of both in the rebellion in 1715, and 
his own appearing in arms (though then but young) under 
his father, and the whole tenour of his conduct ever since 
that time. But the services of his forefathers could not 

Joa BOYD. 

satisfy the ptibtic demand for justice, nor av^sil hint 8<H&r 
as to procure him pardon. He was bebeiided on Towen- 
bill, August 18, 1746, and was interred m the Towar 
church, with tbis inscription upon his coffin, viz* ^^ Guliel^i 
mus Comes de Kilmarnock, decollat. 18 Augusti, 1746, 
a^tat. suas 42.* - His iordsbip^s whole deportment, from the 
tune he was condemned till his execution, was suitable to 
one in his unhappy circumstances. He gave the most 
lively marks of a sincere humiliation and repentance for 
all his miscarriages, and his behaviour in the hour of death 
was resigned, but strictly decent and awful. He had hiio* 
self observed, with great truth, that for a man who bad led 
a. dissolute life, and yet belieted the consequences of 
death, to put on an air of daringness and jsibsolo&e iiitre-* 
pidity, must argue him either to be very stupid- ori^fjr 
impious. He was a nobleman of fine address and. polite 
behaviour ; his person was tall and graceful } his eouo- 
tenance mild, but bis com pie xioti paid; and he had abi- 
lities, which, if they had been properl^y, applied, flught 
have rendered him capable of bringing an increaso of bo^ 
nour to his family, instead of ruin and disgxaoe. v His 
lordship lived and died in the public profession of the 
church of Scotland, and left behind bima« widow (who 
was the lady Anne Livingston, 4anghierof Jamea eartaaf 
Linlithgow and Callander (attainted in 1715), with .Whom 
he had a ccnsiderable fortune), and three sons, the . eldest 
of whom his lordship had educated in the principles of 
duty and loyalty to his majesty^ and in whose serviee iie 
fought against the rebels. He succeeded^: upon tb«^esth 
of Mary, countess of Errol, in 1758, to* her estate 'mud 
honours, his mother having been undoubted heir of dioei^f 
that noble family, and be was the sixteenth earl of Emil. 
He died June 3, 1778, leaving issue**' i- ... W 

BOYD (Robert), an eminent ScoIgIi divine,, ofc the 
same family as the preceding, being a descendant of Ke- 
bert Boyd, earl of Arran, sometime protector of Scotland, 
from whom descended James Boyd, baroo of'Trochrig^jfcke 
father of the subject of this article. -He was bora'in l#^, 
and educated at the university of Edinburgh, wherec^e 
took his master's degree; In 1604, according tor the- ei^^ 
torn of the times, he travelled into Firance, aod.atuiliadvjfor 
soine time under Rivet, improving himself io Greek and 

^ Biog. Brit See art. Jam^9 Fot^ei;^ 

)t«.».^' •* 

BOYD. «0l 

Hetirew, and in French, which be spoke with great fluency. 
He was afterwards invited by the university of Montauban 
to be professor of philosophy, and in the mean time him- 
self studied divinity, and was ordained according to the 
ibrais of the French reformed church. In 1608 he wa« 
removed to a professorship at Saumur, which he filled un- 
til 1614, and both as a preacher and teacher was much 
admired and eagerly followed. His f^me reaching the ears 
of his sovereign, king James, he sent him a pressing in- 
vitation to fill the divinity chair in the university of Glas- 
gow, in consequence of which he removed thither in 1615^ 
to the great sorrow of his friends at Saumur, and the uni- 
versity at large. He was enabled soon, in conjunction 
with some able colfeagues, to raise the reputation of the 
Glasgow university, the mode of study in which he re- 
formed from the useless and disputatious modes of the 
•ehools. His situation, however, afterwards became em- 

-barrassed from the disputes which arose respecting the 
Upheme of king James to assimilate the churches of Eng« 
land and Scotland, which was highly unpopular in the 

Jatter country. Boyd^s education, and especially his as- 
focietions - abroad, had inclined him to the presby terian 
fbrm of church government, and finding that he could not 

? under such circumstances retain his situation as preacher 
and professor at Glasgow, he resigned both, and went to 
Uve p'ivateiy on an estate which he possessed. Endea- 
vour^ were made to fix him in Edinburgh, and afterwards 

'to recall him to Glasgow, but these not being successful, 

i lie finally retired from public life to Carrick, his estate, 
where be died Jan. 5, 1627. He wrote in very elegant 
Latin, a commentary on the epistle to the Ephesians, 

.whi^h was published under the title ^^ Robert! Bodii Scoti 
Prselectiones in Epistolam ad Ephesios,*^ Lond> 1652, foL' 

' ' BOYDELL (John), a liberal patron of the arts, and an 
lionour to his country, was born at Stanton in Shropshire, 

/JwQ. 19, 1719. His grandfather was the rev. John Boy- 
dell, D. p. vicar of Ashbourne, and rector of Mapleton in 
l)erbysbire *, whose son Josiah married Mary Milnes, eld- 
est daughter of Samuel Milnes, esq. of Ash-house near 
Taniditch, Derbyshire, Jan. 22, 1718. Dr. Boydell was 
an excellent scholar, and for some time superintended the 

• See ^MM ¥eniM by this gentleman, pnUUhtd by Ibe A14enne» in 119$, 
Qmu Meg. 1^09, vol. LXXVlil^ B. 771. 
i GUcke't Ijfefl, foL i^as. 

a03 BOYD EL L. 

education of bis graLndson, intending him for the chufctr^ 
but dying in 1731, the youth was brought up by his fatberi 
a land-surveyor, who very naturally intended hin> for his 
own profession, and as a taste for drawing generally dis-^ 
covers itself very .early, he might probably tbresee great 
advantages from his son^s possessing this talent. For* 
tunately, however, for young Boydell, and for the arts, a 
trifling accident gave a more decided direction to his mind^ 
and led him to aim at higher efforts in the art than the 
mere mechanism of ground-plans and outlines. This ,wa9 
no othec than the sight of a print by Toms, a very indif- 
ferent artist, of sir John Glynne's seat and the old castle 
attached to it, in " Baddeley^s Views of different Country 
Seats.'* An exact dellheation of a building that he had 
so often contemplated, afforded him pleasure, and excited 
8ome reflections which gave a new turn to his ambition* 
Considering' it as an engraving, and from the copper of 
which might be taken an almost indefinite number of im* 
pressions, he determined to quit the pen, and take up 
the graver, as an instrument which would enable him to 
disseminate whatever work he' could produce, in so much 
wider a circle. This resolution was no sooner made, than 
it was put in execution ; for, with that spirit and perse- 
verance which he manifested in every succeeding scene of 
life, he, at twenty-one years of age, walked up to the 
metropolis, and bound himself apprentice for seven years 
to Mr. Top^, the engraver of the print which had so fbrcir- 
bly attracted his attention. These, and accidents equally 
trifling, sometimes attract men of strong minds into the 
path that leads direct to fame, and have been generally 
considered as proving that they were born with some pe- 
culiar genius for some peculiar study. Sir J. Reynolds 
had the first fondness for his art excited by the perusal of. 
** Richardson's Treatise on Painting ;" and Mr. Boydell 
was induced to learn the art of engraving, by a coarse 
print of a coarse artist, representing a mis-shapen gothic 

This step, however, gave bis father no little uneasiness, 
and every argument and remonstrance of himself and his 
friends were employed to divert him from a pursuit which 
they cqnsid^red as likely to Ibe very unprofitable. But 
this producing no effect, his father took into business 
with him a younger son, Thomas, who succeeded htm, 
and who d^ed a few years before the subject of the present 

B O Y D E L L. J0« 

article, at Trevallyn Hall, Denbighshire, where lis father 
had lived before him, but did not live long enough to wit- 
ness the success of his son John, in the pursuit he so much 

His conduct during his apprenticeship was eminently 
assiduou&i Eager to attain all possible knowledge of an 
art on which his mind was bent, and of every thing that 
could be useful to him, and impelled by an industry that 
seemed inherent in his nature, he, whenever he could, 
attended the academy in St Martin*s-lane to perfect him- 
self in drawing ; his leisure hours in the evening were de- 
voted to the study of perspective, and to the learning of 
French without the aid of a master. After very steadily 
V pursuing his business for six years, and finding himself a 
better artist thai%his teacher,, he bouj^ht from Mr. Toms 
the last .year of his apprenticeship, and became his own 
master. In 1745 or 1746 he published six small land- 
scapes, desigped and engraved by himself. ^ This publi- 
cation, from his having in most of the views chosen a si- 
tuation in which a bridge formed part of the scenery, was 
entitled ** The Bridge book,** and sold for a shilling* 
Small as ^his sum was, he sometimes spoke with apparent 
pleasure of a silversmith in Duke*s-court, St. Martinis 
lane, having sold so many, that when he settled his annual 
account, he thought it would be civil to take a silver pint 
mug in part of payment, and this mug he regained until 
his dying day. He afterwards designed and engraved 
many other views, generally of places in and about Lon- 
don, and published the greater part of them at the low 
price of one shilling eachu But even at this early period 
. he was so much alive to fame, that after having passed 
several mobths in copying an historical sketch of Corio- 
ianus by Sebastian Concha, he so much disliked his own 
engraving, that he cut the plate to pieces. Besides these, 
he engraved many prints fcom Brocking, Berchem, Sal- 
vator Rosa, &c. . The manner in which many of them are 
executed, is highly .xespectable ^ and, being done at a 
iime when the artist had much other business to attend to^ 
. displays an industry rarely to be paralleled, and proves 
>that had he devoted all his time to engraving, he would 
/have ranked high in the profession. His facility of exe* 
/cution^ and unconquerable perseverance, having thus en- 
abled him to complete one hundred and fifty-two prints, 
kui collected the whole in one port-fglio, aod publishedit 

f04 B O Y D E L L. 

at five guineas. He modestly allowed that he himself bad 
not sit that time arrived at any eminence in the art of en- 
gravings and that those prints are now chiefly valuable 
from a comparison of them with the improved state of the 
art within the last fifty years. In fact, there were at that 
time BO eminent engravers in England, and Mr* Boydell 
saw the necessity of forcing the art by stimulating men of* 
genius with suitable rewarciU. With the profits of the folio 
volume of prints above-mentioned, he was enabled to pay 
very liberally the best artists of bis time, and thus pre-* 
sented the world with English engravings from the works of^ 
the greatest masters. The encouragement that he ex* 
perienced from the public was equal to the spirit and pa<p 
triotism of his undertaking, and soon laid the foundation 
of an ample fortune. He used to observe^ that he believed 
the book we have alluded to was the first that had ever 
made a lord mayor of London; and that when the small* 
ness of the work was compared with what had followed, it 
would impress all young men with the truth of what be 
bad often held out to them, ^^ tliat industry, patieujce, and 
perseverance, if united to moderate talents, are certain 
to surmount all difficulties.'* Mr. Boydell, though he 
never 4iim$elf made any great progress as an engraver, was 
certainly the greatest encourager of the art that this country 
ever knew. The arts were at the .time he began,^at a 
very low ebb in this country. Wotton*s portraits of hounds 
and horses, grooms and squires, with a distant view of the , 
dog-kennel and stable; and Hudson's portraits of gentle- 
men in great coats and jockey caps, were in high repute* 
Inferior prints from poor originals were almost the only 
works our English artists were thought capable of per* , 
forming ; and, mortifying as it must be to acknowledge it, 
yet it must be admitted, that (with the exception of the 
inimitable Hogarth, and two. or three others) the gene*- 
rality of them were not qualified for much better things. 
The powers of the artists were, however, equal to the^ 
Jtaste of a great majority of their cu&tomers ; and the few 
people of the higher order who had a relish for better 
productions, indulged it in the purchase of Italian and 
Flemish pictures and French prints; for which, even at 
that time, the empire was drained of immense sums of 
money. To check this destructive fashion, Mr. Boydell 
^ugbt for an English engraver who could equal, if not 
excel them ; aod in Woollett he found one. The Temple 

B O Y D B L L; ii}i 

•f Apollo, from Claude, and two premium pictures fiom 
the Smiths of Chichester, were amongst the first large 
works which this excellent artist engraved ; but the Niobe 
and the Phaeton, from Wilson, established his fame. For 
the first of them the alderman agreed to give the engraver 
fifty guineas, and when it was completed paid* him a 
hundred. The second, the artist agreed to engrave for 
fifty guineas, and the alderman paid him one hundred and 
(wenty. The two prints were published by subscription^ 
at five shillings each. Proof prints were not at that time 
considered as having any particular value ; the few that 
were taken off to examine the progress of the plate were 
delivered to such subscribers as chose to have them, at the 
subscription price. Several of these have since that time 
been sold at public auctions, at ten and eleven guineas 
. each. By these and similar publications he had the satis- 
faction to see in his own time the beneficial effects of his 
exertions. We have before observed, that previous to his 
establishing a continental correspondence for the exporta* 
tion of pnnts, immense soms were annually sent out of, 
the country for the purchase of those that were engraved 
abroad ; but he changed the course of the current, and 
for many of the later years of his life, the balance of the 
print-trade with the continent was very much in favour of 
Great Britain. 

On the 5th of August 1782, Mr. Boydell was chosen 
alderman of London, for the ward of Cheap, in the room 
of alderman Crichton, deceased.^ In the year 1785 he 
berved the office of sheriff; and in 1790, was chosen lord 
mayor of London, an office of which he discharged the 
duties and the honours with a diligence, uprightness, 
and liberality, that may be equalled, but will rarely be ex- 

Having been so successful in promoting the art of en* 
graving in this country, he resolved to direct his next 
efforts to the establishing an English school of historical 
pafnting; and justly conceiving that no subject could be 
more appropriate for such a national attempt than £ng« 
land's inspired poet, and great painter of nature, Shak- 
•peare, he projected, and just lived to see completed, a 
most splendid edition of the works of that author, illus^ 
(rated by engravings from paintings of the first artists that 
the country could furnish, and of whichtbe expence was 
prodigious. These paintings afterwards formed what was 

Vol. VJ. X 

30« B O Y D E L L, 

termed ** The Shakspeare gallery,'* in Pall Mall 5 anJ ure 
believe there are few individual possessed of the least 
taste, or even curiosity, who have not inspected and been 
delighted by them. 

It is always interesting to trace the origin of a great un- . 
dertaking. The Shakspeare gallery arose from a conver- 
sation at the dining-^table of Mr. Josiah Boydell (the alder-^ 
man's nephew and successor) in Novermber 1786, in the^ 
presence of Mr. West, Mr- Romney, and Mr. P. Sandby^ 
artists, and Mr. Haylcy, Mr. Hoole, Mr. Braithwaite^ Mn 
Nicol, and the alderman. The literary part of the com- 
pany were joining with the professional gentlemen in 
complimenting the alderman on. having lived to see the 
'whole tide of the commerce in prints with the continent 
entirely changed from importing to exporting, and that 
effected in the space of one life, by the alderman's great 
and munificent exertions. The only answer the aldermaa 
made to these compliments was, that he was not yet sa- 
tisfied with what he had done ; and that, old as he was, he 
should like to wipe away th^ stigma which pM foreign 
critics threw on this nation, ^^ that we had no genius for 
• historical painting." He said he was certain from his suc- 
* cess in encouraging engraving, that Englishmen wanted 
nothing but proper encouragement and subjects to excel 
in historical painting, and this encouragement be himself 
would endeavour to find, if a proper subject was pointed 
out. Mr. Nicol (his majesty's bookseller, and afterwards 
the alderman's nephew; by marriage) replied that there 
was one great national subject, concerning which there 
could be no difference of opinion, and mentioned Shak- 
speare I The proposition was received with acclamation 
by the alderman and the whole company ; and on Decem- 
' ber 1 of the same year, the plan being considered, was 
laid before the public in a printed prospectus. 

After having expended in his favourite plan of advancing 
the fine arts in England no less a sum than 3^0,000/. this 
worthy and venerable character was necessitated, by the 
.stoppage of his foreign trade during a dozen years of war, 
to apply to parliament, in the beginning of 1804, for per- 
mission to dispose of the Shakspeare gallery, and hi^ other 
coljectjions of pictures and prints, by way of lottery. His 
letter to sir John William Anderson, bart. on the occasion 
of bis' introducing a petition for that purpose to the bouse 
of commons^ is a document of too much curiosity and iu** 

B Q Y D E L L, 


terest to the feelings to be omitted. We have therefore 
thrown it into a note. * 

The act of parliament being passed, to sanction this lot- 
tery, the worthy alderoian had the gratification of living 

* ** To sir John William Anderson, 
bart. one of the representatives of the 
city of London* 

«* Dear Sir, Cheapside, Feb. 4, 1 804. 

" The kindness with which you have 
undertaken to represent my case, calls 
upon me to lay open to you, with the 
utmost candour, the circumstances at- 
tending it, which I will now endeavour 
to do as briefly as possible. 

•* It is above sixty years since I be- 
gan to study the art of engraving, in 
the course of which time, besides em- 
ploying that long period of life in my 
profession, with an industry and assi- 
duity tbat would be im proper in me to 
describe, I have laid out with mv 
brethren in promoting the commerce 
of the flue .artjs in this country, above 
three hundred and fifty thousand 

** When I first began business, the 
whole commerce of prints in this country 
consisted in importing foreign . prints, 
principally from France, to supply 
the cabinets of the curious in this 
kingdom. Impressed with the idea 
that the genius, uf our own countrymen, 
%i properly encouraged, was equal to 
that of foreigners, I set about estab- 
lishing a School of Engraving in Eng- 
land ; with what success the public 
are well acquainted. It is, perhaps, 
at present, sufficient to say that tlie 
whole course of that commerce is 
•hanged, very few prints being, now 
impojpted into this country, while the 
foreign market is principally supplied 
with prints from England. 

*' In efiecting this favourite plan, 
I have not only spent a long life, but 
have employed near forty years of the 
labour of my nephew, Josiah Boy del I, 
who has been bred to the business, 
and whose assistance during that pe- 
riod has been greatly instrumental i^ 
pfombtiug a School of Engraving in 
this country. By the blessing of Pro- 
iridence, these exertions have been 
Tery siaccessful ; not only in that re- 
spect,, but in a commercial, point of 
view ;' for the large sums I regularly 
received from the continent, previous 
to the French revolution, for impres- 
«ioBt taken from the numerous plates 

engraved in England, encouraged me 
to attempt also an English Sdhool of 
Historical Painting. 

*' I had observed with indignation that 
the want of such a school had been 
long made a favourite topic of oppro- 
brium against this country, among 
foreign writers on national taste. No 
subject, therefore, could be more ap- 
propriate for such a national attempt, 
than England's inspired poet, and 
great painter of nature, Shakspeare ; 
and I flatter myself the most preju- 
diced foreigner must allow thaV the 
Shakspeare gallery will convince the 
world that Englishmen want nothing 
but the fostering hand of encourage- 
ment, to bring forth their genius in 
this line of art. I might go further, 
and defy any of the Italian, Flemish, 
or French schoolsj to show in so short 
a space of time, such an exertion as 
the Shakspeare Gallery ; and if they 
could have made such an exertion in 
so short a period, the pictures would 
have been marked with all that mo- 
notonous sameness which distinguishes 
those different schools. Whereas, in 
the Shakspeare Gallery, every artist* 
partaking of the freedom of his coun*- 
try, and endowed with that originality 
of thinking so peculiar to its natives, 
has chosen his own road to what ho - 
conceived to be excellence, unshackled 
by the slavish imitation and uniformity 
that pervade all the foreign schools. 

" This Gallery I once flattered my- 
self with being able to leave to that 
generous public whp have for so long 
a period encouraged my undertakings > 
but, unfortunately for ail those cout 
nected with the fine arts, a Vandalick 
revolution has arisen, which, in con- 
vulsing all Europe, has entirely ex- 
tinguished, except in this happy island, 
all those who hkd the taste or the 
power to promote the fine arts ; .while 
the Tyrant that at present governs 
France tells that believing and be- 
sotted nation, that, in the midst of all 
his robbery and rapine, he is a great 
patron and promoter of thie fine arts ; 
just as if those arts, that humanise and 
polish mankind, could be promoted by ' 
such means, and by such a man, ^ 


»0S » O Y D E L L. 

to see every ticket sold. We are, at first sight, ineliifed t^ 
lament that he did not live to see the prizes drawn, and 
the whole terminated. But for him to have witnessed his 
gallery transferred to other hands, besides a number of 
pictures, for the painting of which he had -paid immense 
Sums, scattered like the Sybill's leaves, might possibly 
have given him many a heart-rending pang. It may be 
Sufficient in this place to notice that the gallery of 
paintings, in one lot, and consequently the highest prize^ 
became the property of Mr. Tassie, of Leicester-square, 
nephew to the late welUknown imitator of ancient cameos 
and intaglios, and by him the pictures were afterwards sold 
by auction. 

.Mr. BoydelPs death was occasioned at last by a too 
scrupulous attention to his official duties. Always early 

'* You will excuse, I am sure, my ders, Holland, and Germany, (and 

dear Sir, some warmth in an old man these countries no doubt supplied the 

on this subject, when I inform you rest of Europe) were Uie great marts ; 

that this unhappy reyolution lias cut but, alas ! they are now no more, 

up by the roots that revenue from the The convulsion that has disjointed 

coiktinent which enabled me to under- and ruined the whole continent I did 

take such considerable works in this not foresee — I know no man that did. 

country. At the same time, as I am On that head, therefore, though it haft 

laying my case fairly before you, it ^nearly ruined me and mine, I can take 

lihould not be disguised, that myna- but little blame to myself. 

' tural enthusiasm for promoting the fine " In this state of things I throw my* 

arts (perhaps buoyed up by success) self with confidence upon that public 

made me improvident. For had I who have always been but* too partial 

laid by but ten pounds out of every to my poor endeavours, for the dis- 

hundred pounds my plates produced, posal of that, which, in happier days, 

I should not now have had occasion to I flattered myself to have presented to 

trouble my friends, or appeal to the them. 

public ; but, on the contrary, I flew " I know of no means by which that 
Wiih impatience to employ some new can be effected, just now, but by a Lot- 
hrtist, with the whole gains of my for- iery; and if the legislature will have the 
Uer undertakings. I see too late my goodness to grant a permission for that 
elTor; for 1 have thereby decreased my purpose, they will at least hare the 
ready money, and increased my stock assurance of the even teneur of a long 
of copper-plates to such a size, that life, that it will be fairly and honour- 
all the print-sellers in Europe could ably conducted. The objects of it are 
not purchase it, especially at these my pictures, galleries, drawings, &c. 
times, so unfavourable to the arts. &c. which, uncounected with my cop* 

''Having thus candidly owned my per-plates and trade, are much mora 

error, I have but one word to say in than sufllcient to pay, if properly dit« 

extenuation. My receipts from abroad posed of, all I owe in the world, 

bad been so large, and continued so ** I hope you, my dear Sir, and 

regular, that I at all times found them every honest man, at any age, will 

fully adequate to support my under- feel for my anxiety to discharge my 

takings at home.— I could not calcu- debts; but at my. advanced age, of 

late on the present crisis, which has eighty-five, I feel it becomes doabl/ 

totally annihilated them. — ^I certainly desirable. 

calculated on some defalcation of these *^ I am, JOear Sir, with great regan), 

ireci ipts, by a French or Spanish war, your obedient and obliged ServanL 

•r both ; but with France or Spam I !.>«« «««.«., *» 

•anried op but little commerce." Flam- ^pwi iJoyMt*., : 

B Q T D E L U 809 

in* hU attendance on public business^ he arrired at the 
aessionS'-hoase in the Old Bailey, on Friday the 7th De« 
eember, 1804, before any of the other magistrates, and 
before the fires were lighted. Standing near a grate while 
this was done,, the damps were drawn out, and he took a 
cold : this*produced an inflammation of the lungs, which 
terminated his life on the Tuesday following. He was in- 
terred with great civic pomp (the spontaneous result of; 
private friendship and public respect), on the 19th of the 
same month, in the church of St. Olave, Jewry ; leaving 
behind him for the instruction of mankind a striking ex* 
ample to what heights of fame and fortune men may attain 
by the united efforts of persevering industry, prudent en^ 
terprize, and honourable dealing. 

The alderman bad long before bis death arrived at that 
period of life which demands additional repose ; and cer- 
tain it is, he could not have carried on his business in the 
manner it was carried on, without the active and unremit- 
ting exertions of his nephew and partner, Mr. Josiah Boy- 
dell; whose professional qualifications enabled him to ap-^ 
preciate the value and merits of the different works sub- 
mitted to his inspection ; and to point out the errors which 
ought to be corrected ; and whose own productions, even 
at the very early period when he made a great number of 
drawings from the Orford collection, gave weight to his 

; It yet remains to be added to the character of alderman 
Boydell, that in his magisterial capacity, though inflexibly 
just, he was constitutionally merciful ; and when masters 
came before him with complaints of their apprentices, or 
husbands with complaints of their wives, he always at- 
tempted, and very often successfully, to accommodate 
their differences; and, when he could with propriety, 
usually recommended the complaining party to amend his 
own conduct, as an example to those whom he accused* 
Wishing to disseminate a taste for the fine arts, he has 
within these few years presertted to the corporation of the 
qity of London, several valuable pictures, which now orna- 
ment the council chamber at Guildhall. Some of them 
commemorate the actions of our military distinguished cha- 
racters, and others are calculated to impress upon th^ 
minds of the rising generation, the sentiments of industry^ 

{prudence, and virtue. Several of these well-imagined al* 
egorical delineations by Rtgajid, Smirk^^ Westail^ &c. h^ 

310 B O Y D E L L. 

has had eugraired, and in the dissemination of either priut^. 
or books which had a moral tendency he always appeared 
to take great pleasure*. 

In^l748, he married Elizabeth Lloyd, second daughter , 
pi Edward Lloyd, esq. of the Fords near Oswestry in 
/Shropshire, by whom he had no issue. * 

BOYER (Abel), a lexicographer and miscellaneous wri- 
ter, was born June 13, 1667, at the city of Castres in Upper 
Languedoc. His great-grandfather and grandfather were 
masters of the riding-school at Nismes ; his father was . 
president of the supreme court at Castres, and his mother 
was Catherine, daughter of Campdomerius, a celebrated 
physician, circumstances which have been recorded to 
prove that he was of a good family. He was certainly of a 
conscientious one, his relations being exiles for their ad- 
herence to the protestant religion. He was first educated 
by his mother's brother, Campdomerius, a noted divine 
and preacher of the reformed church,. and then was sent to 
the protestant s( hool at Puy Laurent, where, he applied 
assiduously, and exceUed ail his schoolfellows in Greek 
and Latin. In 1685, when the persecution prevailed 
against the protestants in France, he followed his uncle to 
Holland, and pressed by want, was obliged to enter into 
the military service in 1687; but soon, by the advice of 
his r<^lations, returned to his studied, and w^ent to the uni- 
versity of Franeker, where he went through a regular coursQ 
of education, and- added to philosophy, divinity, history, 
&c. the study of the (nathematics. In 1689 he came over 
to England, and the hop^^s of being able to return to France, 
which the protestants in general entertained, being disap- 
pointed, be was obliged to have recourse to his pen for a 
livelihood. His first employment appears to have been to 
transcribe and prepare for the press Camden's letters from 
the Cottonian library, for Dr. Smith, yvho afterwards pub* 
lished them. In 1692, he became French and Latin tutor 
to Allen Bathurst, esq. eldest son of sir Benjamin Bathurst, 
who, being much in favour with the princess Anne of Den- 
mark, afterwards queen of Great Britain, he had hopes of 
norae preferment £^t court. With this view he. gaid grea^ 

* Ip 1779 be presented to the worshipful company of Stationers, West's fiae 
picture of "Alfred dividing* the loafi" and afrerwards, Graham's *• Escape of 
>fary qiieen of Scots," and a whole length portrait of himself; all which are m 
ike court^room of that company. 

J Various periodical publications, and from information obligingly commiK 
fiJcated by the family. — See also Nichols'9. Life of Bowyer, 

B O Y E R. 311 

mtt^ntiofi to his pupils education (who was^afterwards lord 
Bathurst), and for his use composed two compendious 
^ grammars, the one Latin, the other French ; but the latter 
only was printed, and to this day is a standard book. His 
hopes of preferment, however, appear to have been fal- 
lacious, which his biographer attributes to his siding with 
a different party from the Bathurst family in the political 
divisions which prevailed at that time in the nation, Boyer, 
like the rest of his countrymen who had fled hither for re- 

, ligion, being a zealous whig. After this, having made 
himself master of the English tongue, he became an author 
by profession, and engaged sometimes alone, and some- 
liimes "in, conjunction with the booksellers, in various com* 
pilatioifs, and periodical works of the political kind, parti* 
Gularly a newspaper called the " Post-Boy ;" the "Political 
State of Great Britain," published io volumes from 17 lO 
to 1729 ; a '* History of William III." 5 vols. 8vo; "An* 
nals of the reign of Queen Anne," 11 vols. 8vo, and a 
*^ Life of Queen Anne," fol. all publications now more 
useful than when published, as they contain many state 
papers, memorials, &c. which it would be difficult to find 
elsewhere ; but his name is chiefly preserved by his French 
Dictionary, 1699, 4to, and a French Grammar, of both 
which he lived to see several editions, and which still con- 
tinue to be printed. His political principles involved him 

• with Swift, who often speaks contemptuously of him, and 
with Pope, who has given him a place in the Dunciad. He 
died Nov. 16, J 729, at a house he had built in Five Fields, 
Chelsea, and was buried in Chelsea church-yard. * 

BO\ER (Claude), of the French academy, was born 
at Alby in 1618. He came young to Paris, where he cul- 
tivated his talent for eloquence ; but, having preached with 
little success, he quitted the pulpit tor the stage, which he 
had been declaiming against, and now devoted himself k> 
it for life, ahyays satisfied with himself, but seldom with 
the public. Born with an imagination which submitted to 
no restraint, he made choice pf subjects strangely compH* 
cated, and equivocal heroes who had no character what- 
ever. Aiming always at the sublime, where the simplicity 
of nature was required, he fell into a strain of boniibast^ 
unintelligible perhaps to himself. He is the author of 
tW0'*-and-twenty dramatic pieces, full of fustian, and coq^ 

» B'log. Pramatica, — Mor^ri,— Swifi'i Works ; set Index^ 

3U B O Y E R. 

ducted without any knowledge of the drama. His Jaditb 
had a transient success. The epigram it produced from 
Racine is generally known. '^ Je pleure, h^las ! pour ce 
pauvre Holopherne, si m^chamment mis a mort par Judith.^' 
This piece, applauded during a whole Lent, was hissed off 
the stage in the Easter holidays. Champmesl^e, asking 
the reason of the fickleness of the pit, was answered, thai 
the hissers bad been at Versailles at the sermons of the 
abbe Boileau, who had ridiculed him. Boyer, at length 
disheartened by this constant run of ill-success, brought 
out his tragedy of Agamemnon under a borrowed Bame^ 
and Racine, his grand tormentor, applauded the piece. 
Boyer could not refrain from crying out in the pit, ^^ It is 
however Boyer^s, in spite of Mons. de Racine;" but this 
transport cost him dear, for his tragedy was hissed at the 
next performance. He died at Paris, July 22, 1698, aged 
eighty. * 

BOYER (John Baptist Nicholas), a learned French 
physician, was born at Marseilles, Augusts, 1693. His 
father, intending to bring him up to business, gave him a 
suitable education, and afterwards sent him to Constan- 
tinople, to his uncle, who was consul there ; but finding 
him inclined to literature, and to the study of medicine, he 
sent him, on his return from the Levant, to the university 
at Montpellier. In 1717, he took the degree of doctor, 
and gave for his inaugural thesis, ** A dissertation on Ino* 
eulation of the Small Pox," which he had seen practised 
at Constantinople. On the plague breaking out at Mar- 
seilles, in 1720, he was sent there with five other physi- 
cians ; and his conduct on that occasion having been ap- 
proved, he was rewarded by the king with a pension, and 
was made physician to a regiment of guards. He was some 
years after invited to Hunspruche, a town in the bishopric 
cf Treves, where an infectious fever was making great ra- 
vages, and, in 1742, to Paris, on a similar occasion. His 
success at these places occasioned him to be sent for to 
Beauvais, in 1750, where by his judicious management he 
prevented the spreading of ain infectious fever, infesting 
that country. For these services he was honoured by the 
king with letters of nobility, and invested with the order of 
St. Michael. He died at Paris, April 2, 1768. His work^t 
lire; ^^ Methode indiquee centre la maladie epidemique qui" 

} Pict, Hist.«^Moreri, 

B O V E K. tit 

^ent dib regner 2I Beauvais/' Paris, 1750, a quarto pam* 
phlety of only ten pages. ^' Methode a suivre dans le 
traitement de differentes maladies epidemiqaes qui regnent 
le plus ordinairement dans la generality de Paris/' 1761, 
12010. He wrote, in 1745, a "Memoir'* on the disease 
infesting the cattle at that time, which was sent to the 
royal society in London, and procured him a place ia 
the list of their foreign members. He also gave a nevr 
edition of the ** Codex medicamentarius," seu " Pharma-** 
copceia Parisiensis," 4to, a very useful and well digested 
vmk. * 

BOYLE (Richard), a celebrated statesman, descended 
from an ancient and honourable family, and distinguished 
by the title of the great earl of Cork, was the youngest 
son of Mr. Roger Boyle of Herefordshire, by Joan, daugh« 
ter of Robert Naylor of Canterbury, and born in the city 
of Canterbury, Oct. 3, 1566. He was instructed in gram*^ 
mar learning by a clergyman of Kent ; and after having 
been a scholar in Ben'et college, Cambridge, where he 
was remarkable for early rising, indefatigable study, and 
great tempefance, became student in the Middle Temple- 
He lost his father when he was but ten years old, and his 
mother at the expiration of other ten years ; and being 
unable to support himself in the prosecution of his studies, 
he entered into the service of sir Richard Manwood, chief 
baron of the exchequer, as one of his clerks : but per* 
ceiving few advantages from this employment, he resolved 
to travel, and landed at Dublin in June 1588, with a very . 
scanty stock, his whole property amounting, as he himself 
informs us, to 27/. 3s. in money, two trinkets which his 
mother gave him as tokens, and his wearing apparel. He 
was then about two-and-twenty, had a graceful person, . , 
and all the accomplishments for a young man to succeed in , 
a country which was a scene of so much action. Ac- 
cordingly he made himself very useful to some of the 
principal persons employed in the government, by penning 
for them memorials, cases, and answers ; and thereby ac* 
quired a perfect knowledge of the kingdom and the state 
of public affairs, of which he knew well how to avail him- 
self. In 1595 he married at Limeric, Joan, the daughter 
and coheiress of William Ansley of Pulborough, in Sussex, 
issq. nho had fallei^ in love with him. This lady died 1599, 

' Diet, Hjfit* T-Moreri^^^-Bees's CyclbpjBBdia, 

314 B O Y L E. 

in labour of her first child (born dead) leaving her bos* 
band an estate of 500/. a year in lands, which was the be- 
ginning of his fortune. Some time after, sir Henry Wal- 
lop, of Wares, sir Robert Gardiner, chief justice of the 
king's bench, sir Robert Dillam, chief justice of the com- 
mon pleas, and sir Richard Bingham, chief commissionet 
of Connaught, envious at certain purchaser he had made in 
the province, represented to queen Elizabeth that he was 
in the pay of the king of Spain (who had at that time some 
thoughts of invading Ireland), by whom he had bfeen fur* 
nished with money to buy several large estates ; and that 
he was strongly suspected to be a Roman catholic in his 
heart, with, many other malicious suggestions equally 
groundless. Mr. Boyle, having private notice of this, 
determined to come over to England to justify himself : 
but, before he could take shipping, the general rebellion 
in Muuster broke out, all his lands were wasted, and he 
had not one penny of certain revenue left. In this distress 
he betook himself to his former chamber in the Middle 
Temple, intending to renew his studies in the law till the 
rebellion should be suppressed. When the earl of Essex 
was .nominated lord-deputy of Ireland, Mr. Boyle, being 
recommended to him by Mr. Anthony Bacon, was received 
by his lordship very graciously ; and sir Henry Wallop, 
treasurer of Ireland, knowing that Mr. Boyle had in his 
custody several papers which could detect jjis roguish 
manner of passing his accounts, resolved utterly to depress 
liim, and for that end renewed bis former complaint^ 
against him to the queen. By her majesty's special direc- 
tions, Mr. Boyle was suddenly taken up, and committed 
close prisoner to the Gatehouse : all bis papers were 
seized and searched; and although nothing appeared to 
his prejudice, yet his confinement lasted till two months 
after his hew patron the earl of Essex was gone to Ireland, 
At length, with much difficulty, he obtained the favpur of 
th^ queen to be present at his examination ; and having 
fully answered whatever was alledged against him, he gave 
. ^ short account of his behaviour since he firat settled in 
Ireland, and concluded with laying open to the queen 
and her council the conduct of his chief enemy sir Henry 
Wallop. Upon which her majesty exclaimed with her 
iisuql intemperance of* speech, ^^ By God's death, these arQ 
but inventions against this young man, and all his suffer- 
ings' are for being able to do us service, and these com^ 

BOYLE. 515 

pkUita urged to forestal him thereio. But we find him to 
be a man fit to be employed by ourselves ; and we will em- 
ploy, him in our service : and Wallop and his adherents 
shall know that it shall not be in the power of any of them, 
to wrong him. Neither shall Wallop be our treasurer any 
longer." Accordingly, she gave orders not only for Mr. 
Boyle's present enlargement, but also for paying all the 
charges and fees his confinement had brought upon him, 
and gave him her hand to kiss before the whole assembly. 
A lew days after, the queen constituted him clerk of the 
council ol" Munster, and recommended him to sir George 
Carew, afterwards earl of Totness, then lord president of 
Munster, who became his constant friend ; and very sooa 
after he was made justice of the peace and of the quorum, 
throughout all the province. He attended in that capacity 
the lord president in all his employments, and was sent by 
his lordship to the queen with the news of the victory 
gained in Deceml)er 1601, near Kinsale, over the Irish 
and their Spanish auxiliaries, who were totally routed, 
1200 being slain in the field, and 800 wounded. " I 
made," says he, " a speedy expedition to the court, for I 
left my lord president at Shannon -castle, near Cork, on 
the Monday morning about two of the cl6ck ; and the next 
day, being Tuesday, I delivered my packet, and supped 
with sir Robert Cecil, being then principal secretary of 
state, at his house in the Strand.; who, alter supper^ held 
me in discourse till two of the clock in the morning ; and 
by seven that morning * called upon me to attend him to 
the . court, where he presented me to her majesty in her 
bedchamber." A journey so rapid as this would be thought, 
even in the, present more improved modes of travelling, 
requires all his lordship's authority to render it credible. 

Upon his return to Ireland, he assisted at the siege of 
Donboy, nej^r Beer-haven, which was taken by storm, and 
the garrison put to the sword. After the reduction of the 
western part of the province, the lord president sent Mr. 
Boyle again to England, to procure the queen's leave for 
Jiis return ; and having advised him to purchase sir Walter . 
Raleigh's lands in Munster, he gave him a letter to sir 

^ Poor Budgell, who, when he wrote hotirs our ministers keep at present, 

bis ** Lives of the Boyles,'* was out of we shall be the less surprised to (ind 

humour with ^11 mankiod. and espe- that our affairs are not managed alto- , 

cially with ministers of state, says on gether so sucoessfuMy as in the day0 

Ufa ^afly vi^it, ** If w^ reflect upop the of queeu pixabetb.*' Lives, p. \5f 




Robert Cecil, secretary of state, containing a rery advaii'* 
tageous account of Mr. Boyle^s abilities, and of the ser« 
Tices he had done his country ; in consideration of which, 
he desired the secretary to introduce him to sir Walter, 
and recommend him as a propor purchaser for his lands ia 
Ireland, if he was disposed to part with them. He wrote 
at the same time to sir Walter himself, advising him to 
sell Mr. Boyle all his lands in Ireland, then untenanted, 
and of no value to him, having, to his lordship's know* 
ledge, never yielded him any benefit, but, on the contrary, 
stood him in 200/. yearly for the support of his titles. At 
a meeting between sir Robert Cecil, sir Walter Raleigh, 
and Mr. Boyle, the purchase was concluded by the medial 
tion of the former *. 

In 1602, Mr. Boyle, by advice of his friend sir George 
Carew, paid his addresses to Mrs. Catherine Fenton, 
daughter of sir GeofFry Fenton, whom he married on ihe 
25th of July, 1603, her father being at that time principal 
secretary of state. " I never demanded,'^ says he, ** any 
marriage portion with her, neither promise of any, it not 
being in my considerations ; yet her father, after my mar- 
riage, gave me one thousand pounds in gold with her. But 
that gift of his daughter to me, I must ever thankfully ac- 
knowledge as the crown of all my blessings ;• for she was 
a most religious, virtuous, loving, and obedient wife to me 
all the days of her life, and the mother of all my hopeful 
children t.'* He received on his wedding day, July 23, 
1603, the honour of knighthood from his friend sir George 
Carew, now promoted to be lord-deputy of Ireland : March 
12, 1606, he was sworn a privy counsellor to king James, 
for the province of Munster : Feb. 15, 1612, he was sworn 
a privy counsellor of state of the kingdom of Ireland : 
Sept. 29, 1616, be was created lord Boyle, baron of Youg- 
hall: Oct. 16, 1620, viscount of Dungarvon, and earl of 
Cork. Lord Falkland, the lord-deputy, having represented 

* Sir Walter Ra1eigb*s estate con- 
tisted of twelve thousand acres in the 
counties of Cork and Waterford (Cox's 
Hist, of Ireland, vol. T. p. 352), which 
was so much improved in a few years 
by Mr. Boyle's diligence^ that it was not 
only well tenanted, but in the most 
thriving condition of any estate in Ire- 
land. Coz*B History of Ireland, vol. 
tl. Pref. 

t Aq absard story Is told by Dr. 

Anthony Walker in his fttoeral sermon 
on the countess of Warwick, daughter 
to our nobleman, that Mr. Boyle 
happening to call on sir Geoffry Pen* 
ton who then was engaged, amused 
himself with au infant in th6 nurse'& 
arms ; and on sir Geoffry's appearance 
told him he would be happy to marry 
her when grown up, &c. Dr. Birch 
has shewn how little foundatioa XU^ 
Walker bad for tbk account. ' 

B O Y L 5. 811 

^is services in a just light to king Charles L his majesty 
$.ent bis ej(cellency a letter, dated Nov, 30, 1627, direct- 
ing him to confer the honours of baron and viscount upoa 
the earl's second surviving son Lewis, though he was th^a 
only eight years old, by the title of Baron of Bandon-* 
bridge, and viscount Boyle pf Kinalmeaky in the county 

On the departure of lord-deputy Falkland, the earl of 
Cork, in conjunction with, lord Loftus, was appointed one 
of the lords justices of Ireland, Oct. 26, 1629, and held 
that office several years. Feb. 16th following, the eaii 
lost his countess, by whom he had fifteen children. Nov. 9, 
1631, he was constituted lord high treasurer of Ireland, 
and had interest enough to get that high office mdde here- 
ditary in his family. Nevertheless, he suffered many mor- 
tifications during the administration of sir Thomas Went- 
worth, afterwards earl of Strafford, who, befoi^e he went ta 
Ireland, had conceived a jealousy of his authority, and io^ 
terest in that kingdom, and no.w conceived that if he could 
humble the great earl of Cork, nobody in that country 
could give him much trouble. On the breaking out of thd 
rebellion in Ireland in 1641, the earl of Cork, as soon as he 
returned from England (where he was at the time of the 
carl of StraflFord's trial), immediately raised two troops of 
horse, which he put under the command of his sons the 
lord viscount Kinalmeaky and the lord Broghill, maintain- 
ing them and 400 foot for some months at his own charge. 
In the battle which the English gained at Liscarrol, Sept. 
3, lb42, four of his sons were engaged, and the eldest was 
slain in the field. The earl himself died about a year 
after, on the 1 5th of September, in the 78th year of his 
age ; having spent the last, as he did the first year of bis 
life, in the support of the crown of England against Irish 
rebels, and in the service of his country. Though he was 
no peer of England, he was, on account of his eminent 
abilities and knowledge of the world, admitted to sit in the 
bouse of lords upon the woolpacks, ut consiliarius. When 
Cromwell saw the prodigious improvements he had made> 
which he little expected to find in Ireland, he declared, 
that if there had been an earl of Cork in every province, it 
would have been impossible for the Irish to have raised a 

• He affected not places and titles of honour until he wa9 
toll able to maintain them, for be was in the 37th year of 

818 , B O Y L E.^ 

his age when knighted, and in his 50th when made s 
baron. He made Ia|^ge purchases, but not till he was able 
to improve them ; and he grew rich on estates which had 
ruined their former possessors. He increased his wealth, 
not by hoarding, but by spending ; for he built and walled 
several towns at his own cost, but in places so well situated, 
that they were soon filled with inhabitants, and quickly re- 
paid the money he had laid out, with interest, which he as 
readily laid out again. Hence, in the space of forty years, 
' he acquired to himself what in some countries would have 
been esteemed a noble principality; and as they came, to 
years of discretion, he bestowed estates upon his sons, 
and married his daughters into the best families of that 
country. He outlived most of those who had known the 
meanness of his beginning ; but he delighted to remember 
it himself, and even took pains to preserve the memory of 
it to posterity in the motto which he always used, and 
which he caused to be placed upon his tomb, viz. " God^s 
prov^idence is my inheritance." 

It is much to be regretted that so faithful a servant of 
the public should have lived at variance with the earl 
of Strafford, himself a man of virtue, talents, and pa- 
triotism, and afterwards a sacrifice to the fury of the re- 
publican party in England ; yet it cannot be denied that 
the earl of Strafford behaved in a very arrogant and 
haughty manner to the earl of Cork ; and that the conduct 
of the lord deputy was such, as it could npt reason- 
ably be expected any man 6f spirit would patiently sub- 
mit to, and especially a man of so much worth and 
merit as the nqble subject of this article. His lordship 
gave evidence at Strafford's trial, that when he had com* 
menced a suit at law, in a case in which he apprehended 
himself to be aggrieved, the earl of Strafford, in the 
most arbitrary manner, forbad his prosecuting his suit, 
saying to him, " Call in your writs, or .if you will not, 
I will clap you in the castle ; for I tell you, I will not have 
my -orders disputed by law, nor lawyers." We have, 
however, already seien that lord Cork had otbeir enemies, 
who took various opportunities of displaying their jealousy 
of his power and talents. One singular opportunity was 
taken on the death of his second lady, which we shall de- 
tail, as including some traits of the taste and prejudices of 
the times. This lady was privately interred on the 27th of 
. February 1629-30, but her funeral was publicly solemnized 

BO Y L E* 8 If 

on. the nth of March following ; soon after' which, the 
earl of Cork purchased from the dean and chapter of St. 
Patrick^s church, the inheritance of the upper part of the 
chancel where the vault was, in which the bodies of her 
grandfather by the mother's side, the lord chancellor Wes- 
ton, and of her father sir GedfFry Fenton, were laid,- over 
which the earl her husband caused a fine marble tomb to 
be erected. This presently gave offence to some people, 
who suggested that it stood where the altar ought to standi, 
of which they complained to the king, who mentioned it 
to Dr. Laud, then bishop of London ; who after the lord 
Wentworth was made lord deputy of Ireland, and himself 
archbishop of Canterbury, moved him that it might be 
inquired into, as it was, and this affair made afterwards a 
very grieat noise. The earl of Cork procured a letter from 
Dr. Usher, tbep lord primate of Ireland, and also from Dr. 
Launcelot Bulkeley, then archbishop of Dublin, justifying, 
that the tomb did not stand in the place of the altar, and 
that instead of being an inconvenience, it was a great or- 
. nament to the church \ which letters archbishop Laud 
transmitted to the lord deputy, and at the same time ac- 
quainted hii^ that they did not give himself any satisfac- 
tion. The postscript to this letter, dated Lambeth, March 
II, 1634, is very remarkable, and shews both, the rise and 
the falsehood of the common opinion, that it was the lord 
deputy, afterwards earl of Strafford, whg set this matter on 
foot out of prejudice to the earl of Cork. '^ I had almost 
forgot to tell you^ that all this business about demolishing 
my lord of Cork's tomb is charged upon you, as if it were 
done only because he will not marry his son to my lord 
Clifford's daughter, and that I do it to join with you; 
whereas the complaint came against it to me out of Ireland, 
and was presented by me to the king before I knew that 
3'pur lordship was named for deputy there. But jealousies 
know no end." The archbishop afterwards wrote in very 
strong terms to the earl of Cork himself, in which he af- 
firms the same thing, and deals very roundly with his lord- 
.i^bip upon that and other subjects, advising him to leave 
the whole to the lord deputy and the archbishops. As to 
the issue of the affair, it appears clearly from a letter of 
the lord deputy Wentwortb's, dated August 23, 1634, to 
. the archbishop, in which he delivers himself thus : <* I 
, have issued a commission, according to my warrant, for 
vjewijig the earl of Cork's tomb; the two archbishops and 

ii6 fi O Y L E. 

himself, with four bishops^ and .the two deans and cbapK 
ters,. were present when we met, and' made them ail so 
ashamed, that the earl desires he may have leave to pult it 
down without reporting further .into England; so as I am 
content if the miracle be done, though Mohammed do it^ 
and there is an end of the tomb before it come to be en* 
tombed indeed. — And for me that my lord treasurer do 
wh^t he please ; I shall ever wish his ways may be those of 
' honour to himself, and dispatch to my master's affairs ; but * 
go it as it shall please God with me, believe me, my lord, . 
I will be still thorow and thorowout one and the same, and 
with comfort be it spoken by myself, and your grace's 
commendations/' It may be added that though the tomb 
has been taken away above a century, yet the inscription . 
that was upon it is still extant * 

BOYLE (Roger), earl of Orrery, fifth son of Richard 
earl of Cork, was born April 25, 1621, and created 
baron Broghill in the kingdom of Ireland when but seven 
years old. I^e was educated at the college of Dublin, and 
about the year 1636, sent with his elder brother lord. 
Kinalmeaky to make the tour of France and Italy. After 
his return he married lady Margaret Howard, sister to the 
earl of Suffolk. During the rebellion in Ireland, he com- 
manded a troop of hbrse in the forces raised by bis father, 
and on many occasions gave proofs of conduct and cou- 
rage. After the cessation of arms, which was concluded 
in 1643, he came over to England, and so represented to 
the king the Irish papists, that his majesty was convinced 
they never meant to keep the cessation, and therefore sent 
a commission to lord Inchiquin, president of Munster, to 
prosecute the rebels. Lord Broghill employed his interest 
in that county to assist him in this service ; and when the 
government of Ireland was committed to the parliament, 
he continued to observe the same conduct till the king was 
put to death. That event shocked him so much, that be 
immediately quitted the service of the parliament; and^ 
looking upon Ireland and his estate there as utterly lost, 
embarked for England, and returned to his seat at M arston 
in Somersetshire, where he lived privately till 1649. In 
this retirement, reflecting on the distress of his country^^ 
and the personal injury he suffered whilst bis estate waa 

held by the Irish rebels, he resolved, under pretence of 


1 Biog. Brit— Bu4j^ell*s Lives of the Boylei— Birch's life of Ro^ject Boyle. 

BOYLE. 42^ 


going to the Spa for his health, to cross tie s6^s, and a^<* 
ply to king Charles IL for a commission to raise forces m 
Ireland, in order to restore his majesty^ and recover hi^ 
own estate. He desired the earl of Warmck, who had an 
ifiterest in the prevailing party, to procure a licence foif 
him to go to the Spa# He pretended to the earl, that. his 
iiole view was the recovery of bis health ; but, to sonie of 
his friends of the royal party, in whom be thought he could 
eonfide, he discovered his real design ; and having raised 
a considerable sum of mpney, came to Londoi) to prose- 
cute his voyage. The committee of state, who spared no 
pains to get proper intelligence, being soon informed of 
his whole design, determined to proceed against him witb 
the utmost severity. Cromwell, at that time general o0 
the parliament's forces, and a member of the conimittee^ 
was no stranger to lord BroghilPs merit ; and considering 
that this young nobleman inight be of great use to himt in 
reducing Ireland, be earnestly entreated the cotnniittee, 
that he might have leave to talk with him, and endeavout 
to gain bkn, before they proceeded to extremities. Hav- 
ing, with great difficulty, obtained this permission, he im*-' 
mediately dispatched a gentleman to lord Broghill, to letf 
him know that he intended to wait upoii him. Broghili 
was surprised at this miessage, having never had the least 
acquaintance with Cromwell, and therefore desired the 
gentleman to let the general know that he would wait upon 
his excellency. But while he was expecting the return of 
the messenger, Cromwell entered the room ; and, aftet 
mutual civilities, told him in few words, that the committee 
of state were apprised of his design of going over, and ap- 
plying to Charles Stuart for a commission to raise forces in, 
Ireland ; and that they had determined to make an exam« 
pie of him, if he had not diverted them from that resolu- 
tion; The lord Broghill interrupted him, and assured him 
that the intelligence which the committee had received 
was false ; that he was neither in a capacity, nor had any 
inclination, to raise disturbances in Ireland ; and concluded 
with entreating his excellency to have a kinder opinion of 
him. Cromwell, instead of making any reply, drew some 
papers out of his pocket, which were the copies of several 
letters sent by lord Broghill to those persons in whom he 
most confid^, and put them into his hands. Broghill, 
finding it was to no purpose to dissemble any longer, asked 
his excellency's pardon ifor what he had said, returned \xm 
Veil. VL Y 


322 B O Y L E. 

bis humble tbanks for bis protection against the eommitlee, 
and entreated bis advice bow be ougbt to bebave in so deli* 
catea conjiinc^ure. Cromwell toldhim, tbat thougb till this 
time be had been a stranger to his- person, he was not so 
to his merit and character > tbat-he had heard how gallantly 
bis lordship bad already behaved in *tbe Irish wars ; and 
therefore, since he was named lord lieutenant of Ireland, 
and the reducing tbact kingdom was now become bis prd*^ 
vince, that be bad obtained leave of the t^ommittee to ofG^r 
bis lordship the command of a general officer, if be would 
aerve in that war : tbat he should have no oaths or engage- 
ments imposed upon him, nor be obliged to draw bis sword 
against any but the Irish rebels. Lord Broghill was in- 
finitely surprised at so generous and unexpected an offer^ : 
he saw himself at liberty, by all the rules of honour, to 
serve against the Irish, whose rebellion and barbarities 
were equally detested by the royal party and the parlia- 
ment : be desired, however, the general to give him some 
time to consider of what be bad proposed to him. Crom- 
ivell briskly told him, that he must come to some resolu-' 
tion that very instant ; that he himself was returning to the 
committee, who were still sitting ; and if bis lordship re- 
jected their offer, they had determined to send him to the 
Tower. Broghill, finding that his life and liberty were in 
the utmost danger, and charmed with the frankness and 
generosity of CromwelFs behaviour, gave him his word 
and honour, that he would faithfully serve him agains^f the 
Irish rebels; upon which, Cromwell once more assured 
him, tbat the conditions which be had made with him 
should be punctually observed ; and then ordered him t6 
repair immediately to Bristol, to which place forces should 
be sent him, with a sufficient number of ships to transport 
him into Ireland. 

He soon raised in tbat kingdom a troop and a regiment 
I ' of 1500 men, with which be joined Cromwell on his ar- 
rival; and, acting in the course of the war conjointly with 
Cromwell and Ireton, contributed greatly to the reduction 
of the Irish. Cromwell was so exceedingly struck with his 
conduct and courage, that after be was declared protector, 
he sent for lord Broghill,«made him one of his privy coun- 
cil, and allowed him as great a share of his confidence 
as any man, except Thurloe*. In 1656, the protector, 

* In 1654, be w«s chosen knight for paHiament men of Ireland among the 
the county of Cork, to sit with other EngUth knight* and burgesies atWeni^ 



either suspecting MonVs attachment to his pers9n, or de- 
iiroas of relieving the people of Scotland, who complained 
of thi^ man^s severity, proposed to lord Broghill to go to 
that kingdom with an absolute authority ; to which his 
lordship consented, upon condition that he should have. a 
discretionary power to act as he should see proper ; that 
no credit should be given to any complaints, tilt he had 
* an opportunity of vindicating himself; and that he should. 
be recalled in a year. Cromwell kept his word to him ; 
for though the complaints against Broghill were more nu-, 
merous than those against Monk^ upon giving, at his re* 
turn to London when the year was expired, an account of 
the reasons of his conduct, Cromwell conceived a higher 
esteem for him than ever. 

. After the death of Cromwell, Broghill did his utmost to 
serve his son, to whom his lojrdship, in conjunction with 
lord Howard and some others, made an oiFer, that if he 
would not be wanting to hiinself, and give them a sufficient 
authority to act under him, they would either force his 
enemies to obey him, or cut them off. Richard, startled 
at diis proposal, answered in a consternation, that he 
thanked them for their friendship, but that he neither had 
done, nor would do, any person any harm ; and that ra- 
ther than that a drop of blood should be spilt on his ac- 
<^ount, he would lay down that greatness which was aurbur- 
den to him. He was so fixed in his resolution, that what*- 
ever the lords could say was not capable of making him 
alter it ; and they found it to no purpose to keep a man in 
power who would do nothing for himself. Lord Broghill, 
therefore, finding the family of Cromwell thus laid aside» 
and not being obliged by any ties to serve those who as* 
sumed the government, whose schemes too he judged wild 
and ill -concerted, from this time shewed himself most ac-^ 
tive and zealous to restore the king, and for that purpose 
repaired forthwith to his command in Munster; where, 
finding himself at the head of a considerable force, he de* 
termined to get the army in Ireland to join with him in the 
design, to gain, if possible, sir Charles Coote, who had 
great power in the north, and then to send to Monk ia 

iQamter. He yn% likewise appointed Cork m another parliament, which met 

ope of the protector'! council in Soot- at Westmiitsier the tame year. He 

tflnd, which was worth to him 1474/. was likewise made one of the protec- 

p$f awmi w. And iw ld56, he was not tor's lords, and a member of the olher*^ 

opljrckosen parliament man Ibr fidin- boose. Borlase'a History of iht Ra^M* 
k«rf h, but kntj^ltf for the coimty of tion of Ireland. BudgeU. 


324 BOYLE, 

Scotland. Whilst meditating this design, a summons caiti€; 
to him from the seven commissioners, sent over by the 
committee of safety to take care of the affairs of .Ireland, 
i^equiring him to attend them immediately at the castle of 
Dublin. His friends advised hiin to be upon his guard, 
ftnd not put himself in the power of his enemies ; but, as 
be thought himself not strong enough yet to take such a 
«ltep, he resolved to obey the summons. Taking, there- . 
fore, his own troop with him as a guard", he set out for 
i)ublin. When be came to the city, leaving his troop in 
tbe suburbs, he acquainted the commissioners, that, in 
obedience to their commands, he was come to know their 
farther pleasure. Next day, on appearing before them, 
they told him, that the state was apprehensive h^ would 
practise against their government, and that therefore they 
had orders to confine him, unless he would give su,ffigient 
security for his peaceable behaviour. He desired to know 
what security they expected. They told him, that since 
he ha4 a great interest in Munster^ they only desired him 
to engage, on the forfeiture of bis life and estate, that, 
there should be no commotion in that province. He if ow 
plainly perceived the snare which was laid for him;, and. 
that, if he entered into such an engagement, his enemies 
themselves might raise some commotions in Munst;er. He 
saw himself, however, in their power, anil made no man- 
ner of doubt but that if he refused to give them the secu- 
rity they demanded, they would immediately put him. up 
in prison. He therefore desired some time to consider of 
their proposal ; but was told, they could give him no time, 
and expected his immediate answer. . Finding himself thus 
cflosely pressed, he hurpbly desired to be satisfied in one 
point, namely, whether they intended to. put the whole 
power of Munster into his hands ? if they did, he said, he 
was ready to enter into the engagement they demanded ; 
but if they did not, he must appeal to all the world hpw 
cruel and unreasonable it was, to expect he should answer 
for the behaviour of people over whom he. had no com- 
mand. The commissioners found themselvq^ so much em- 
barrassed by this question, that they ordered him, to with-> 
draw; and fell into a warm debate in what manner to pro- 
ceed with him* At last Steel, one of the commissioners, 
who was also lord chancellor of Ireland, declared himself 
afraid, that even the honest party in Ireland would think it, 
^eky bard to see a man thrown into prison, who ^ad done 

BOYLE. 325 

Ipuch signal services to the Protestants ; but that, on the 
other band, he could never consent to the increase of lord 
Broghill*8 power, which the state was apprehensive might 
one day be employed against them. He therefore pro- 
posed that things should stand as they did at present ; that 
his lordship should be sent back to his command in Mun- 
ster in a good humour, and be suffered at least to continue 
there till they received further instructions from England. 
This proposal was agreed to by the majority of the board, 
and lord Broghill being called in, was told in the most 
obliging manner, that the board was so sensible of the 
gallatit actions he had performed in the Irish wars, aiid 
had so high an opinion of his honour, that they would de- 
pend upon that alone for his peaceable behaviour. . 

Upon his return to Munster, he applied himself as closely 
as ever to form a party for the king's restoration. After 
making sure of his own officers, the first person of weight h0 
engaged in the design was colonel Wilson, governor of Li- 
merick^ in which place there was a garrison of 200D men ; 
and having now secured all Munster, he sent a trusty agent 
to sir Charles Coote, to persuade that gentleman to do in 
the north of Ireland, what he himself had done in the 
south. Sir Charles, who had taken disgust at the supe- 
riority of lieutenant-general Ludlow, and the parliament'^} 
commissioners^ and thought his eminent services not suf- 
ficiently rewarded by the. presidency of Coimaught, canfie 
readily into the design. Lord Broghill being empowered 
by most of the chief officers in Ireland u{ider their hands, 
dispatched his brother, the lord Shannon, to the king, 
then in Flanfders, with a letter quilted in the . neck of his 
doublet, to acquaint his majesty with the tn^asures he had 
taken, and inviting him to come into his kingdom of Ire- 
land ; assuring him that if he pleased to land at Cork, Hfe 
Ihould be received with a sufficient force to protect him 
against all his enemies. At the same time he dispatched 
a messenger to general Monk, then on his march frond 
Scotland, to let him know what they wei^e doing in Ire- 
land, and to persuade him to do the like. Shannon was 
scarce embarked for Flanders, when lord Broghill received 
ft letter from sir Charles Coote, to acquainit him that theit 
design of declaring for the king had taken air, and that h6 
bad therefore been obliged to declare somewhat sooner 
than they had agreed upon ; and to conjure his lordship to 
d^clfire himself likewise ; which Broghill did imiai'edi^el;^^ 

i26 BO,YL,J;^ 

that he might not desert his fri^qdi though he was a little ' 
appreheDsive that sir Charles's precipitancy might rain, 
their design. By this means those who had assumed, the 
government of Ireland, finding themselves in the midst of 
two powerful parties, made littje or no resistance; and 
lord Brogbiil and sir Charles Coote secured that kingdooi 
for his majesty. , 

Upon the king^s restoration, lord Broghill came to Eng-* 
land; but, instead of being thanked for his service in 
Ireland, be was received with the utmost coldness. Upon 
inquiry, be learnt that sir Charles Coote bad assured the king 
tbs^t he was the first man who stirred for him in Ireland ; that 
lord Broghill opposed his majesty^s return, and was not at 
last4)rougbt to consent to it without much difficulty* His 
lordship, recollecting that he had still by him sir Charles's 
letter, in which were these words, ^* Remember, my lord^ 
that you first put me on this design ; and 1 beseech you^ 
forsake me not in that which j'ou first put me upon, which 
was, to declare for kiug and parliament," desired his 
lorother Shannon to put it into the hands of the king; who 
being fully convinced by it how sierviceable Broghill had ; 
been to hina, looked upon him with as. gracious an eye as 
he could himself desire or expect His lordship waasooa . 
after (Sept. 5, 1660,) made earl of Orrery, sworn of the 
king's privy-council, appointe^^.o^^ ^ ^^ lords justices^ ^ 
and lord president of Munster. 

After the king^s return the Irish Roman catholics sent 
over sir Nicholas Plunket, ^nd some other commissioners^ 
with a petition to his majesty, praying to be restored to 
their estates. As this would in effect have ruined the . 
Protestants, they therefore chose the earl of Orrery, 
^ontratb, and six more, to oppose their adversaries be* 
fore the king and his council. The Irish commissionert 
were so apprehensive of the earPs eloquence and address 
upon this occasion^ that they offered him eight thousan4 
pounds in money, and to settle estates of .seven thousand 
pounds a year . upon him, if he would not appear against 
them; which proposal the earl rejected with proper disr 
dain. When the cause came to a hearing, after the Irish 
commissioners had offered all they thought proper, the 
earl of Orrery, boldly affirmed to the king that his Pro* 
testapt subjects in Ireland were the first who formed ap 
fff^ctual pafty for restoring him ; that the Irish had broken 
all the treatief f(^hi<;h had been piade with them -, ^hat th^ 


BO Y L E. 827 

liftd foi^t against the authority both of the late and pre-^ 
sent king ; and bad offered the kingdom of Ireland to the- 
pope, to the king of Spain, and the king of France. 
Lastly, to the great surprise, ndt only of the Irish, but of 
his own brother-comniission<?rs, he proved his assertions 
by producing several original paper,s sigfied by the Irish 
supreme council, of which sir Nicholas Plunket himself 
was one. This lust unexpected blow decided the dispute 
in favour of the Protestants ; and obliged his majesty to 
dismiss the Irish commissioners with some harsher eispres* 
sions than be commonly made use of. 

Soon after this affair, his lordship, with sir Charles 
Coote, lately ntade earl of Montrath, and sir Maurice 
Eustace, were constituted lords justices of Ireland, and 
commissioned to call and bold a parliament. Some time 
before the meeting of the parliament, he drew with his 
own hand the famous act of settlement, by which he fixed 
the property, and gave titles to their estates to a whole na- 
tioQr. When the duke of Ormond was declared lord lieu- 
tenant, the earl of Orrery went into Munster, of which 
province he was president. By virtue of this office, he 
heard and determined causes in a court called the resi- 
dency -court; and acquired so great a reputation in his^ 
judicial capacity, that he was offered the seals both by the 
king and the duke of York after the fall of lord Clarendon ; 
but^ being very much afflicted with the gout, he declined 
a post that required constant attendance. During the first 
Dutch war, in which France acted as a confederate with 
Holland, he defeated the scheme formed by the duke de 
B^Kifort, admiral of France, to get possession pf the har- 
bour of Kinsale^ and took advantage of the fright of the 
people, and the alarm of the go\*ernment, to get a fort 
erected Under bis own directions, which was named Fort^ 
Charles. He promoted a scheme for inquiring into, and 
improving the king's revenue in Ireland; but hi^ majesty - 
having applied great sums out of the revenue of that king- 
dom which did not come plainly into account, the in- 
quiry-was ndver begun. Ormond, listening to'some ma- 
licious insinuations, began to entertain a jealousy of 
Orrery, and prevailed with the king 'to direct him to lay 
dowD' his residential court; as a compensation for which, 
his majesty made him a present of 8000/. Sir Thomas^ 
Clifford, who had been brought into the ministry in Eng- 
land, apprehensive that he could not oarrjr his ends i^' 

32$ B O Y L K, 

Ireland whilst Orrery contiDued president of Munster,^ 
p/ocijijred articles of impeachment of high. treason and mis* 
dejoaeaiiours to be exhibited against him in the Englkb 
^pusp of commons ; but his lordship being beard in his 
place> gave an ansiyer so clear, circumstantial, and in-<- 
g^nuous, that the affair was dropt. The king laboured in 
vain to reconcile him t,o the French alliance, and the re- 
ducing of the D.utch. At. the desire of the king and the 
<}i|ke of York, he drew the plan of an act of limitation^ 
by which the successor would have been disabled from en^ 
croaching on civil and religious liberty ; but the proposing 
thereof being postponed till after the exclusiot^bill was 
set on foot, the season for making use of it was past. The 
](ing, to hinder his returning to Ireland, and to keep faint ^ 
^bout his person, offered him the place of lord-treasurer ; 
but the earl of Orrery plainly told his majesty tbat.he was* 
guided by unsteady counsellors, with whom be ocniid not 
act. He died, in October 1679, aged fifty ^eight;< leaving 
behind him the character of an able general, statesman^ 
s^pd writer. He had issue by. his lady, two sons and five 
d$^yghters. His writings are these : 1. ^* The Irish oolotnra 
displayed ; in a reply of an English Protestant to a letter 
of an Irish Roman catholic," Londoifi, 1663, 4iOi 2. ^^An 
answer to a scandalous letter lately printed, and subscribed 
by P^ter Walsh, procurator for the secular and regular 
popish priests, of Ireland, entitled A letter desiring a jmt 
z^d merciful regard of the Roman catholics of Irehind,' 
given about the end of October 1 660, to the then mavqiits, . 
j>ow duke of Ormond, and the second time lord lieutenantof 
ithsit kingdom. By the right honourable the earl of Or^ 
rery, jic. being a full discovery of tb^ treachery of >the 
Irish rebels since the beginning of the rebellion tiiere, ne* 
qessary to be considered by all adventuvers, and other* 
persons e^tated in that kingdom," Dublin, 166^, 4to*' 
S, *^ A poem on his majesty's happy restoratioR." 4. *^ A 
poem on the death of the celebrated Mr. Abrahaifi Cew«* 
ley," London, 1667, fol. 5. "The histopyof Henry V, 
a tragedy,'' London, 16^8, fol. 6. ^ Mustapha, t^e son 
of Spliman the ^Magnificent^ a tragedy,'' London^ 16^7, 
fol. and H68. 7. " The Black Prince, a tragedy/^ 
I^ondon, 1672, fol.,. 8. " Xriphon, a tragedy," London*, 
1672, fol. These four plays were collected and published 
togeiiiec in 1690, folio, and i^ake now the entire first vo- 
lume o£ the new edition of the earl's dramatic woriuw 


9, '^ PartbenisaA^ « romance in tliree ibliiines^'' London, 
1665, 4t05 1667, fol. 10. '< A Dream.*' In this piece 
be introduces the genius of France persuading Charier IL 
to promote the interest of that kingdom^ and act uponi 
French principles. He afterwards introduces tbe ghost of 
bis father, dissuading him from it, answering all the argu^ 
ments tbe genius of France bad urged/ and proving to him 
6x>m bis own misfortunes and tragical end, that a king's 
chief treasure, and only real strength, is the affections of 
his |)eople. 11. "A treatise upon the Art of War.** 12. 
Poems on the Fasts and Festivals of the Church.'' His 
posthumous works are: 1. ^^ Mr. Anthony, a comedy ,'T 
1692, 2. *< Guzman, a comedy," 1693. 3. " Herod the 
Ipreat, a tragedy," 1694. 4. " Ahemira, a tragedy," 
brought upon the stage by Mr. Francis Manning, in 1702, 
with a prologue by Henry St John, esq. afterwards lord 
viscount Bolingbroke, and an epilogue by the hon. Charles 
QoyJe, escj- the late earl of Orrery, who also interspersed 
seireial songs in the work itself. 5. ^^ State letters," pnb- 
lished in 1742, tbl. Mr. Morrice the editor, who was his 
biographer and chaplain, says that his patron drew up a 
very curious aceomit of what was done in tbe court or 
camp, in which he had kny part, or could speak of with 
ciBrtainty. But this has never been published. The duke 
of Oroiottd having by his majesty's command consulted 
with the earl of Orrery upon the propositions to be laid 
before the parliametrt of Ireland, in 1677, his lordship de-, 
livered to him five sheets of paper containing the most ef- 
fectual methods of protecting tbe nation from foreign and 
4otfieatfc enemies, ackemcing tbe Protestant interest, in- 
qreasing the revenue, and securing ]!>rivate property. But 
these, with other papers, were destroyed when lord Or- 
irery's hotise was borut to the ground in 1690, by a party of 
king James's soldiers, with the duke of Berwick at their 
head; Lionel, then earl of Orrery, and grandson to our 
author, being a minor, and abroad on his travels. 
. There is some use i» retaining this list of his lordship's. 
H/vitings, aitbough it must be confessed that be does not 
appear to ncHveh advantage ais a writer. The charge made 
by lord Oribird, that the Biographia Britannica is a ^^ de-^ 
fence of every body,'* never appeared bettef founded: 
than in the high character given of lord Orrery's po- 
etry, a character probably borrowed from such critics as 
Aubrev and Winstanley^ It would have been quite suf- 


S3o B O Y L E. 

ficient to have vindicated his poems from the general con- 
tempt with which they have sometimes been mentioned. 

It is more pleasing to recur to his private character, 
which Dr. Campbell has described with more truth. , He 
was, says this biographer, a kind and good, as well as«a 
very well-bred and courteous husband: and lady Orrery 
was esteemed one of the handsomest and most prudent 
women about the court. He was a tender, and even a 
fond parent ; but very attentive to the education and beha- 
viour ofhis children, by which the benefit they received was 
not small. As a landlord, he was both attentive to his own 
interest, and indulgent to his tenants. If a man was op- 
pressed, no one more readily relieved him ; if a farmer- s 
family was numerous, or his circumstances narrow, his 
assistance was never wanting ; but he was in all cases so- 
licitous that the. people should thrive, as well as obtain 
subsistence ; and bis saying was, ^' that the greatest cha^ 
rity coiisisted in keeping people from needing it.'* With 
this view, he procured by the royal favour, grants of 
fairs and inarkets for Rathgogran and Ballymaathra, two 
villages of his, which by this means were so far improved 
that be afterwards obtained charters, by which they were 
erected into boroughs, each sending two members to the 
Irish parliament, and established besides manufactures in 
tbem for their better supfK>rt. But in nothing his good- 
ness and beneficence of heart appeared more than in his 
treatment of bis domestics. He was alike careful of their 
-bodies, estates, and minds; they lived in the utmost 
plenty^ but be suffered no waste ; and for debauchery, he 
bad the utmost abhorrence. He provided for them ac- 
cording to their several capacities, that, having lived well 
with him, they might not fall into indigence after they 
left him. . He frequently observed, that the meanest of 
them had a soul to be saved, as well as himself; and 
therefore, he not only obliged his chaplain to have a due 
attention to their spiritual concerns, but frequently in- 
spected the discharge of his duty in this . particular. His 
lordship loved company, and kept always an open table, 
to which all the gentlemen in the country were welcome; 
and this was a public benefit, the conversation on such oc-^ 
casions being as delicate as the provisions.^ 

1 Biog. Brit— Park'i Royal and Noble Apthon.— Gibber's Lives, ml. W^ 
Ath. Ox. Tol. U.— Granger, vol. lll.wMorrice's life and Sute Letters. 


■_ BOYLE (Robert), the most illustrious philosopher of 
modern times, was the seventh son, and the fourte^itk 
child of Richard earl of Cork, and born at Lismore, in 
the province of Munster, in Ireland, the 25th of Jan. 
1 626-7. He was committed to the care of a country nurse, 
with instruction^^ to bring him up as hardy as if he had 
been her own son ; for his father, he tells us, ** had a per- 
fect aversion for the fondness of those parents which made 
them breed their children so nice and tenderly, that a hot 
sun or a good shower of rain as much endangers them as 
if they w^re made of butter or of sugar.'^ By this he gained 
a j9trong and vigorous constitution, Inrhich, however, he 
afterwards lost, .by its being treated too tenderly. He 
acquaints us with several misfortunes which happened to 
him in his youth. When be was about three years old, 
he lost his mother, who was a most accomplished woman, 
and whom he regrets on that account, because he did not 
know her. A second misfortune was, that he learned to 
stutter, by mocking some children of his own age; of 
which, though no endeavours were spared, he could never 
perfectly be cured. A third, that in a journey to Dublin, 
he had like to have been drowned, if one of his father's 
gentlemen had not taken him out of a coach, which, in 
passing a brook raised by some sudden showers, was over* 
turned and carried away with the stream. 

While he continued at home, he was taught to write a 
very fair hand, and to speak French and Latin by one of 
the earl's chaplains, and a Frenchman that he kept in the 
house. In 1635, his father sent htm over to England, in 
order to be educated at Eton schdol under sir Henry Wot- 
ton, who was the earl of Cork's old friend and acquaintance. 
Here he soon discovered a force of understanding which 
promised great things, and a disposition to cultivate and 
improve it to the utmost. While he remained at Eton, 
there were several extraordinary accidents that befel him^ 
of which he has given us an account ; and three of whicb 
were very near proving fatal to him. The first was, the 
sudden fall of the chamber where he lodged, when himself 
was in bed; when, besides the hazard he ran of being 
crushed to pieces, he had certainly been choked with the 
dust during the time be lay under the rubbish, if he had 
not had presence of mind enough to have wrapped his head 
up in the sheet, which gave him an opportunity of breath- 
ing without hazard. A little after this^ he had been 

382 6 O V L El 

crushed to pieces by a starting horse that rose tip suddefniy 
and threw himself backwards, if he had nbt happily disen- 
gaged his fbet from the stirrups, and cast himself from hi^ 
back before he fell. A third accident proceeded from 
the carelessness of an apothecary's servant; who, mis- 
taking the phials, brought him a strong emetic instead of 
a cooUrig julep. 

He remained at Etpn between three and four years ; 
after which, his father carried him to his own seat at Stal* 
bridge, in Dorsetshire, where he remained isome time 
under the care of the rev. William Dotich, one of his chap- 
lains, who was the rector of the places. • In the autumn of 
1638, he attended' his father to London, and remained 
with him at the Savoy, till his brother Mr. Fratlcis Boyle 
espoused Mrs. Elisabeth Killegrew ; and then, towards th^ 
end of October, within four days after the matriage, the two 
brothers, Francis and Robert, were sent abroad upon their 
travels, under the care of Mr. Marcombcs. They em- 
barked at Rye, in Sussex, and from thence proceeded tb 
Dieppe, in Normandy; thfen they travelled by land to 
Rouen, to Paris, and from tbence to Lyons ; from which city 
tiiey continued their journey to Geneva, where his go-» 
vernor bad a family ; atid there th^ two gentlemen pursued 
their studies quietly, and without interruption. Mr. Boyle, 
during his stay here, resumed hts acquaintance with the 
mathematics, or ^t lea:st with the elements of that science, 
of which he had before gained some knowledge. For be 
telh us in his own memoirs, that while he was at Eton,^ 
and afflicted with an ague, before he was ten years old, 
by way of diverting his melancholy, they made him read 
Amadis de Gaul, and other romantic books, which pro- 
dueed such redtles^ness in him, that he was* obliged to 
apply himself to the extraction of the square and cube 
roots, and to the more laborious operations of algebra, in 
order to fix and settle the volatility of his fancy. 

While he remained at Geneva, he made some excursions 
to visit the adjacent country of Savoy, and even proceeded 
so far as to Grenoble in Dauphin6. He took a view idso 
df those wild mountains, where Bruno, the first author of 
the Carthusian monks, lived in solitude^ and Where the 
first and chief of the Carthusian abbies is seated. Mr^ 
Boyle relattes, that ^' the devil, taking advantage of that 
deep raving melancholy, so sad a place, his own humour,^ 
which was naturally grs^ve and serious^ a^nd thQ ^.trang^ 

B O Y L E» 333 

• » * • . • • 

slories and pictiires he found there of Bri^t^o^ s^geste4 
such strange and hidepus (jistra^tiAg doubts, pf^ome, of th)^ 
fundamentals of Christianity, that thougb> he says^ his looks 
did little betray his thoughts, nothing but the forbidden- 
ness of self-despatch hindered his acting it/^ . He labcmred 
under this perplexity and melancholy many months : bijt 
at length getting out of it, he set about inquiring ^nta the. 
grounds and foundation of the Chrlstiaa religioa^ '^ that 
so/* says he, " though he believed niore than be cauj<i 
comprehend, h^ niight not believp ojiore than be cpuld, 
prove; and owe ^he steadfastness of hi? fai,tb to so ppor a. 
cause, as the ignoraace of what niight be objected agaip^t 
it** He became confirmed in the b^ief of Chi;istian^y, 
and in a convictiion of its truth ; yet, iipi spp he say^, but, 
that '^ the fieetipg clouds of doubt aud disbj^lief did n^veC 
after cease ijiow and then to* darken, th,e serenity of his 
quiet; which made hioi often say, that iiijectiqns of .this 
nature were such a disease to hjU faith, as the t9otlf-a^t;v i^ 
to the body; for though it be not mortal^ it is very trou« 

September 1641, he quitted Geneva, after havipg s^ent. 
oDe*and-tweuty months in that city ; and, passing through 
Switzerland, and the country of the Grisons, entered Lom- 
bardj. Then, taking his route through Bei'gamo,, Bres* 
cia, and Verona, he, arrived at Venice ; where having 
made a short stay^ h^ returned to^the continent, and ^pent 
the winter at Florence^ Here he employed his spare hours 
in reading the n^odern history jn . Italian, and the works of . 
the celebrated astronomer Galileo^ who died at a .village 
near this city durii^g Mr. Boyle's residence in it. It was at 
Florence that he acquired the language; which he^ 
underst9od perfectly, though he never, spoke it so fluently 
as the French. Of this indeed he was such a master, that, . 
as occasion required, he passed for a native of that country 
in more places tha^ ;one during/ his travels. 

March 1642,. hp began, his journey frQm Florence, to 
Rom^, which took up but five days. He surveyed the nu- 
merous curiosities of that, city ; among which, he tells ns, 
** he had the fortune to see pope Urban VUI. at chapel, 
with the cardinals ; who, severally appearing mighty 
prinqes, in that asaeipnbly looked like a company of com* . 
mon fiiars.** He visited the adjacent villages, which had. 
any tiling cur^ovis or antique belonging to them ; and bad^ 
fffpbably vo^de ^ longer $t*y, hftd J»9t the beat of ttje olj-i 

334 B O Y L E. 

mate disagreed with his brother. He returned to Florenc^i 
from thence to Leghorn, and so by sea to Genoa. Then 
passing through the county of Nice, he crossed the sea at 
Antibes, where h^ incurred some danger for refusing to 
honour the crucifix : from whence he went to Marseilles 
by land. He was in that city in May 1642, when he re« 
ceived his father's letters, which informed him of the re- 
bellion broke out in Ireland, and how difficultly he had 
procured the 250/. then remitted to them, in order to help 
them home. But they never received this money ; and 
were obliged to go to Geneva with their governor Mar- 
combes, who supplied them with as much at least as car- 
ried them thither. They continued there a considerable 
time, without either advices or supplies from England : 
upon which Mr. Marcbmbes was obliged to take up some 
jewels on his own credit, which were afterwards disposed 
of with as little loss as possible ; and with the money tlius 
raited, they continued their journey for England, whither 
they arrived in 1 644. On his arrival Mr. Boyle found h& 
father dead ; and though the earl had made an ample pro- 
vision for him, as well by leaving him his .manor of Stal- 
bridge in England, as other considerable estates in Ireland, 
yet it was some time before he could receive any money. 
However, he procured protections for his estates in both 
kingdoms from the powers then in being ; from whom also 
he obtained leave to go over to France for a short space, 
probably to settle accounts with his governor Mr. Mar- 
combes : but he could not be long abroad, since we find 
him at Cambridge the December following. 

March 1646, he retired to his manor at Stalb ridge,, 
where he resided for the most part till May 1650. A room 
is still shown here, in which our author studied, and where 
he is said to have made his earliest experiments in natural 
philosophy and chemistry. He made excursions, sometimes 
to London, sometimes to Oxford ; and in February \ 647, 
be went over to Holland ; but he made no considerable 
stay any where. During his retirement at Stalbridge,' he 
applied himself with incredible industry to studies of va* 
rious kinds, to those of natural philosophy and chemistry 
in particular, and omitted no opportunity of obtaining the 
acquaintance of persons distinguished for parts and learn- 
ing, to whom he was in every respect a ready, useful, ge- 
nerous assbtant, and with whom he held a constant cor- 
respondence. He was also one of the first members df 

5 O Y L E. 835 

that smull, but learned body of men, which, when alt aca- 
demical studies were interrupted by the civil wars, 567 
creted themselves about 1645 ; and held private meetings, 
first in- LondQn, afterwards at Oxford, for the sake of can- 
vassing subjects of natural knowledge, upon that plan of 
experiment which lord Bacon had delineated. They styled 
themselves then the Philosophical College ; and after the 
restoration, when they were incorporated and distinguished 
evenly, took the name of the Royal Society. His retired 
course of life, however, could not hinder his reputation 
from rising to such a height, as made him be taken notice 
of by some of the most eminent members of the republic 
of letters; so that, in 1651, we find Dr. Nathanael High- 
more, a very eminent physician, dedicating to him a book, 
under the title of ^^ The history of Generation :" examin- 
ing the several opinions of divers authors, especially that 
of sir Kenelm Digby, in his Piscourse upon Bodies. 

In 1652, he went over to Ireland, in order to visit and 
settle his estates in that kingdom ; and returned from 
thence in August 1653. He was soon after obliged to go 
over to Ireland again ; where he had spent his time very 
unpleasantly, if it had not been for his intimate friend and 
acquaintance, sir William Petty, in whose conversation he 
w^s extremely happy. In the summer of 1654, he re« 
turned to £ugiand, and put in execution a design he had 
formed some time, of residing at Oxford ; where he con* 
tinued for the most part till April 1668, and then heset* 
tied at London in the house of his sister lady Ranelagh in 
Pall Mall. At Oxford he chose to live in the honse of 
Mr. Crosse, an apothecary, rather than in a college ; for 
the sake of his health, and because be had ihore room to 
make experiments. Oxford was indeed at that time the 
only place in England where Mr. Boyle could have lived 
with much satisfaction; for here he found himself sur- 
rounded with a number of learned friends, such as WiU 
Rins, Wallis, Ward^ Willis, Wren, &c. suited exactly to 
his taste, and who had resorted thither for the same reasons 
tliat he had done; the philosophical society being now 
removed from London to Oxford. It was during his resi- 
dency here that he invented that admirable engine, the 
air-pump ; which was perfected for him by the very inge- 
nious Mr. Robert Hooke, in i678 or 1679. By this he 
made several experiments, and was enabled to discover and 
dcimonstrate several qualities of th,e air> so aa^ to lay a fouu* 

33^ ' B O V L E. 

dation for 9 completer theory. He was, iK>t, hoit^eVer, s^ii^ 

fied with this, biit laboured. incessantly in collectiogt aa^ 
digestiug, chiefly from h,h owq experimei^s, th^ .i^ateriiriA 
requisite ibr this pqrppse. He declared against the pbil<>>- 
sophy of Aristotle, as having in it more of words tbaj^ 
things, promising much apd performing littl^ ; and, as gi^f^^ 
ing the uiT^nxions of men for. indubitable proofs, .i(is^9^ 
of building upoa observation and experiment He w^ so 
zealous for, and so careful about, this true method .q£ 
learning by expierime.nt;, that, though, the Cartesian ph.i-^ 
losophy then made a great noise in the world, ^^t h^ wQui4 
never be persuaded to read the works, qf I>^cartes j^ for 
fear he should be amused and led away b|y plausibJi^Q ,^i^ 
counts of things, founded 011 fancy, aud laer/^y- bypQH 
thetical. .. . .. ■ v- 

But philosophy and. inquiries into natur^^ though, theji 
engaged bvs , attention .cj^.^p'y^ ^i^ not occupy it e^ifiirely ^ 
i^nc^ we find, that he stiU continue^. , to^ pursue critipf^jt 
and theological studies. In these be had th^ assistan^^^ 
sooie great n»ep> particularly . Dr. £dwaf:d I^pcQ<pk,>i]\^ 
'^homas Hyde, and M^. Sam^uel Clarke, ^\\ of gneaA ^w^ 
nence for their skill in the oriental lang[i:^,. ..He had( 
also a strict intimacy with Dr. Thomas .Qarl^w^^.^i ^hat.Ujao^ 
head-keeper of the Bodleian library, .and afterward^ bishopr 
of Lincoln, a man of yarioi^s and extensive leaf ni^g. . Jo^ 
1656^,. Dr, Wallis, so distinguished for his mathemati<c^v 
and philosophical learning, dedicated to him his ^c^^ljLei^ 
treatise pn the Cyclpid. This year also Mr. Boy}e, ibeiii^ 
acquainted with the unhappy circumstances pf the,}.^arAf^. 
Sanderson, afterwards bishop of jLincoln, who bad iost.^^ 
his preferments for his attachment to the royal p^rtyi; co|ir$ 
fenced upon him an honorary st;ipend of SoLs^ year... Thia.^ 
stipend was given as an encouragement to that excelleat; . 
master of reasoning,, to apply Jtiimself to the.writing.of c?is^ 
of conscience : and accordingly he printed his l^cturesl 
** de obligatione conscientiae," which he r^ad ^t Oxfpi^ ' 
1647, and dedicated them, to his friend ajad patron. Xhi9tl 
dedipation bears date Nov. 22, 1659. . , -^ •..- 

Upon the restoration of Cbj^rles H. he was tr^^ted wjjJb* 
girjsat. civility and respect by. the king, as weU%as. by the^ 
two gre^t ministers, Southarppton and Cjaf^ndon.^. Ji/t£i 
w^ siolicited by the latter. to enter into orders, fpr Mito* 
Boyle's distinguished learning and unblemished r^p^ti^^prj^ 
tion iXidtUP^ k>rd Clarendon to think that so very^j^e^f^^^ 


ftble a personage would do great honour to the clergy. 
Mr. Boyle considered all this with due attention i but re- 
flected, that in his present «ituation^ whatever he wrote 
upon religion, would have so much the greater weight, as 
coining from a layman ; since he well knew, that the irre- 
ligious fortified themselves against all that the clergy could 
offer, by supposing and saying that it was their trade, and 
that they were paid for it He considered likewise that^ 
in point of fortune and character, he needed no accessions ;' 
and indeed he never had any appetite for either. But 
bishop Burnet, who preached his funeral sermon, and to 
whom Mr. Boyle communicated memorandums concerning 
his own life> tells us, that what had the greatest weight in 
determining his judgment was, ^^ the not feeling within 
himself any motion or tendency of mind which he could 
safely esteem a call from the Holy Ghost, and so not ven-^ 
turing to take holy orders, lest he should be found to have 
lied unto it.'* He chose therefore to pursue his philoso-^ 
phical studies in such a manner as might be most effectual 
lor the support of religion ; and began to communicate to 
the world the fruits of those studies. The first of them 
was printed at Oxford, 1660, in 8vo, under the title of 
1. '^ New experiments, physico-mechanical, touching the 
Upring of the Air and^its effects, made for the most part 
in B new pneumatical engine: addressed to his nephew 
the loifd Dungarvan." This work was attacked by Fran- 
ciseus Linus and Mr. Hobbes, which occasioned Mr. Boyle 
to, subjoin to a second edition of it, printed at London^ 
r662, in 4to, " A Defence," &c. in which he refuted the 
objections of those philosophers with equal candour^ clear- 
ness, and civility. A thitd edition was printed in 1682^ 
4to. 2. " Seraphic Love ; or, some motives and incen-^ 
tives to the Love of God, pathetically discoursed of in a 
letter to a friend,*' 1660, 8vo. This piece, though it did 
u^t appear till now, was finished as early as the year 1648* 
It has run through many editions, and been translated into 
Latin. The fame of Mr. Boyle's great learning and abi* 
lities extended itself even at this time beyond the bounds 
of our island, so that the grand duke of Tuscany, a prinpe 
distinguished for learning, was extremely desirous of a 
cOrretpondence with him r df which he was advertised in 
a letter, dated Oct. 10, 1660, from Mr. Southwell^ then 
resident at Florence. 3. << Certain physiologicar Essays 
and other Tracts,** 1661, 4to» They were printed again 
Vol. VL Z 

9St BOY L E. 

in Ufid, 4tt9 with largfi %al<iitiw9, wpeei^Vy of ^ A Dbf* 
coi]f9fi a{)out (tfa« abaoliita i^sf of bodies :^' md were trans* 
Iftted into Latin, i. *^ Saeptijcal Gfaembt/* ififie, Svo, • 
i^itry cpri49U6 aad esxeUent ivork ; reprinted in 1679, Sw, 
with' tbe addition of divers experiments aud naten afa&ut 
the pro^ucit>Ieness of aheaiiical principles. 

In 1662, a graai of the forfeited itPfMroprialienf iq lh« 
]^ingiloin of Ireland was obtained from the king in Mr. 
T^oyWs nanae, though without bis knowledge ; which ae^ 
yertheless did not hinder him from interesting bimseif velry 
warmly for procuring the application of thpse impropria9> 
tions to the promoting religion and learning. He iBter-»> 
p!0se4 likewise in favour of the corporation for propagating 
the gosp/el in New England ; and was y^y instrumental in 
obtaining a decree in the court of chancery, f^r re&toiirtg 
to that corporation an estate which bad been injnribusljr 
repossessed by one col. Bedingfield, a pi^isl;, wb9 hdid 
sold it to them fojT a valuable consideration. His actimji 
in matters of this nature was so much the more honourable, 
as bis inclination led him generally to be privi|te and ni^ 
tired. But whenever the cause of virtue, learning, . or j^-^ 
ligion, required it, his interest and endeavours, were newe 
wanting ; and what is very remarkable, were seldom eni-a 
ployed but with success. In 16G3, the royal society l^eing* 
incorporated by king Charles II. Mr. Boyle was appointed 
one of the council ; anil, as he might be justly redEoned 
among the founders of that learned body, so he continued 
qne of its ^most useful and industrious isiembers during tbe 
whole course of bis life. 

In Jqne 1663 he published, 5. ^^ Considerations touching 
t)ie usefulness of experimental Natural Philosophy,'* 4tOy 
reprinted the year following. 6. <^ Experiments and cob-» 
^derations upon Colours ; ' to which was added a letter^ 
containing observations on a diamond tbat shines in th« 
dark,*' 1663, 8vo, reprint^ in the same size in 1670. It 
was also translated into Latin. This treatise is full di , 
curious and useful reqasurks on the hitherto uaaxplained 
doBtrine of light and colours ; in which he sJiewa-gre^t 
judgment, accuracy, and penetration, and mti^ he said to. 
have led the way to that mighty genius, the gneaJ: sir Isaac 
Newton, who has since set that important point in tb^ 
clearest and most convincing light 7. ^^ Considc^cationa. 
upon tlie style of tjse Holy Scriptures,'^ 1663,. 8vo. A 
Lat^i translation of it waa printed at Oxfpix), where mosi. 

9 1 1;' It §»9 

1^ hk wtiiiogs wprte p^iblirfi^d 19 1 g€#. U .WW m mismt 
from * Uirg^r w^rfc: #nutl^ « An E^s^y oa $triptooe f^ 

WMr. Boyte. 

la (^4 he wi^ felect^^ intQ lii9 g^oopftoy of the rojr^l 

Ultn^; ftml W9^ all 1^ yedl* tali^n up in the proiiecutifw 

pf >^oiid good imgns, Yfkieh probably was the r^ui^ 

\^y bt di^ not send fijbwi^ any tr^atbe^ either of rdigioa 

or philosophy. Tjbe year following, bsiwev^^ appeared^ 

§, ^* Occasional EeflectioDs »pon «9v«tral ^vfyjwtfi ; wk&teto 

19 pr«fi»e4 a dipcoursa about meh kind of itbongbts^'^ 

JP#5^ ^TOj reprinted io 1P69, 8vq. Tbis piec^ is ad*» 

iire^^Qd itp Sophroma^ pud^r whose Bi»ni/e b^ coan^eialed tbat 

#f bU bt^j^vcid ^6ter^ die . vi^onnless of Ranelagh. Jh^ 

^OM^t^ timm^lvfSA are on la ^Mt variety of sulHecta^ wriif 

t#D i^aoy y^ars beforie ; $09ie indc^uposi trmaioecaj$i39n<^ 

jbiit all witti gr^At accuracy pf IwguagK^ much wit,, famtm 

Jeai^uiog, and in a wonderful stndo of inoril a^d pious fe«- 

£b^lion. Yet chi« exposed bim to the ooly ^vere.oeiaiaurt 

Ibial: i^pt was pasted upoo hicn, and tb«t too from no le«a 

H. man i:h$tn the <^elebrated dean Sivifl; ; who, to ridicule 

these diaeourses, wrote '^ A pious meditatioD upon a Broomf^ 

fiti^k, in the style of the booonrable Mr. Boyle.'^ A certada 

^HTfter^ by w^j of mabing r^^riaaU upon Sfvift lor bis ti^eatr 

x»ent of Mr. Boyle, which he affirms to he as cru^l ani 

liojustasit is trivial and indecent, baaob^rved^ that,froiia 

this very tiiealise, which he has thus turned into ridicule^ 

be borrowed the first hint of bis GiiUiv«^'s Travels, fit 

f^Oimds. his coojecture upon itb^ following passage^ to b^ 

lottod in the Occasional Heflections: ^^ You put ine xm 

tmnd. of a ^ncy of your frit^d Mr. Boyle, who was saying 

l^at he bad thoughts of making a short roaiancic story^ 

.ivbere the scene ahould be laid in son^e island of lih^ 

xoMtbem oceanf govei;ned by some such ratioaal biwia and 

Customs as those of the Utopia or the Njew AtaUotis. Aii4 

in : this country ha would introduce an obsenung qatii^^ 

}k»Jt^ upon his return home from his travels made in EUc- 

jSQpe^ should give an account of oiir countries and mannem 

jLioder feigned, names ; and frequently intimate in his rer 

JiatioRSy or in his answers to questions that should be mftde 

hWy the reasons of his wondmng to fiod our custofua so 

extravagancy and differing from those oi bis ovm countrjf, 

JFor your frien4 imagined that, by such a way of exposing 

xaany of our praoticea^ we aboold lourselvea be brougbit 

' Z 2 


»4d 8i d ^ L ^ ' 

tmawares to condemn, or perhaps to laugh at them ; an^ 
should at least cease to woAder, to find other nations think 
them as extravagant as we think the manners of the Dutch 
and Spaniards, as they are represented in our travellers^ 
books.^' The same year Mr. Boyle published an important 
work, entitled^ 9. " New experiments and observations 
upon Cold ; or, an experimental history of Cold begun :. 
.with several pieces thereunto annexed," 1665, 8vo, re- 
printed in 1683, 4to. 

His excellent character in iaill respects had procured hiofi 
so much esteem and afFection with the king, as well as 
with every body else, that his majesty, unsolicited, no- 
minated him to the provostship of Eton college in Augi^t 
1665. This was thought the fittest employment for niin 
in the kingdom ; yet, aftet* mature deliberation, though 
contrary to the advice of all his friends, he absolutely de- 
dined it, for which he had several reasons. He thought 
the duties of that employment might interfere with his 
studies : he was unwilling to quit that course of life, which, 
by experience, he found so suitable to his temper and 
constitution : and, above all, he was unwilling to enter 
into orders : which he was persuaded was necessary to qua- 
lify himself for it. In this year and the next, he was much 
interested in an affair that made a very great noise in the 
Worl^ ; and the decision of which, from the high reputa**- 
tion he had gained, was in a manner universally expected 
from him. The case was this : one Mr. Valentine Great- 
racks, an Irish gentleman, persuaded himself that he had 
$1 peculiar gift of curing diseases by stroking ; in which 
though he certainly succeeded often, yet he sometimes 
failed ; and this occasioned a great controversy^ in which 
most of the parties concerned addressed themselves to Mr. 
Boyle. Among the rest, the famous Mr. Hennr Stubbe 
wrote a treatise upon this subject, entitled *^ The mira- 
culous "Conformist ; or, an account of several marvellous 
cures, performed by the stroking of the hands pf Mr. Vu- 
Jentine Greatracks ; with a physical discourse thiereupon, 
in a letter to the honourable Robert Boyl^, esq.*' Mn 
Boyle received this book upon the 8th of Mareh 1666 ; 
and wrote a letter to Mr. Stubbe the next morning, which 
shews how extremely tender Mr. Boyle was of religion ; and 
how jealous of admitting and countenancing any principle 
or opinions that he thought might have a tendency to hUrt 
or discredit it. But what is most incumbent ua us to ob« 

B O t L E; m 

- serve at presient is, tb?it this letter is certainly one of the 
clearest testimonies of Mr. Boyle's vast abilities and ex-^* 
tensive knowledge; that is apy where extant It is a very 
long letter, upwards of twenty pages in 8vo ; very learned 
and very judicious; wonderfully correct in the diction and. 
style, remarkably clear in the method and form, highly 
exact in the obseiVations and remarks, and abounding in 
pertinent and curious facts to illustrate his reasoning. Yet 
,it appears from the letter itself, that it was written within 
the .compass of 9, single morning ; a fact we should have, 
imagined next to impossible, if it had not been attested^ 
^ by one whose veracity was i>ever. questioned, that is, by 
Mr. Boyle himself. In 1^66, Dr, Wallis addressed to Mn 
Boyle his piece upon the Tides; as did the famous phj-^ 
sician, Br. Sydenham, his method of curing fevers, grounq>r. 
ed upon his owp observations. Mr. Boyle likewise pub- 
lished that year, 10. ':^tIydrosta^ical par4d9xes madeout 
by new experiments^ for the most part physical arid e^sy,^'* 
8vo, which he printed at the requesj: of the. royal society, 
, those experiments having been made at their desire about 
two years before. 1 1. " The Origin of Forms and Qualities, 
according to the Corpuscular . philosophy, illustrated by 
Qonsiderations a^d experiments/' 16616, 4tp, and reprinted^ 
|he yeair following, in 8vo. Thi3 treatise did great honoi|r. 
to Mr. Boyle, whether we. consider the quickness of his. 
>yit, the depth ;of his judgment, or his indefatigable pains, 
'in searching after truth* We must not forget to observe, 
that, both in. this and the former year, he communicated 
to nis. friend Mr. Oldenburg, who was secretary to tlie. 
royal society, several curious and excellent short treatises 
of his own, upon a great variety of. subjects, and others 
transmitted^ to bioi by his learned friends both at hofne 
and abroad, which are printed and preserved in the Phi-, 
losophical Transactions^ Another thing it may not be im- 
^ proper to observe> that, in the warm controversy raised by 
JMLr.'Stubbe at this time about the royal society, Mr. Boyle 
' (Reaped all censiire ; and though Mr. Stubbe, among 
others, attacked it in several pamphlets with, all the fmry 
\ iip^ginable, yet he preserved a just respect for Mr. Boyle'sr 
, great learning and abilities, who, ou his part, shewed a 
sing^lax' goodness of temper in bearing, as he did, with st> 
much indecent treatment from a person whom he had 
highly, obliged, because he thought him^ with all hisfaults^^ 
cjipable of being useful to the world, i 

S4t B d Y t R 

Abti>iii thh t^^y nkm4ty, iist^ Mr. Boyle resdlvai eo 
^tU hifnNrtl in Lotifdon fet life } and removed, for tba^ 

?tirpo«e$' 14) tW bous^ o( bis ^kter, tb^ lady Ranetagb^ tn 
M Mai). Tbiff ikU io tb^ inftfiifo benelil ^ tbe learned 
>a #etl€ra), and ^rtidtiWIy to tbe advantage of the royak 
^OQiety ; to wboM b^ gate great a<«d coiuinoal assistacnaejr 
» tke setteral pieces^ €fomi^aakeited to them from time to 
liniie, and prmted ii) tbeir Trafisaotie<n«y abundaotly testify^ 
Those v$(bo dppkted to bimi ekh^r to dei»pe bis help, or to 
ifo4»«nuoi*6ate to bim amy iie«r dittcoveriies in science, hef 
llad bi» o#l hMTs for reoeivif^; otherwise it is easy to 
idonoeiv^^ that he would bav<^ bad^ vety little of bis time t0 
bitns^N: Bat, besMles tbese^ be kept a very extensivo 
eovrdsj^denoe with per$(ms of the gresstest figure^ and 
litost famous for learning, m all parta of £uro{^. 

In 1669 be pi»blisbed, 12. ^^ A eontrnuation of n^MP 
4t]iieri«nents touebing tbe spring^ atld weigbli of the Air;*' 
to trbich i# added a dis^otirs^ of the atmospfaer^s ol con-* 
sitfent bodieil ;^ ^id the ^odio year hH revised and mad# 
lHany additiotia to se^er*) ^ bts fofUktt tracts, some of 
which, 9& we h^re b«^6r# observecf, were iv^rw transtateit 
ilftto Latm, in order to graM^fy tbe e»ridiu9 abroiNJi. I3v 
^'^Ti^aets^ about the eostnical.qu«ilities of things; cosmical 
' suspidons ; tbe temperatiiFe of Ifae ^ubtefi»anean^ regfons i 
ate bpttocn Of tbe sea ;- to whicb is prefixed ao imrodoctionf 
•a tl^ history of parti^lar qoabeies/* 1670, 3vo. Tbki 
b06k ocfd^iOned mucb speeukition, aA i« ^eeoneidf w 6«n» 
tMi a vast treasure of new knowledge wbicb bad nereis, 
be^n eotiaotanreated to tbe world before; and tbi» to<v 
gi^oMKi^ ttpon actoa) etitpei'irnentd and argutnema justljf 
drawn fre^ tb^iti, instead of that notional and eon^eetaral 
^iki»^y, whieb in tbe beginning of the seventeeivdi 
eentury hdd beea- so nfiiieb in fasbi6n. 

In tbe midst of all tb^se studies an4 libe«fs>fer A^ put^f 
hfd, he was attack^ by a severe p*#alyti^ distetilper, of 
wbicb, though no« witbout great d^ffieullty,' be got the bet-^. 
ts^9 by strictly adhering^ todf^rOper r^gi<ilien^;ai>d rotdrvHtig 
to hi^ pursuits', m 1679, he p>ufb{ish^d,» 14. ^ eonskiei^ 
fion^o* ^ asefu^btes9 of experimental and ttatu<raf (AIih 
josopby, the seeond part,*' 4to. And^ IJ^ ^ A c6&0^ 
Sfon of tFaets vpon sieveral tfsef£rl and importaiM poiMa of 
-fi^meticnl j^bffosopby,^* 4to;' both wbieh work&were r^ceivoA 
as new ai>d valuable gffts to the teamed w^rld. 16. ** Am^ 
^ssay about the origin* and viftae of 6ie$l«i*^ (f72> »ttd^ 

B Q T L B. 34S 

17. <<A eoltectkm of tracts upon the re1iitk)if b^twMh 

fitoi^ and air ; and several other i9sreful and cmrknis svb- 

jeete )" i>eside9 ftirnishingy in this and mtbe former year^ a 

great number o^ short dissertations upon d vstst rtri&tj of 

ttrpit»t iddi'esled t^ tb^ royal soetetj, and inserted in 

tbeif TralRsaetions^ 18. " Essays on the strawge subtlety, 

gireat ^caeyy and del^rrninate nature of EfBoria;'* t6 

wbieb were add<^ variety of ^x|[x^rinehts on other subjects, 

167^^ 8v6. The ftame yeai^ Anthony le Grand, the famous 

Gartesiai) phildsopUer^ printed hi^ <^ Histqria Ntturaef,'* &o. 

at Loi>don, and dedicated it to Mr. Boyle^ H^ doesjus^ 

tice to Mr. Boyle's universal reputation for extensive tearii^ 

ir^ ik,nd amazing slsg^ky in evei^ branch of experimental 

pbiiesof^by ; and says of biuay ithat Avefrroei sard of Aris- 

feotle, that naiture bad formed bin^ as an 6xefinr]ailAr or patter^ 

ef the highest perfectionf to which humarnCy can attam. 

i9j '* A colh^tion of tracts upon the saltness of the sea,. 

the iMistuve of the atry the natural and ^ret^rnatuvalf stmt 

af boeKes; to whi(^h is pi^efixed a dialogue concerning dold/' 

167*, 8vo; 20. " The excellency of theology cotopvred 

with natural philosofpby,?* 1673, 8yo. 21. **AooHectid«l 

of trirctsy e6ntaitiing suspicions about bidden 4°^^^^ ^ 

the air ^ with an appendix toucfaihg celestial magnnets; 2sHi^ 

daadvetdiotis upon Mr. Hobbes's pfoblenlk about a* vaemiiA ; 

a discourse of the eause of attraction dnd s^hetsom," 1674^ 

BVo. ^. ** Some coosidei^ti6ns' abou^ the rebonciletble- 

ness of reasort ^d religion; By T. E. a laymfan; T6' whidi 

is annexed, a discourse about the possibility of the lElesur- 

rection by Mr. Boyle/' 1675, 8to; both these j^ieces v^ere 

of his writing ; only h^ thbught fit to mAik the for&er HWk 

the final letters of his name. Among other papers that he 

communicated this yent fo the royal spciety, ihei€^\^€t6 

two' di'^coursies, connectedt into one, that deserve* particular 

notice. The former wa^ entitled " An experitnenftal dSfS^ 

cotit**ef of quicksilver growing hot i^ith gold ;'' the other* re* 

lated to the same subject ; and both of them eot^tained 

diseot<6):ie$ of the utmost impo«atice *. In 1676, he pnlf^ 

4^ To lie d6iiVlhced'of tVis, the rea- " Ye<terday, reading the two last 

^f may peruse the followiag passages Philosophical Transactions, I had an 

cf a letter written by Mr. (afterwards opportunity to consider Mr. Boyle's 

ihf IJfaac I^ewtoh to NFr. Otdenbuig, uncommon experiment about the in* 

tfe secretary of the Itoyal Society^ calescence of gold and mercury. ( 

■dri^di&k odcasion of it. The letter is Believe the fingers of ipany will itch U^ 
dted ffosi Caoobrldgey Xprll 2^, ' be at the knowledge of the preparation 

H^76« of such a oierciuy ^ itnd for that nd 



lisbed^ 23. ^'Experimeiits and notes about the meohantoal 
origin or production of particular qualities, in several dis* 
courses on a great variety of subjects, and, among therest^ 
of Electricity." , ; 

He had bean many years a director of the East India 
company, and very useful in this capacity to that great 
body, especially in procuring their charter ; and the onl^ 
return be expected for his labour was, the engaging tb^ 
company to come to some resolution in, favour of the pro4 
pagation of the gospel,, by means of their flonrisbing fac^ 
tories in that part of the world. As a proof of his own in** 
clination to contribute, as far as ia him lay, for that pur- 
pose, he caused five hundred copies of the^gospels ami acts 
of the apostles, in the Malayan tongue, to be printed at 
Oxford in 1677, 4to, and to be sent abroad, at his owii 
iexpence. This appears from the dedication, prefixed by 
his friend Dr. Thomas Hyde^ to that translation, which wan 
published under his direction. It was the same spirit and 
principle, which made him send, about three years before^ 
several copies of Grotius '' de Veritate Christians^ religio- 
nis,^' . translated into Arabic by Dr. Edward Pocock, intj^ 
the. Levant, as a means of propagati^ig Christianity, fihere^ 
There was printed in }677, at Geneva, a' misceiianeoat 
collection of Mr. Boyle's works in Latin,' without bis ooa- 
sent, or even knowledge; of which there is a large account 
given in the Philosophical Transactions. In 1678, he 
communicated to Mr. Hooke a short memorial of some ob^ 


pome will not be wmiting to nqre for 
the publishing of it, by prging the good 
It may do to the world. But, in my 
•imple judgment, the noble author, 
since he has thought fit to levei^l bia^* 
>e1f so far, • does prudently in being 
reserTed in the rest Net that 1 think 
any great excellenoe in such a mer- 
cury, either for medicinal or chemical 
operations; for it seems to me, that 
the metalline particles with which' that 
merpury is impregnated, may be 
grosser than the particles of the mer* 
cary, &c. — Bat yet, because the way 
liy which mercury may be so impreg- 
nated has been thought fit to be con- 
cealed by others that have known it, 
and therefore ipay possibly be an inlet 
to something more noble, not to be 
communioat6d without immense da- 
loage to the w^rld, if there should be 
foy verity in the hermetic writers j 

therefore I quettioii not b^i that, tb^ 
great wittdooi of the noble aotbor- w,iU 
sway him to high silence, (ill he shall 
be resolved of wJiAt eonse^^ueQce th# 
thing may be, either by his own evpe* 
rience, or the judgment of some other^ 
that thorj^ghly understands what 1i^ 
speaks about; that is^ of a 'true .ber<» 
metic philosopher, whose judgment, if 
there be ^ny such, would be more to 
ke rtgardied in this point, tium thikt of 
ail the world beside to the contrary | 
there being other things beside the 
transmutation of metals, if thoee grMit 
pretenders brag not, which none but 
they understand. Sir, because the 
author seems desirous of the sense df 
others in tbi^ point; I bare been ao 
free as to shoot my bolt; but pray 
keep thi^ letter private to yourself 
Your lervant, 

Isaac Nswroir;** V 

B O y L Ei 845 

i»rviitiofi9 made ti|k>n an artificial substance that shines 
without aay preceding illustration ; which that gentleman 
thought 6t to publish in his ^* Lectiones Cutlerianse.*' He 
published the same year, 24, ^* Historical account of a, de- 
{^.adatiou of gold made by an anti-elixir j a strange che- 
mical narrative/' 4to, reprinted in the same size 1739. 
^Xbis excited great attention both at home and abroad, and 
is looked upon as one of the most remarkable pieces that 
ever fell from his pen ; since the facts contained in it would 
have been esteemed incredible, if they had been related by 
a man of less integrity and piety than Mr. Boyle. 
' The regard which the great Newton had for Mr. Boyle^ 
•I^ears from a very curious letter, which the former wrote 
to him, at >he latter end of this year, for the sake of laying 
before hiin his sentiments upon that ethereal medium, 
which he afterwards proposed, in his Optics, as the mecha- 
uiGal uDause of gravitation. This letter is to be found in the 
life of our author by Dr. Birch. In 1680, Mr. .Boyle pub- 
lished, 25. ^' The Atrial Noctiluca ; or some new phsno- 
mend> and. a process of a factitious self-shining substance,'* 
Sso. 26. ^^ Discourse of things above reason ; inquiring, 
whether a philosopher should admit there are any such V* 
J6S1, 8vo. 27. ^' New experiments and observations made 
upon tlie Icy Noctiluca ; to which is added a chemical pa- 
rados, grounded upon new experiments, making it proba- 
l^le, that chemical principles are transmutable, sa that out 
o£ one of them others may be. produced,*' 1682, 8vo. 28. 
^^ A. continuation of new experiments physico-mechanical^ 
touching the spring and weight of the Air, and their effects/* 
Jp82, 8y6, 

./It was upon the 30th of November 1680, that the royal 
society, as a proof of the just sense of his great worth, 
i^nd of the constant and particular services which through a 
course of many years he had done them, made choice of 
him for their president ; but he being extremely, and, as he 
^ys, peculiarly tender in point of oaths, declined the ho- 
notir dope him, by a letter addressed to his much respected 
frjiend Mi** flobert Hooke, professor of mathematics at 
Gresham college, About tfeis time. Dr. Burnet being em- 
ployed iu compiling his admirable History of the Reforma- 
tion, Mr. Boyle contributed very largely to the expence of 
- publishing it ; as is acknowledged by the doctor in his pre** 
face to the second volume. It was probably about the be- 
ginning of the year 1681, that he wa3 engaged in promot^ 

94e S O r L e. 

ing tbepff^ohftrg Md jlropagsKtiiigf of Ib^ gofpei srnmng tfi^ 
InHdialis ; tiMs^ the letc^, whiiih he wi'ot^ ttpoit that ^ab- 
ject, wasi in answer to tme ftbm Mf. i^n Elfiot of Ne# - 
England^ dat^d Nar« 4^ leSO/ Tt»$ letlet of Mr. Boyf^ 
is preserted by bid bistOriaif ; an<d it »He#9f^ thatt lie had a 
great dislike to persecoiio^ 6^ip account of opink>n9 itt reh- 
gion. He published in tdS9^ nothing btK a short letter to 
Dr. Beal^. in rektioii to thd narking a( ffesh tftiiter out of 
i^k ; but ia 1684 be printed ttr^ ve#y edn^iddti^fe^ t(rbrk$ i 
2&, ^ Af eaioirs for the natural hi«tdry of htrman blobd, es-^ 
pecially the spirit of tbacliqwor/' §v6. SW. " Eii^eriittenta 
and conskfevatiom about Che polity of bodies/^ 9to. 

Mp. Boyle's writings grc^ iww ^o yibrf rmxnttbtis^ that 
Df. Ralph Cndteortb, the celebrate amhor of **T6e Iff- 
telleelanl SysteniV'. ^rote tt^ him in- fifosl pres^irfg terms, to^ 
make an eivtfre eollection of biu^ s^efri[ treatises, and to 
pnblish them together in^ the Latin tortgne ; and ** them/^ 
says b^ .^^ what yon shcitt superadd^ vtiH be^ easily eolfecteci 
and added afterwards. And 1 pray God ednttnui6 your lifer 
tod beaitfaytbaii yo« may stii) eitfieh tbe world with more. 
The writers of hypotheses in na^irai- philosophy will be 
£onfiitin|¥ one anocfaer a long ticne before the world will 
ever agrees if ever it do. Birt your pieces- of natural his- 
tory are: unconfutable^ and wil'l aifei^ tbe 'best; grotmds to 
build hypotheses upon. Ydtk h^e niucb outdone sir Fran- 
cis Ba(i6n ia your nattwal expeyin^^ts ; and yon- hare not 
ifisinuated a;ny things as be iis tibotight to have done, tend* 
iftg to irwrtigiton, but the conCftify.*^ This fetter is dat^d 
October 1 6y 1684. 

In 1685, he ohliged the world with, 31. <* Short me- 
ihoirs fet tbe natural experimental history of miiieral wa-« 
ta*Sy with direttiioivs as to th« several m-ethod^ of trying 
them, inoltfding abundance of new and useful remarks, as( 
well as several curioiis experiments." 32. *^ An essay ott 
tbe great effecfta of even, languid, and unheeded motion ; 
whereunto is aniTex«d an experimental discourse of some' 
hitherto little* regardi^ causes of the salubrity and insalUr 
brity of the «r« and its e^dts;*^ repriirted in i6do, $vo^ 
Nose of his treatises, it is said, were ever received with 
greater or more general applause than this. S3. **Of the 
reconcileableness of specific medrcines to tB6 corpuscular' 
philosophy ; to which is anneseed, a Discfourse about the* 
advantages of the use of simpie nfiedfcrnes,'^ 8vo. Beisitlesc 
these p^losophical l^ractSj he gafve tbe' world likewise, illx^ 

& O T L I. S0 

s^tmejem^ an ^xcelldnt tbedagioa} o&e^ 3#. '^Ofthetfigh 
veaerationr ^man^s intellect owtis to Gadj petwikaxly for bf« 
msdcym and power/* Srd. This if as part of » nifvch iatfgtt 
wotky which he mentiofied in an adveT^iaemeniy txf pr^etit 
SBj exception from beiiig taken at the abrupt manner df ft* 
bej^iming. At the eniranae of the aitceeadtng yeoty estfgkt 
abroad bis^ %i, ^< Free inquiiy into^ tke vnlgaiiy recerml 
BiOiiOD of Natote/' aipiec^ wtmb wad tben^ and vriU dl<- 
ways bey greatly aAaateedl by tboee wbg baveatrtie iS&A umA 
relish for pure retigiett and sound pinlasefltHyw It waa tram^ 
hsb^ into Latin, and reprinted in 1 tcno tne year tifter^ 

1b Jooe 1696^ iii» friend ]>r. Gilbert Burnet^ afi^wareh 
hMKvp o< Salisbtofy^ tsutsflaitted ta bim frMi the Hague the 
teaBRasoripi aeci)vn>& of bis ttatekv vhieb be bad drawrt v^ 
m the form ei letters^ addraaied tar Mr. Boyk^: ttbo, id 
kk answer to the docter, dated the 14itbef thea mMtib, ex* 
(yreapta fats sattsfaetien in >' finding, dael sAl v^vn do not 
travret^ as avost do^ to ebsenre bmlidini^ aaA gardeiwy aird 
Biod^, and <Aher amusememst of a snpeffkiit)^ 9ad aluvo^ 
msigwMcmm oorimity ; lea yoot jradreima t eiaarka and rth 
flectioBis^ nyt he, may aet a litde impota bath a statea^ 
in»ai, a crkic,. and a diviaie^ as wcit as ttsey w^A malee th4 
writer paos W aUi three/' In I6«t, Mr. Beyle pobKehed^ 
^^ ^^Tfae martyrdom of Theodoita ^d Dydiriiia^" Sim; S 
#ork be bad drawa wp in. hii yootk 37v ^*Jk dtsqnirtiiott 
aboiit the final Muses of iiaituraL tbiaga ; wfaerevo it is &i^ 
^iredv whetbcf, and, if at all, witb whatt caution, a mtm^ 
Telm sbawld admit tbem..'^ Wiih<%a appeiidiity about n* 
tHfatedH^y 1688,. »vo. 

in the month of May thist year, our autbor^ though vifty 
imwiHxa^,. waa constrained te^ mabe hh eoia|]iiaint to tfa^ 

CfbkrCi oS sK>]lie ineeiwewieaees aoder whick be had }er»g 
bour4Rl 9 and tbi» be did by ^ aiv ad«^ ttiteitr^yt abeutt Ami 
ktta etf QMiay of bta writiaga addressed to J. W. to be cetn*^ 
Itufiin^aited to tlioie of fcie friendb tbat are nrtuotfi ^ ^bkil 
Hay serve aa a bind of a pvefaee te rnest of hn motiliated 
and unfinished writings."' He complabia in this advertise*' 
tfi^iat ei tbe ttMtaleM he taet ^t^ith fwrli^ th« p^iaries, 
baidi tit home! and abroad ; aifd diougb it migbt hate beett 
difficult ii» any otber maa to hzpe do^te so, trrthoar iac<ir^ 
j0*g tba iaipaeaeieti el stitf^e^n*^ and vanity, yet Mf# 
TiefM^^ abMMWtt m socta^ aa ei4y to raise in us an h«gfhef 
€ fm mit end iMJhnivatiea ei? hiM*. Tl^isr 8dtertiMit«ne it itt^ 
anriMid «t bMpfch i^ hk IMb. 

848 BOYLE. 

He now began to find that bis health and strength, not^ 
mthstanding all his care and caution, gradually declined^ 
as be observes in a letter to M. le Clerc, dated May 30, 
1689 ; which put him upon using every possible method of 
ihusbanding bis remaining time for the benefit of the 
learned. Jn doing this, as a certain writer says, he pre- 
ferred generals to particulars; and the assistance of the 
whole republic of letters to that of any branch,' by what 
l&es soever he might be connected therewith. It was with 
this view, that be no longer communicated particular dis^ 
courses or new discoveries to the royal society ; because 
this could not be done, without withdrawing bis thoughts 
from tasks which he thought of still greater importaaq^. 
It was the more steadily to attend to these, that be resigned 
bis post of governor of the corporation for propagating the 
gospel in New England ; nay, be went so far as to signi^ 
to the world, that he could no longer receive visits as usual^ 
in ah advertisement,. which begins in the following mann<sr. 
^f Mr. Boyle finds himself obliged to intimate to those of hfs 
friend3 and acquaintance, that are wont to do him the ho^ 
bour and favour of visiting him,. 1. That he has by somp 
tinlucky accidents, namely, by his servant's breaking a bptr 
tie of oil of vitriol over a chest which contained bis 
papers, had many 6f his writings corroded here an^ 
there, or otherwise so maimed, that without be himself fill 
up the lacun® out of bis memory or invention, they will not 
^e intelligible. 2. That his age and sickliness have for a 
good vvhile admonished him to put his scattered, and partly 
defaced, writings into some kind of order, that they may 
|iot remairi quite useless. And^ 3. That his skilful and 
friendly physician, sir Edmund King, seconded by. Mr. 
Boyle^s best friends, has ^plressingly advised him. against 
Speaking daily with so many persons as are wont to Visit 
bim, representing it as what cantiot but much waste bis spi- 
rits/' &c. He ordered likewise a board to be placed pver 
his door, with an inscription signifying when be did wa 
did not receive visits. 

Among the. other great works, which by this means he 
gained time to finish, ther^ is reason to believe, that on^ 
was a collection of elaborate processes in cheppistry ; con* 
periling wjiich he wrote a letter to a friend, which i^ still 
extant ; but the piece itself was never published» though 
we read in the letter^ <.< that be left it as d kind of hermetio- 
legacy to the studious disciples of that aru'^ Se^id^s thes«: 

B Y L 8. 34J 

papers, committed to the care of oae whom he esteemed 
his friend, hie left also very many behind him at the timci 
"of his death, relating to chemistry*; \^hich, as appears by a 
letter directed to one of his executors, he desired might 
l>e inspected by three physicians whom he named, and that 
some of the most valuable might be preserved. •* Indeed,'* 
says the writer of his life, " it is highly reasonable to sup- 
pose, that many important discoveries were contained in 
them ; chemistry being his favourite study, and opening 
to him perpetually such a new scene of wonders, as easily 
persuaded him of the possibility of transmuting metals into 
gold. This persuasion of his is evident from several parts 
of his writings, and was avowed by himself to the gVeat Dr. 
Halley, the late royal astronomer, who related to me his 
'conversation with him upon that su\>ject. And it was pro** 
%ably in consequence of this opinion, that he took so much 
pains to procure, as he did ih August 1689, an act for the 
Tfepeal of a statute mad^in the fifth year of kittg Henry IV, 
against the multiplying of gold and silver.*' 

In the mean time Mr. Boyle published some other works 
lefore his death; as, 38. " Medicina Hydrostatica : or, 
'Hydrostatics applied to the materia medico, shewing how^ 
fey the weight that divers bodied used in physic have in wa- 
ter, one may discover whether they be genuine or adulte-* 
Yate, To which is subjoined a previous hydrostatical wajr , 
'iof estimating ores,*' 1690, 8vo. He informs us^ in the 
postscript of this treatise, that he had prepared inateriarB 
for a second volume, which he intended to publish ; but it 
iiever appeared. 89. "The Chrfs^lin virtuoso.; shewing 
ihat, by being addicted to experii^ental philosophy, a man 
Ik rather assisted than indisposed to be a good Christian.^ 
"^he first part. To which are subjoined, 1.^ A discourse 
iibout the distinction that represents some things as above 
Vi^ason, but not contrary to reason. 2. The first chapter 
of a discourse, intituled. Greatness of mind promoted hf 
^Christianity, 1690, 8va In the advertisement prefixed tp 
this work, he mentions a second part of the Christian vii> 
tuoso; which, however, he did noc live to finish. But. the 
papers he left behind him for that purpose are printed, im- 
perfect as they ^re, in the edition of his collected workl. 
^He last work^ which he published iiimself, wais in the sprine 
'iof 1691; and is intituled, 40. " Experiirienta & observa- 
tiones pJiysigsB ; wherein are briefly treated of, sieyeral sub- 
jects relating to natural philosophy in "an experimental way^ 

9t9 B r L f. 

To iirbte& » ftddedj n Amajil coll^Qtio^ of ^trimge ra^ 
porta," 6yo. 

About the entranpe of ihe yum^er, be b^f n t^ feel ^ufsji 
M aU^ration in bis beaith, as induced bim to think of 3^^ 
iHog bis s^fiatirs; sp-nd ajccordingly, on the 18tb of July, hf 
sigiied find sealed bis l^st will, to wbicb be ^fterw^rds added 
several codicils. In Oetober his distempers increased/ 
wbicb might perhaps b^ Qwing to bi$ tender concern for tb^ 
tedious illness 6f bis dear sister the lady R^eb|gb> wijKb 
vbom be bad lived n)any years in the greatest barntony 
tad. fi*iend$hip9 and whose indisposilion bfrougbt ber to tb^ 
grave on the 23d of December fo{Ipnrii>g. He did not sfurr 
yive her above a we^k ; for, pa the 00th of I>eceBQ;bmr 
169 if be departed tbif» life in the $5th year of his age. 
- He vras bnri^d in St- ftiartiji's church in 1^ Field^t Westf 
muf/ketf on, |:be 7th of Januarys fpllowiog : and bi» funergj 
sermon wds preached by bit fjriefid Dr- filbert Burnet, bir 
shop of Sali^bul'y* The bishop Piiade pboice ispoo this ogt^ 
casion of a' text very^ite to bis 3abjept, ntmi^Wg 
^^ For God givetb to a man, that is good in bis sight, wiS;' 
^om, knowledge, and joy.'* Eccles, xi. 26. Aft§r eni 
plaining the meaning of the words^ he applies the dectriii^ 
to the bonnurable , person dei^eased ; <?f whooi^ he telU, yg^, 
h$ wao the better abk to giye a character, fpomi the ma^y 
bappy b^urs be bad spent i^ conversation yrith himi in the 
©emrae gf ninfj-aiid-t«i^nty years, Pe gives a large ap^ 
WWt «rf Mr. Boyle's sirice^^ and ]ai^|i^ete4 piety, and 
wore e^psecMiMy of bis seal for the Christian reiigiot), witbr 
•tout -Imying any narrpw options ^oneerBing i% or inistaking^ 
lis sp jnAoy do^ a bigoted b^at in favour of a particular sect, 
fppibat 2eal wbicb i$ the f^rnameii^ iof a trae Cbristjati. He 
meniiiina^^^s a proof of 4ii^, bi^ noW^ foun^fttion ff>r lee* 
Dare^ in defeope of the gc^el ftga^n^t infid^ ^f all sortii ; 
Ifae effects of wbiph bav^ been W CQn^picuQnp in the many 
foluMVieA of i^xpeiknt diseot^s^ wb^^b have been published 
m conaequeiiee el tWt nobh wd pipus foyndation *• Hw 

^ * T^ve design of th/tap lecture^, as within tl^ )}\\\9 of ayprtality, jt^ ^ 

expressed by the rounjer, is, to prov^ elected for a terni not evceeding three 

the truth of thd Cbn«tiap veligioii years, Ibytbe lata arehbishop Tenlsoq^ 

fsgf^in^t jnQd«l)i, JPfHjWut 4es€«i?d»g to ^n4 f th^. ^ut ibs jhp^ t^r^vinf |*fpr 

gny cont/Qv^rf if!^ amoiw Christians > carious, the ssUary was ill pani 3 to ivr 

and tbanswernewdi^cunies, scruples, medy wliieh incoDt[emeii^e» fhe said 

Swr For ttia support of tbi$ loctin-e, arcllwliop pipcnrej s ye^ity 

^^ iL^stguad tbu vei^t ^f bjs fiQiise i^, 9f ^0 ponndSt for .eyer. to b^ pa^ 

Crooked-lane to some learned Civipd qpiirterly ; chirg^ ou n furm in th# 


i»Ay sap . our pffdate, desigo^d k in bi» life-tinier diougk 
some accidents did, upon great considerations, divert him 
from settling it ; but not from ordering by bis last will, that 
« liberal pr<yirision should be laade for one who ^lould, in a 
very few well«>digested sermons, every year set forth tfaf 
truth of the Cluistian religion in geaer^lf without descend'- 
, ing to the aubdivisions among Christians. He was at the 
diarge of the translation and impression of the New Testa- 
ment into the Malayan tongue, which he sent oa^er ail the. 
£aat Indies. He. gave ^ noble reward to him. that translated 
Crotius's incomparable book of the truth of the Chriatiaa 
.religion into Arabic : and was ^t the charge of* whole ioi'- 
.preasion, which he took care should be dispersed in all the 
countries where that language is understood. He was re** 
^solved to have carried on the impnesakm of the New Testar 
ment in the Turkish language ; but the coaipany tfaoaght 
it became them to be the 4ic^ers of it, and so suiiei1»d him 
only to give a large share towards it. He was at 700( 
cjiarge in the edition of the Irish Bible, which he cindered 
tQ be distributed in (reland : and he contribu^d liberally, 
iMDth to the impression of the Welsh Bible, and of the frish 
^ible Sot gcodandr He gave^ during his life, $QOL«» 
vance thedesigpof propagatii^ the Christian rehgion in Ame^ 
rica^ and, as soon ^ be heard that tfae^ East Iildia com<* 
pany were emertaining propositions for the like, design in 
the East, he presently sent a hundred pounds for a fa^in^ 
ning, as an example ; nut intended to carcy it much farther 
when it should be set on foot to purpose. When he under ;« 
^tood bow large a ahare he had ua impvopriaiions, b^ or^ 
dered consid^psble »fuiia to be given to the iaaumbeaAs in 
tl^ae parishes, and evep to the widowjs of those wba were 
dead before this distribution of hia bounty. He did thia 
twice in hisNlife^time, to the am^Mint of above ^<002. andx)c« 
dered another distnbution, as far as his estate would beat^ 
by his wiU. In . other . vespeots. his ebarkies were so hpunri 

tifui and ext^ipfiiiie^ that they aooounted, as this prelate teUa 

« * , ■ 

o^fisll of BriU, p i\^ CQ^ty pf Bucl^ft. ^r9 ^V(f been prlqted and publi§h$4 i(^ 

Tb' tbis appoiptment W^ ar^ hidebted distinct volomes. An abfidgemept or 

4&r n^onf elaborate dcf^pc^a bot)i of na« these lectures in 4 rols. S9o. vas pabi 

tfivat fiod revfia.1e4 religion. X collec- limbed bir tb# rev. Mr. Gilbert BufneU 

tion of these seripons ^rpm the year vicarofCo^^eshali, in Essex, who diiea 

ten to 1739, was' printed in 1739, in 1746 ; and a complete list of ali tb* 

i||ri4er tbe title of *♦, A defenpe of nat.«i- prr^^Jtens ^iqce il)# fpnpfl^tiQp tft t|i|^ 

iSfl »n4 levealed religion;." jn 3 viyU, present tipip may b^ seen in Nioh9k'% 

fol.; and those pf nevaral ^f the prea6h-' Ut^ ,of B<>wyer, voL V I. p. 453r^45^. 

852 BOYLE. 

US, from his dwn knowledge^ to upwards of 1000/. pG^ 
annum. « 

But that part of his discourse which concerns us mosf^ 
is^ the copious and eloquent aocount he has given of this 
great man's abilities^ ** His knowledge," says he, ** was 
of so vast an extent, that if it were not for the variety of 
vouchers in their several sorts^ I should be afraid to say^ 
all I know. He carried the study of the Hebrew very far 
into the rabbinical writings, and the other briental tongues. 
He had read so much of the fathers^ that he had fonned ft 
clear judgment of all the eminent ones. He had read a 
vast deal on the scriptures, had gone very nicely through- 
the various controversies in reUgion, and was a true knaster 
of the wh6le body of divinity. He read the whole com-* 
pass of the mathematical sciences ; and, though he did nof 
set himself to spring any new game, yet he knew the ab-^ ^ 
fitrusest parts of geometry. Geography^ in the several 
parts of it that related to navigation or travelling ; history 
and books of novels, were his diversions. He went very 
nicely through all the parts of physic ; only the tenderness 
of his nature made him less able to endure the exactness 
of anatomical dissections^ especially of living animals^ 
though, he knew, these to be mo^t instructing. But for the 
faistdi'y of nature, ancient and modern, pf the productions 
of all countries, of the virtues and improvements of pUnts, 
of ores, and minerals, and all the varieties that are in then» 
in different climates, he was by. much, by very much^ the 
readiest and the perfectest I ever knew, in the greatest 
compass, and with the nicest exactness. This put him in 
the way of making all that vast variety of experiments be*' 
yond any man, as far as we know, that ever lived. And 
in these, as he made a great progress in new discoveries 
so he iised so nice a strictness, and delivered them with so 
serupulons a truth, that all who have examined them have 
found how safely the world may depend upon them. But 
his peculiar and favourite study was chemistry, in which he 
was engaged with none of those ravenous and ambitious 
designs that drew many into it. His design was only ta 
find out nature, to see into what principles things might 
be resolved, and of what they were compounded^ and to 
prepare good medicaments for the bodies of men. He 
spent neither his time nor fortune upon the vain pursuits 
of high promises and pretensions. He always kept himself 
within the compass that his estate might well bear y and^ 

BOYLE. s« 

Hii^'lie made dueinistry Tnuch the better for his dealing in it, 
so he nevel* made himself either worse or the poorer for iu 
It was a charity to athers, as well as an entertainment to 
himself; for the produce of it was distributed by his sister 
«ad others, into whose hands he put it.^' To thiseulogium 
of the bijdiop, we will only add that of the celebrated phy- 
sietan^ philosopher, and chemist, Dr. Herman Boerhaave ; 
who^ after baling declared lord Bacon to be, the father of 
€i&perimeQt^ philosophy, asserts, that *^ Mr. Boyle, the 
oraame^l of his age and country, succeeded to the genius 
avd ^enquiries, »of the great-chancellor Verulam. Whichi'V 
snys he, ^^ of all;^Mr. Boyle's writings shall I recommend ? 
AlLofi'themi To him we owe the secrets of fire, air, water, 
ammalsy vegetables,, fossils : so that from his works may be 
dedui&ed .4he ,whole system of natural knowledge." The 
render^ perhaps i^collects, that Mr. Boyle, was born the 
stoc/ year ill; which, lord Bacon died* . ^^ Sol oceubuit, 
mK nulla seciita est.'? 

'^ As to Ae person of 4bhis ^reat man, , we are told that he^ 
PUi8''taU,t but slender; and. his countenance pale and ema^^ 
4d»ted«. His constitution was so tender and delicate, that 
b^ had divers sorts of tloaks to put on when he went abroad, 
aooording tn theiteonperatuire^^of the air; ; and in this he go»* 
ipvurnied himself by his Iberaiometeri^ He escaped indeed 
tbaisoiallrpox ducing his life; but. for almost forty years he 
l;sb9ilred under such a feebleness of body, and such lowr 
neiter of alren^hand spirits, that it was astonishing how he. 
could ff^d,!: meditate, make experiments, and write as be 
did. i> ' Ha had'likewise a weakness in his eyes, which raade^ 
Ittfntvarjrtendfr of thesn, and extremely apprehensive ^ 
^teb dissemperS' as -might aiFect ihem. He imagined also,^ 
that ;if'«8i€hiia8St should epnfi^e-hiin to his bed, it might 
nuboitbe pains of the stone to a degree which might be; 
above his. stnesgth to support; so that he feared lest his 
last'^'minutea should be too hard for him. This was the 
gwiiiAd'0§ all the caution and apprehension with which he 
mas obsiSFved to Uven but as to life itself, he-had that just 
indifference- for' it, which became a philosopher and a 
GiiHstiaB; ^However, his sight began to grow. dim, not 
alM>ve.£our hours before he died ; and, when death came 
\xpbki him^ it was. with so little pain,^ that the flame ap* 
peared'tp go out merely for want of oil to maintainit. The 
rdader:may wonder that Mr. Boyle was never mude a peer^ 
e^lpecsii^Iy when it is. remembered^ t^at^ hia four elder biso** 

Vol. VI. A a 

354 B O Y L £. 

thers were all peers. A peerage was, however, often offered 
him, and as often refused by him. It is easy to iqaagine, 
that he might have had any thing he should express an in- 
clination for. He was always a favourite at court : and 
king Charles II. James II. and king William, were so 
highly pleased with his conversation, that they often used 
to discourse with him in the most familiar manner. Not 
that Mr. Boyle was at any time a courtier ; he spake freely 
of the government, even in times which he disliked, and 
upon occasions when he was obliged to condemn it ; but 
then he always did it, as indeed he did every thing of that 
nature, with an exactness of respect. 

Mr. Boyle was never married : but Mr. Evelyn was as- 
sured, that he once courted the beautiful and ingenious 
daughter of Gary, earl of Monmouth ; and that to this pas- 
sion was owing his Seraphick Love. In the memorandum 
of Mr. Boyle's life, set down by bishop Burnet, it is re- 
marked, that he abstained from marriage, at first out of 
policy, afterwards more philosophically 5 and we find, by 
a letter of Dr. John Wallis to him, dated at Oxford, Julj 
17, 1669, that he had an overture made him with respect 
to the lady Mary Hastings, sister to the earl of Hunting- 
don. But it does not appear from any of his papers, that 
he had ever entertained the least thoughts of that kind ; 
nay, there is a letter of his, written when he was young to 
the lady Barrymore his niece, who had informed him of a. 
report that he was actually married, which almost shews 
that he never did. The letter is written with great polite- 
ness, and in the true spirit of gallantry ; and is a clear 
proof, that though Mr. Boyle did not choose to marry, yet 
it was no misanthropic cynical humour which restrained 
'him from it. It is impossible to entertain the reader better, 
than by presenting him with that part of it which concerns 
the point in question. — " It is high time for me to hastea 
the payment of the thanks I owe your ladyship for the joy 
you are pleased to wish me, and of which that wish possi- 
bly gives me more than the occasion of it would. You 
•have certainly reason, madam, to suspend your belief of a 
carriage, celebrated by no priest but fame, and made un- 
>known to the supposed bridegroom. I may possibly erm 
long give you a fit of the spleen upon this theme ; but at 
present it were incongruous to blend such pure raillery, as 
I ever prate of matrimony and amours with, among thingt 
i am 00 serious in, as those this scribble presents you. jl 

BOYLE. 355 

shall therefore only tell you, that the little gentleman and 
1 are still at the old defiance. You have carried away.too 
many of the perfections of your sex, to leave enough in 
this country for the reducing so stubborn a heart as mine ; 
whose conquest were a task of so much difficulty, and is so 
little worth it, that the latter property is always likely to 
deter any, that hath beauty and merit enough to overcome 
the former. But though this untamed heart be thus insen- 
sible to the thing itself called love, it is yet very accessible to 
things very near of kin to that passion ; and esteem, friend- 
ship, respect, and even admiration, are things that their 
proper objects fail not proportionably to exact of me, and 
consequently are qualities, which, in their highest degrees, 
are really and constantly paid my lady Barry more by her 
most obliged humble servant, and affectionate uncle, 

" Robert Boyle.'* 
Mr. Boyle's posthumous works are as follow : 1. " The 
general history of the Air designed and begun,'* 1692, 4to. 
Concerning the nature and value of this work, we have 
the testimonies of two of the most ingenious and able men 
of that age, Mr. Locke and Mr. Molineux. Mr. Locke, in 
a letter to Mr. Molineux, dated December. 2 6, 1692, ob- 
serves, that, though this treatise was left imperfect, " yet 
I think," says he, " the very design of it will please you ; 
and it is cast into a method, that any one who pleases may 
add to it under any of the several titles, as hi^ reason and 
observation shall furnish him with matter of fact. If such 
men as you are, curious and knowing, would join to what 
Mr. Boyle had collected and prepared, what comes in 
their way, we might hope in some time to have a consider- 
able history of the air, than which I scarce know any part 
of natural philosophy would yield more variety and use* 
But it is a subject too large for the attempts of any one 
man, and will require the assistance of many hands, to 
make it an history very short of complete." To which Mr, 
Molineux answered : " I am extremely obliged tp you for 
•Mr. Boyle's book of the air, which lately came to my hands. 
It is a vast design, and not to be finished but by the united 
labours of many heads, and indefatigably. prosecuted for 
many years ; so that I despair pf seeing, any thing com- 
plete therein. However, if m^ny will lend the same help- 
ing hands that you have dpne, I should b,e in hopes; and 
certainly there is not a chapter ip all natural philosophy of 
.greater use to jn^nkiiid than what is here proposed." 

A A i 

356 B O Y L fi- 

ll. " General heads for the natural history of a^ country^ 
great or small ; drawn ont for tbe use of travellers and na- 
vigators. To which a^-e added, other directions for iiavi- 
gators, &c. with particular observations on the most noted 
countries in the world. By another hand." 1692, l;<2mo. 
TTiese general heads were first printed in the Philosophical 
Transactions, being drawn up by Mr. Boyle, at the request 
of the royal society. The other directions added in this 
edition were drav\n up by various persons at divers times, 
by order of the royal society, and printed in different 
numbers of the Philosophical Transactions ; but, being in 
pursuance of the plan sketched out by Mr. Boyle, were 
very properly annexed to the preceding ones. 3. A paper 
of the honourable Robert Boyle's, deposited with the se- 
cretaries of the royal society, October 14, 1680, and 
opened since his death ; being an account of his making 
the phosphorus, l^ept. 30, 1680; printed in the Piiiloso- 
phical Transactions. 4. An account of a way of exanjin- 
ing waters, as to freshness or saltness. To be subjoined 
as an appendix to a lately printed letter about sweetened 

''water, Oct. 30, 1683; printed in the Philosophical Trans- 
actions. 5. " A free discourse against customafy swear- 
ing, and a dissuasive from cursing," 1695, 8vo. 6. "Me- 
dicinal experiments : or, a collection of choice remedies, 
chiefly simple, and easily prepared, useful in families, and 
fit for the service of the country people. . The third and 
last volume, published from the author's original manu- 
script ; whereunto are added several useful notes, explica- 
tory of the same,'* 1698, 12mo. The first edition of this 
book was printed in 1688, under the title of Receipts sent 
to a friend in America : in 1692, it was reprinted with the 
addition of a second part, and anew preface ; and in 1698, 
as we now observe, was added the third and last volume. 
They have, been all several times reprinted since in a single 
volume, and justly accounted the best collection of the 

These posthumous works, joined to those before men- 
tioned, together with 'many pieces in the Philosophical 
Transactions, which we bad not room to be particular 

^abont, were all printed in one collection, at London, in 
5 volumes folio, and 6 volumes 4to. Dr. Shaw also pub- 
lished in 3 volumes 4tO) the same works *^ abridged, me- 
thodized, and disposed under the general heads of Physics, 
Statics, Pneumatics, Natural History, Chymistry, and Me- 

BOYLE. 357 

dicine ;^' to which he has prefixed a short catalogue of the 
philosophical writings^ according to the order of time when 
ihey were first published, &c.* 

BOYLE (Charles), earl of Orrery, second son of 
Roger second earl or Orrery, by lady Mary Sackviile^ 
dauoriiter to ilichard earl of Dorset and Middlesex, was 
boru in August 1676, at his father's house in Chelsea; 
and at fifteen entered a nobleman of Christ-church, in 
Oxford, under the care of Dr. Francis Atterbury, after- 
wards bibhop ol" Rochester, and Dr. Freind. Dr. Aldrich, 
the head of that society, observing his uncommon appli- 
cation, drew up for his use that compendium of logic 
whirh is now read at Christ-church, wherein he styles him 
^* the great ornament ol our college." Having quitted the 
university, be was in 1700 chosen member for the town of 
Huntington. A petition being presented to the house of 
commons, complaniing of the illegality of his election, he 
spoke in support of that election with great warmth ; and 
this probably gave rise to his duel with Mr. Wortley, the 
other candidate, in which, though Mr. Boyle had the ad« 
vantage, the wounds he recei\ed threw him into a dan- 
gerous fit of sickness that lasted for many months. On the 
death of his elder brother, he became fourth earl of Orrery : 
soon after, he had a regiment given him, and was elected 
a knight of the Thistle. In 1706 he married lady Eliza- 
beth Cecil, daughter to the earl of Exeter. In 1709 he 
was promoted to the rank of major-general, and sworn of 
her majesty's privy council. He was envoy extraordinary 
from the queen to the states of Flanders and Brabant, with 
an appointoient of ten pounds a day, at a very critical 
juncture, namely, during the treaty of Utrecht. There, 
some in autnority at Brussels, knowing they were soon to be- 
come the emperor's subjects, and that bis imperial majesty 
was not on good terms with the queen, shewed less respect to 
her minister toan they bad formerly done : upon which| 
Orrery, who consiaered their behaviour as an indignity to 
the crown of Great Britain, managed with so much feso- 
lution and dexterity, that, when they thought his power 
was declining, or mther that he had no power at all, he 
got every one of them turned out of his post. Her n^a- 
jesty, in the tenth year of her reign, raised him to the 
dignity of a British peer^ under the title of lord Boyle, 

1 Birch's Life.— Biog. Brit. 



baron of Marston, in Somersetshire. On the accession of 
king George I. he was made a lord of the bedcbamber, 
and lord -lieutenant £ind custos rotulorum of the county 
of Somerset. His frequent voting against the ministers 
gave rise to a report that he was to be removed from all 
his posts ; upon which he absented himself from the court : 
but his friends assuring him that they had ground to be- 
lieve the king h^d a personal esteem for him, he wrote a 
letter to his majesty, signifying that though he looked 
upon his service as a high honour, yet, when he first en- 
tered into it, he did not conceive it was expected from 
him that he should, vote against his conscience and his 
judgment; that he must confess it was his misfortune to 
differ widely in opinion from some of his majesty's mi- 
nisters ; that if those gentlemen had represented this to 
his majesty as a crime not to be forgiven, and his majesty 
himself thought so, he was ready to resign those posts he 
enjoyed, frpm which he found he was already removed by 
a common report, which was rather encouraged than con- 
tradicted by the ministers. The king going soon after to 
Hanover, lord Orrery's regiment was taken from him ; 
which his lordship looking upon as a mark of displeasure^ 
resigned his post of lord of the bedchamber. 

On the 28th of September 1722, he was committed 
close prisoner to the Tower, by warrant of a committee of 
the lords of the privy council, upon suspicion of high 
treason, and of being concerned in Layer's plot. His 
confinement brought on such a dangerous fit of sickness, 
that, as Dr. Mead remonstrated to the council, unless he 
was immediately set at liberty, he would not answer fot 
his life twenty-four hours : upon which, after six months 
imprisonment, he was admitted to bail. Upon the strictest 
inquiry, no sufficient ground for a prosecution being 
found, he was, after passing through the usual forms, ab- 
solutely discharged. After this he constantly attended in 
his place in the house of peers, as he had done before, and 
though he never spoke in that assembly, his pen was fre- 
quently employed to draw up the protests entered in its 
journals. He died after a short indisposition, on the 21st 
of August, 1731. He had a g6od relish for the writingSj 
of the ancients, and gave sonie productions of his own. 

Lord Orford, in enumerating his works, attributes to him 
a translation of the life of Lysander from Plutarch, which 
he says is published in the English edition of that author \ 


bat the life of Lysander in that edition is given to one 
leoian, a Cambridge man. His first appearance as an 
author, was when Dr. Aldrich, dean of Christ-church, 
finding him to be a good Grecian, put him upon publishing 
a new edition of the epistles of Phalaris, which appeared 
in the beginning of 1695, under the title of " Phalaridis 
Agrigentinorum tyranni epistolae. Ex MSS. recensuit, 
versione, annotationibus, & vita insuper auctoris donavit 
Car. Boyle, ex aede Christi, Oxon," 8vo. In this edition 
he was supposed to have been assisted by Aldrich and At- 
terbury. The authenticity of these epistles being called 
in question by Dr. Bentley, Mr. Boyle wrote an answer, 
entitled " Dr. Bentley's Dissertation on the epistles of Pha- 
laris examined.'' In laying the design of this work, in re- 
viewing a good part of the rest, in transcribing the whole, 
and attending the press, half a year of Atterbury's life 
was employed, as he declares in his " Epistolary Cojrespon- 
dence," 1783, vol. II. p. 22,* His lordship wrote a comedy, 
called " As you find it," printed in the second volume of 
the works of Roger earl of Orrery. He was also author 
of a copy of verses to Dr. Garth, upon his Dispensary, and 
of a prologue to Mr. Southerne's play, called " The Siege 
of Capua.'* 

The instrument called the Orrery obtained his name 
from the following circumstance : Rowley, a mathematical 
instrument-maker, having got one from Mr. George Gra- 
ham, the original inventor, to be sent abroad with some 
of his own instruments, be copied it, and made the first 
for the earl of Orrery ; sir Richard Steele, who knew no- 
thing of Mr. Graham's machine, thinking to do justice to 
the tirst encourager, as well as to the inventor of such a 
curious instrument, called it an Orrery, and gave Rowley 
the praise due to Mr. Graham. ' 

BOYLE (John), earl of Cork and Orrery, a nobleman 
who added fresh lustre to his name and family, was the 

' * See Bevtley, and Atterdury. wrote the body of the criticisms ; and 
Pope gave VVarburton the following that Dr. King of the Commoas wrote 
account of this celebrated composition ^ the droll argument to prove Dr. Bent- 
lie said, " that Boyle wrote only the ley was not th^ author of the Disserta^* 
narrative of what passed between him tioQ on Phalaris, and the Index. And 
and the bookseller, which too was cor- a powerful cabal gave it a surprising 
rected for him ; that Freind, the mas- run.*' 
ier of Westminster, and Atterbury, * Warburton's Letters, Bvo. p. 1 1 . 

» Biog. Brit.—Ath. Ox. vol. II.— Swift's Works.— Life by Budgell.— Nichols's 
P«ems, voK IV.-^Nichols's Atterbury. — Park'$ Royal and Noble Autbon« 

860 BOYLE. 

only son and heir of Charles, the fourth earl of Orrery (ihe 
subject of the preceding article), by the lady Elizabeth 
Cecil, daughter of John earl of Exeter. He was born on 
the 2d of January, 1706-7, and put early under the tuition 
of Mr. Fenton, the author of Mariamne, and one of the 
coadjutors of Mr. jpope in the translation of the Odyssey, 
by whom he was insh'ucted in English ; and carried through 
the Latin tongue from the age of seven to thirteen. Be- 
tween this amiable - poet and bis noble pupil a constant 
friendship subtiisted ; and his lordship always spoke of him 
after his decease, and often with tears, as *^ one of the 
worthiest and modestest men that ever adorned the court 
of Apollo.'* After passing through Westminster school, 
lord Boyle was admitted as a nobleman at Christ-church, 
Oxford, of which college, as we have already seen, hia 
father bad been a distinguished ornament. One of his 
first poetical essays was an answer to some verses by Mrs. 
Rowe, on an unsuccessful attempt to draw his picture. 

When the earl of Orrery was committed prisoner to the 
Tower on account of Layer's plot, such, was the filial pifety 
of his- son, that he earnestly entreated to be shut up with 
his noble father ^ but this indulgence was thought too con* 
siderable to be granted. Not long after he had completed 
the twenty-first year of his age, he married,, on the 9th 
of May 17.28, lady Harriet Hamilton, the third and 
youngest daughter of George e^rl of Orkney. Though 
this marriage had the entire, approbation of lord Orrery, 
it unfortunately happened that a dissension arose between 
the two earls, which placed the young couple in a very 
delicate and difficult situation ; but lord Boyle maintained 
at the same time the tenderest affection for his wife, and 
the highest attachment to his father. The earl of Orrery, 
however, was too much irritated by the family quarrel, to 
see at first his son's conduct in a proper point ot light, al- 
though his excellent understanding could not fail in the 
end to get the better of his prejudices, when a reconciliar 
tion tov)k place, and the little coldness which had subsisted 
between them served but the more to endear them to each 
Other*. The earl of Orrery was now so niuch pleased 
with lord Boyle, that he could scarcely be easy without 

* In the addenda to the Biog. Brit, at table with his father's mistress. If 

ve are told that the dissensions between this be true, it must greatly dimioish 

the earl and his son originated in the his lojrdship/s character. 
Utter refusing to suffer bis wife to sit 

BOYLE. .361 

liim ; and when in town, they were seldom asunder. It 
is to be lamented, that this happiness was rendered very 
transient by the unexpected death of lord Orrery ; and 
that the stroke was embittered by a circumstance pecu- 
liarly painful and affecting to his noble son and successor. 
The father, whilst under the impression of his dissension 
with the earl of Orkney, had made a will, by which he 
had bequeathed to Christ-church, Oxford, his valuable 
library, consistiug of above ten thousand volumes, toge- 
ther with a very fine collection of mathematical instru- 
ments. The only exceptions in fovour of lord Boyle were 
the Journals of the House of Peers, and such books as 
related to the English history and constitution. The earl 
of Orrery left, besides, though he was greatly in debt, 
several considerable legacies to persons nowise related ta 
him. Upon his reconciliation with his son, he determined 
to alter his will, and had even sent for his lawyer with that 
view, when the suddenness of his decease prevented the 
execution^f his just and reasonable design. The young 
lord Orrery, with a true filial piety and generosity, in- 
stead of suffering his fieither's effects to be sold, took his 
debts upon himself, and fulfilled the bequests, by paying . 
the legacies, and sending the books and mathematical in- 
struments within the limited time to Christ-church. The 
loss, however, of a parent, thus aggravated and embittered, 
left a deep impression upon his mind, and was succeeded 
by a fit of illness which endangered his life, and obliged 
him to repair to Bath. Whilst he was in that city, he re- 
ceived a letter from a friend, with a copy of verses in- 
closed, exhorting him to dispel his grief by poetry, and ' 
to shew that Bath could inspire, as well as Tunbridge ; 
from which place he had written some humorous verses 
the year before. To this letter his lordship returned the' 
following answer : 

*' Nor Bath, nor Tunhridge, can my lays inspu^e^ 
Nor radiant beauty make me strike the lyre: 
Far from the busy crowd 1 sit forlorn. 
And sigh in secret, and in silence mourn : 
Nor of my anguish ever find an end ; 
I weep a &ther> but I 've lost a fiiend." 

In a few months lord Orrery so far recovered bis health 
and spirits as to be able to attend his public duty as an 
English baron. He took his seat in the house of peers in 
the session of parliament which opened on the iStb of 

562 BOYLE. 

January, 173 1 -2, and soon distinguished himself by a speeck 
in opposition to the ministry, against the mutiny -bill ; the 
inconsistency of a standing army with the liberties of a 
free people being at that period the topic constantly in- 
sisted upon by the patriotic party. Though no notice is 
taken of his lordship's speech in Timberland's Debates, it 
is certain that he acquired considerable credit on this oc- 
casion. Mr. Budgell, in the dedication to his Memoirs of 
the Family of the Boyles, published in 1732, celebrates 
Our noble lord as having displayed the united forces of 
reason and eloquence ; and Mr. Ford, in a letter to Dr. 
Swift, written in the same year, mentions with pleasure a 
character which the dean had given of the earl of Orrery, 
^nd says, that he was extremely applauded for a speech 
he made against the army- bill. The approbation which 
his lordship received in this first exertion of his parlia-* 
mentary talents, did not encourage him to become a public 
speaker ; and we meet with only another instance in which 
he took any active part in a debate, on the 13th of Fe- 
bruary, 1733-4, in favour of the duke of Marlborough's 
bill for preventing the of&cers of the land forces from being 
deprived of their commissions, oth*erwise than by judg- 
ment of a court martial to be held for that purpose, or by 
address of either house of parliament. The delicacy of 
lord Orrery's health, his passion for* private life, and the 
occasions he had of sometimes residing in Ireland, seem 
to have precluded him from a very constant and regular 
Bttendance in the English' house of peers. However, he 
, did not fail to go thither when he apprehended himself to 
be called to it by particular duty ; and we find his name 
to a considerable number of the protests which were so 
frequent during the grand opposition to sir Robert Wal- 
pole's administration. 

In the summer of 1732 the earl of Orrery went over to 
Ireland to. rerestablish his affairs, which were much em- 
barrassed by the villainy of his father's agent. As the 
family seat at Charleville had been burnt to the ground by 
• a party of king James's army in 1690, his lordship resided 
sometimes with a friend at that place, and sometimes at 
Cork. Whilst he was in this city, he met with a most se- 
vere affliction, in the loss of his countess, who died on the 
22d of August, 1732. The character of this amiable lady 
has been drawn by lord Orrery himself, in his Observa- . 
tions on Pliny. The countess was interred with her sls\^ 

BOYLE. 863 

cestors, at Taplow, in Bucks ; and Mr.' S. Wesley, in a 
poem on her death, fully displayed her excellent qualities 
and virtues. Mr. Theobald did the same, in his dedication 
of Shakspeare^s Works to the earl. The dedication, it 
seems, was originally intended for lier lad3'ship ; and 
therefore lord Orrery is represented as succeeding to it by 
the melancholy right of executorship. Mr. Theobald pro- 
fesses to have borrowed many hints from hearing his patron 
converse on Shakspeare ; and adds, " Your lordship may 
reasonably deny the loss of the jewels which I have dis- 
paraged in the unartful setting." Such language, how- 
ever, must be considered as partly complimentary; for 
if the earl of Orrery had contributed any material criti- 
cisms upon our great dramatic poet, they would undoubt- 
edly have been distinctly specified. Some pathetic verses 
on the death of the countess, dated Marston, Dec. 17, 
1734, were addressed by his lordship to Mrs. Rowe, who 
lived in his neighbourhood, and with whom he had ati 
intimate friendship during the latter part of her life. How 
much this ingenious and excellent lady valued his esteem 
and regard, is evident from her observing, that ^^ his ap- 
probation would be her vanity and boast, if she could but 
persuade herself she deserved it." The house where she 
was born belonged to him ; and he always passed by it, 
after her decease, with the utmost veneration. It appears 
from Mrs. Howe's posthumous letter to his lordship, that 
he had charged her with ^^a message to his Henrietta 
(Harriet), when she met her gentle spirit in the blissful 

Whilst our noble lord resided in Ireland, he commenced 
a friendship with dean Swift, which produced also that of 
Mr. Pope. The earl having sent a copy of verses to the 
dean on his birth-day, they were so pleasing to that cele- 
brated genius, that he begged the author ^* to accept his 
most bumble thanks for the honpur done him by so ex- 
cellent a performance on so barren a subject." "In spite," 
says the dean, '^ of those who love me not, it will be said 
in future ages, that one of lord Orrery's first essays in 
poetry was these verses on Dr. Swift." There are, in- 
deed, several evidences in Pope's and Swift's letters, of 
the sincere esteem they entertained for his lordship. 

In October 1783, lord Orrery returned to England, and 
Slaving now no attachment to London, he disposed of his 
))ouse in Downing-street, Westminster, as likewise of l^i^ 

364 BOYLE. 

seat at Britwell, near Windsor, and retired to his seat at 
Marstou> in Somersetshire. As this place had been much 
neglected by his ancestors^ and was little more than a shell 
of a large old house, be amused himself in building offices, 
in fitting out and furnishing apartments, and laying out 
gardens and other plantations. Study and retirement 
being his principal pleasures, he took care to supply the 
loss he bad sustained from his father's will, by furnishing 
his library anew with the best authors. In the summer of 
1734, probably in liis way to France, where he sometimes 
went, he yisited the tomb of his ancestors, Roger Boyle, 
esq. and Joan his wife, in Preston church, near Feversbam. 
This monument, when the title of earl of Cork devolved 
upon him, he fntended to have repaired, if his life had been 
prolonged, in the middle of the year 1735, we find him 
again in Ireland. On the 3ist of October, in the same 
year, an amiable relation, and a most promising youth, 
Edmund duke of Buckingham, died at Rome, upon which 
melancholy event, lord Orrery paid a just tribute to the 
memory of the young nobleman, in an elegiac poem. It 
was printed in 1736, and is one 6f the most pleasing spe- 
cimens which our author has afforded of his poetical abili- 
ties. In the winter of 1735-6, the duke of Dorset being 
then lord lieutenant of Ireland, the earl of Orrery neg- 
lected no opportunity of endeavouring to render bis ad- 
ministration easy. If D/. Swift is to be credited, Irelsmd 
was about that time in a wretched condition. As a proof 
pf it, the dean asserted in a letter to Mr Pope, that lord 
Orrery had 3000/. a year in the neighbourhood of Cork, 
and that more than three years rent was unpaid* In 
April 1737, his lordship, who was then at Cork, earnestly 
pressed Dr. Swift to accompany him to England ; but the 
doctor, who never saw Marston, did not accept the invi- 
tation. Lord Orrery took over with him to Mr. Pope all 
the letters of that great poet to Swift, which the dean had 
preserved or could find, which were not more in number 
than twenty-five. About this time, our noble author, 
that his sons might be educated under his own eye, and 
also have the benefit of attending Westminster-scbool^ 
took a small house in Duke-street, Westminster. On the 
SOtbofJune, 1738, the earl of Orrery, after having been 
six years a widower, married, in Ireland, Mrs. Margaret 
Hainilton, only daughter and heiress of John Hamiltoo, 

BOYLE. 36* 

esq. of Caledon, in the county of Tyrone, grand-daughter 
of Dr. Dopping, bishop of Meuth, and niece of Dr. Dop- 
ping, bishop of Ossory. Swift, in a letter to Miss Ha- 
milton, on her intended nuptials, after pretending a prior 
claim, as she had made so many advances to him, and 
confessed " herself to be nobody's goddess but his," archly 
waves it, and politely " permits lord Orrery to ujake him- 
self the happiest man in the world ; as I know not," 
he a4ds, ** any lady in this kingdom of so good sense or 
so many accomplishments." He gives a great character 
of her, likewise, in his last printed letter to Mr. Pope* 
In this lady, the earl of Orrery, with gratitude to Heaven, 
acknowledged that the loss of bis former countess was re- 
paired, lyi 1739 he published a new edition, 2 vols. 8vo, 
of the dramatic works of his great-grandfather. Though 
these volumes cannot be particularly valuable, they are 
now become exceedingly scarce. In 1741 he published 
separately, in folio, " The first Qde of the first book of 
Horace imitated, and inscribed to t|;ie earl of Chesterfield;" 
and " Pyrrha, an imitation of the fifth Ode of the first 
book of Horace." In the preface to the last, lord Orrery 
characterises Dacier's and Sanadon^s translations, and 
makes some observations on Horace, which shew that he 
entered with taste and spirit into the peculiar excellencies 
or that poet In 1742 he published in one volume, folio, 
the " State Letters'* of his great-grandfather, the first 
earl ; to which were prefixed Morrice's memoirs of that 
eminent statesman. On the 25th of August, 1743, his lord- 
ship was presented by the university of Oxford to the 
honorary degree of D. C. L.; and he was, likewise, F.R. S. 
Lord Boyle, in 1746, being settled at Oxford, and Mr, 
Boyle in the college at Westminster, their father quitted 
London, and fixed his residence at (Jaledon, in Ireland. 
During one of his occasional visits to England, after the 
publication of the second volume of the Biographia Britan* 
nica, he thanked Dr. Campbell, ^^ in the name of all the 
Boyles, for the honour he had done to them, and to his 
own judgment,, by placing the family in such a light as to 
give a spirit of emulation to those who were hereafter to 
inherit the title." Lord Orrery resided in Ireland, with 
very little intermission, from 1746 to 1750 ; happy in that 
domestic tranquillity, that studious retirement and inac- 
tivity, from which, as he himself expressed it, he was 
scarcely ever drawn, hiit with the utmost reluctance. 

366 BOYLE. 

*^ Whenever," as he observed in a private letter, "we sJt^ 
out of domestic life in search of felicity, we come back 
again disappointed, tired, and chagrined. One day passed 
under our own roof, with our friends and our family, is 
worth a thousand in any other place. The noise and 
bustle, or, as they are foolishly called, the diversions of 
life, are despicable and tasteless, when once we have ex- 
perienced the real delight of a fire-side." These senti- 
ments, which do so much honour to the rectitude of his 
lordship's understanding, and the goodness of his heart, 
reflect, at the same time, a just reproach on the absurd and 
criminal dissipation that prevails for the most part among 
persons of rank and fortune. During the earl of Orrery's 
^ residence in Ireland, he employed his leisure in. laying out 
gardens and plantations at Caledon, and in improving and 
adorning its fine situation. On his return to Marston, he 
continued . his alterations and improvements in the house 
and gardens at that place, many of the plans for which 
were designed by lord Boyle, who had a taste for architec- 
ture. In the mean while, the amusement of our noble 
author's winter evenings was his translation of " The Let- 
ters of Pliny the Younger, with observations on each letter, 
and an Essay on Pliny's life, addressed to Charles lord 
. Boyle." The essay is dieted Leicester-fields, January 27, 
1750-1; and, together with the translation, was published 
at London, in the following April, in 2 vols. 4to. This 
work met with so good a reception from the public, that 
thi'ee editions of it in octavo have since been printed. In 
the summer of the same year, lord Orrery addressed 
to his second son Hamilton a series of letters, containing 
" Remarks on the Life and Writings of Dr. Swift, dean of 
St. Patrick's, Dublin." This work gave rise to many stric- 
tures and censures on his lordship for having professed 
himself Swift's friend while he was exposing his weak- 
nesses. Subsequent inquiries into Swift's character have 
proved, that the portrait he drew was not unfaithful. To 
this, however, we shall have occasion to recur in our ac- 
count of Swift. 

On the 3d of December, 1753, by the death of Richard 
the third earl of Burlington, and fourth earl of Cork, 
without issue male, lord Orrery succeeded to that noble- 
man's Irish titles, viz. earl of Cork, viscount Dungarvan, and 
lord Boyle, baron of Youghall. About this time, Mr. 
^loore uijdertoqk the periodical publication called, " The 

B O Y L E. 3«7 

World;" to which bur noble author contributed three 
papers, viz. No. 47, 68, 161. The two first are papers 
of some humour, intended to ridicule the practice of duel- 
ling, as it prevailed in th6 last age; and the third is a 
father's account of his son, Charles lord Dungarvan, whose 
weakness of temper was such, that he could not resist the 
temptation to indulgences which at last proved fatal. The 
earl of Cork was a contributor, likewise, to the *' Con- 
noisseur," carried on by Mr. Thornton and Mr. Colman. 
In the last numl;)er of this publication, G, K. which was his 
lordship's signature, is distinguished, by the ingenious 
authors, as their " earliest and most frequent correspond- 
ent;" and ^* we are sorry," they add, ** that he will not 
allow us to mention his name ; since it would reflect as 
much credit on our work, as we are sure will redound to 
it from his compositions." His communications to the- 
** Connoisseur" were the most part of No. 14 and 17 ; the 
letter signed Goliah English, in No. 19; great part of 
No. 33 and 40 ; and the letters, signed ** Reginald Fitz- 
worni," " Michael Krawbridge," " Moses Orthodox," and 
"Thomas Vainali," in No. 102, 107, 113, and 129. These 
papers are chiefly of the humourous kind ; and they con* 
firm, in no small degree, Mr. Duncombe's. character of 
ouir author, that '^ for humour, innocent humour, no one 
had a truer taste, or better talent." On the 20th of Sep- 
tember, 1754, the earl and countess of Cork, with their 
daughter lady Lucy Boyle, began a tour to Italy. Hitf 
lordship's chief object was Florence, in which city and its 
neighbourhood he resided nearly a year. Whilst he was 
at that place, he presented to the academy della Crusca, 
his friend Dr. Samuel Johnson's English Dictionary. His 
inveterate enemy,' the gout, introduced by a severe winter, 
overtook him even in Italy, and prevented his attendance 
on the exercises of the academy. He enjoyed, at Flo- 
rence, a general esteem ; and, by a free conversation with 
books and men, and the assistance of manuscripts, col- 
lected materials for the History of Tuscany, which he 
intended to write in a series of Letters, twelve of which 
only be lived to finish. In November 1755, he arrived at 
Marston, having, in his return to England, on account of 
the commencement of the war with France, gone through 
Germany and part of Holland. The situation of public 
affairs, in this country, at the beginning of the year 1757, 
being such as required, in our national councils, the 


most exertion of wisdom and integrity, one of lord Cork's 
friends urged him, in an ode> to exchange his retiremeat 
for a more active scene. 

When Dr. Swift's " History of the four last years of 
Queen Anne'' appeared in 1758, and it was reported that 
our noble lord had consented to the publication of that 
work, he requested his friends to contradict the report. 
His opinion was, that the more the work was examined, 
the less it would answer the end either of the author or of 
the publisher. In that year he sustained, by the death 
of his excellent lady, Margaret countess of Cork and Or« 
rery, the severest domestic affliction which could befal 
him. She departed this life, after a short illness,, on the 
24th of November, in lodgings at Knightsbridge, to which^ 
she had been removed, at her own request, a few days' 
before, from a tender apprehension that her lord would 
quit his house, just taken, in Marlborough-street, if she 
died there. This shock, however, he supported with the 
resignation becoming a man and a Christian. We have 
air^dy seen the high opinion which Dr. Swift entertained 
of her ladyship. The earl of Cork, in his distress^ took 
refuge, like Pliny, in his studies, as the best retreat from 
grie^ sutid published, in the beginning of 1759, in one 
volume, octavo, from an original manuscript presented 
to him by a relation, f^ Memoirs of the Life of Robert 
Cary, earl of Monmouth," with a preface, and explanatory 
notes, and a short but tender dedication to his youngest 
son. It is dated Marlborough-street, January 13, 1759, 
aiid signed, '^Now, alas! your only parent."- Therein 
also, as a frontispiece, engraved from an old painting by 
Marc Garrard, ^'The Royal Procession of queen Elizabeth, 
to visit her cousin german, Henry lord Hunsdon, governor 
of Berwick." A second editic^n of ^e Memoirs appeared 
in 1760. Mrs. Lennox was considerably indebted to lord 
Cork, in her translation of Brumoy's Greek Theatre, pub« 
lisfaed in 1759. The preface was written by him; and he 
also translated ^^ The-Discourse upon the Theatre of the 
Greeks," " The Original of Tragedy," and <^ The Par 
rallel of the Theatres." Some smaller things, of hi^ lordf^ 
lip's writing, are in the Gent. Mag. *' On September 

* In Uie Qentleman's Magazine, for Several of his letters are to be met witli 

1741, p. 3^, are some verses by lord in Swift's Works. In Derrick's Let* 

Orrery, to Mrs. Csssar. In 115 1 he ters, voL II. p. 17, there is, likewise, 

wrote the prologue to Mallei's Alfred* one from his lordship to that gentle- 

BOYLE. t6§ 


t^e 16th, 1759, the earl of Cork lost his elde&t son, 
Charles lord viscount Dungarvan, already mentioned. The 
earl survived him about three years, during which he di- 
vided his lime between his house in Great Georsre-streetj 
Westminster, and his seat in Somersetshire* An heredi*- 
tary gout, which all his temperance could only parry, not 
subdue, put a comparatively early period to his life, at 
Marston house, on the 16th of November, 1762, in the 
56th year of his age. His remains were deposited near to 
those of his second lady, in the burial-place of his family 
in Frome church. 

His last work was posthumous, " Lettei's from Italy,'* 
written in 1754 and 1755, to William Duncombe, esq. and 
published, in 1774, by the rev. Mr. John Duncombe, who 
well knew and highly esteemed lord Cork's talents and 
virtues. Mr. Duncombe has prefixed a life of his lord* 
ship, with the following particulars of his character: <* The 
character of John earl of Cork, as a writer and as a man, 
may partly be collected from his owil works, and partly 
from the testimonies which have been given of him by some 
.of the most distinguished among his contemporaries. I 
shall only beg leave po add, that, in every domestic and 
social relation, in all the endearing connections of life, as 
a husband, a father, a friend, a master, he had few equals. 
The lustre which he received from rank and title, and from 
the personal merit of his family, he reflected back, unim- 
paired and undiminished ; and though ^ the post of honour' 
which he chose and preferred was * a private station,* 
though he was neither a statesman nor a soldier, like the 
first lord Cork, the frrst lord Orrery, and his own father; 
the rival of Palladio, like the late lord Burlington ; or the 
rival of Bacon, like Mr. Robert Boyle ; yet in a general 
taste for literature, or, as they are commonly called, po- 
lite studies, he was by no means inferior to his ancestors. 
Being much in the great world at the beginning of his life, 
be despised and detested it when he arrived at years of re- 
flection. His constitution was never strong, and he was 
very thankful that it was not so ; as his health was a true 
and no very irksome excuse to avoid those scenes, by 

man, dated November 25, 1760, and a poetical version of a number of pas- 

io the G«nt. Mag. vol. LXII. one from sages quoted from the ancient classics, 

him to Dr. Birch on Johnson's Die- there are interspersed several small 

tionary. original pieces. —Sec also Nichols** 

Jn his Translation of Pliny, betides roemj», vol. VII. 

Vol, VI. B b 

870 BOYLE. 

which his 'body virould have been hurt, and his mind oiFefid^ 
«d. . He loved truth even to a degree of adoration. H^ 
w^s a real Christian ; and. as such, constantly hoped for a 
better Hfe, there trusting to know the real causes of thos0 
effects, which here struck him with Wonder, but not with 

Dr. Johnson, less biassed by firi€ndshi|), and more dis- 
criminating, said of him, "My friend, the late earl of 
Cork, had a great desire to maintain the literary characteic 
df his fktnily : he was a genteel mmi, but did not keep up 
the dignity of his rank. He was so geiierally civil, that 
liobody thanked him for it." Warbnrton, in his letters to 
bishop Hurd, lately published, employs the' full measure, 
of his coarse censure on him for publishing his character of 
Swift. V 

BOYLE (Richard), third earrof Burlington and fourth 
earl of "Cork^ another branch of the illustrious family of 
Boyle, was bom oft the 25th of April, 1695; and was marr. 
ried on the 2lBt of March, 1720-1, to the lady Dorothy 
8avile, the eldest of the two daughters and co-heirs of 
William Savile, marquis of Halifax. By this lady he had 
three daughters, the youngest of whom, Charlotte, alone 
survived him. She was married to the dukie of Devonshire, 
and was itiothelr to the late duke, and grandmother to th^ 
.present. On the 18th of June, 1730, the earl of Burling- 
ton was installed one of the knights* companions of the 
mostnoble order of the garter; and in June l73l, he was 
constituted captain of the band of gentlemen pensioners. 
In 1732, being at the city of York, the lord mayor, alder- 
men, and corporation, sent a deputation to return tbehr 
thanks to him for the favour he had done them in building 
their assembly*room, and for his other benefactions to the 
city, and to beg his acceptance of the freedom of it; 
which was, accordingly, presented to him in a gold box. 
In 1733, he resigned his place of captain of the band of 
pensioners. After this he lived retired, employing him- 
self in' adorning bis gardens at Chiswick, and in construct- 
ing several pieces of architectui-e. Never, says lord Orr 
ford, were protection and great Wealth more generously 
and n^ore judiciously diffused than by this great person, 
who had every quality of a genius and artist, except envy. 

* Biog. Brit, — Nichols's Bowyer. — Nichols's Poems. — Bosweirs Life of Johti- 
son, and Journey. — Swift's Works, passim — Park's. Rovai and ^oble Autboik 
»i-Warburtou's Letters^ p. 66, 69, 19, 129, 4to edit. 


Though his own designs were fnore chaste and classic than 

KenCsy he entertained him in bis house till bis deaths and 

tvas more studious to extend bis friend's fame than bisowti» 

Nor was bis munificence conikied to himself, and bis own 

hottaes and gardens. He spent great Mma in contributing 

to public works, and was known to choose that the exf>efio€ 

should fall on- himself, rather than that bis country should 

be deprired of some beautiful edifices. His eniThcrsiaiiiii 

for the works of Inigo Jones was so active^ that he repaired 

the jehuFch of Covent-garden, because it was the produc- 

^on of that great master, and purchased a gate-'Way of bis* 

at Beaufort-garden in Chelsea, and transported the ideii« 

tical atones to Chiswiek with religious attachment. With 

the same zeal for pure architecture, he assisted Kent in, 

publishing the designs for WhitehaH, and gave a beamifiil 

edkiiM of t-be antique baths from the drawings of Paliadioy 

whose papers he proctired with great cost. Besides his 

works on bis own estate ac Lanesborough in Yorkshire, be 

new fronted his bouse in Piccadilly, built by his lathery 

and added the grand colonnade within the court. It is 

recorded that bis father being asked, why he built his house 

so far out of town ? replied, because he was determined 

to have no buildiiig beyond him. This is now in the heart 

of that part of the town. Our nobility formerly wished 

Tor towh-houses, and not for town-neigkbourkoodsj but the 

latter being now obtruded upon them is probably the 

cause of their paying so little itttenticm to the keep of their 

London-palaces. Bedford-boiise has been levelled to the 

ground some years, and Burlington-bouse is likewise ^d 

to be doomed to destruction. 

Lord Burlington's house at Chiswiek, the idea of which 
tvas borrowed from a well-known villa .of Palladio, is a 
toodel of taste, though not without faults. Other works 
designed by lord Burlington were, the dormitory at West- 
tainster- school, the assembly-room at Yoric, lord Harring- 
ton's at Petersham (afterwards lord Camelford's), except 
the octagon buildings at each end, which were added by 
Shepherd ; the duke of Richmond's house at Whitehall^ 
and general Wade's in Cork-street. Both these last were 
ill-contrived and inconvenient ; but the latter has sq beau- 
tiful a front, that lord Chesterfield said, " as the general 
could not live in